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The concentration of radiocarbon (14C) differs between ocean and atmosphere. Radiocarbon determinations from samples which obtained their 14C in the marine environment therefore need a marine-specific calibration curve and cannot be calibrated directly against the atmospheric-based IntCal20 curve. This paper presents Marine20, an update to the internationally agreed marine radiocarbon age calibration curve that provides a non-polar global-average marine record of radiocarbon from 0–55 cal kBP and serves as a baseline for regional oceanic variation. Marine20 is intended for calibration of marine radiocarbon samples from non-polar regions; it is not suitable for calibration in polar regions where variability in sea ice extent, ocean upwelling and air-sea gas exchange may have caused larger changes to concentrations of marine radiocarbon. The Marine20 curve is based upon 500 simulations with an ocean/atmosphere/biosphere box-model of the global carbon cycle that has been forced by posterior realizations of our Northern Hemispheric atmospheric IntCal20 14C curve and reconstructed changes in CO2 obtained from ice core data. These forcings enable us to incorporate carbon cycle dynamics and temporal changes in the atmospheric 14C level. The box-model simulations of the global-average marine radiocarbon reservoir age are similar to those of a more complex three-dimensional ocean general circulation model. However, simplicity and speed of the box model allow us to use a Monte Carlo approach to rigorously propagate the uncertainty in both the historic concentration of atmospheric 14C and other key parameters of the carbon cycle through to our final Marine20 calibration curve. This robust propagation of uncertainty is fundamental to providing reliable precision for the radiocarbon age calibration of marine based samples. We make a first step towards deconvolving the contributions of different processes to the total uncertainty; discuss the main differences of Marine20 from the previous age calibration curve Marine13; and identify the limitations of our approach together with key areas for further work. The updated values for ΔR, the regional marine radiocarbon reservoir age corrections required to calibrate against Marine20, can be found at the data base http://calib.org/marine/.
The effect of shoot feeding by the biocontrol agents, Galerucella calmariensis and Galerucella pusilla (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) seed production and seed germination was quantified in two Minnesota wetlands. In a wet meadow where Galerucella spp. were present on isolated plants, feeding by adults and larvae during shoot elongation resulted in stunting and malformation of shoot tips. There was a subsequent reduction in purple loosestrife inflorescence length and number of flower buds and seed capsules. As Galerucella spp. larvae preferentially fed on shoot meristems, even low levels of feeding on a whole-plant basis (approximately 10% defoliation) reduced seed production. In a sedge meadow wetland with severe feeding damage (a minimum of 70% leaf defoliation), few to no flower buds formed on plants, and subsequently, few to no seed capsules were produced on purple loosestrife plants. Of the few capsules that were produced, number of seeds per capsule and percent germination of seeds did not differ from control plants. In both wetlands, feeding on a main shoot of purple loosestrife did not result in a compensatory increase in the number of axillary inflorescences. Feeding by Galerucella spp. and the subsequent reduction in number of seeds produced on purple loosestrife plants will decrease the number of seeds available for dissemination to new sites. Fewer seeds will enter the seedbank, and over time, feeding by Galerucella spp. will decrease the number of seeds available for seedling recruitment. The benefit of leaf defoliation on purple loosestrife plants caused by Galerucella spp. feeding has been reported. In this study, we have quantified the additional benefits of reduced seed production from Galerucella spp. feeding on purple loosestrife in North America.
Garlic mustard, a biennial forb native to Europe, has invaded native ecosystems in forested regions in the United States. In anticipation of a biological control program being implemented in the United States for this plant, a garlic mustard monitoring program was initiated. The objective of this study was to characterize garlic mustard populations and the associated plant communities and their response to environmental conditions in Minnesota hardwood forest ecosystems. Additionally, we developed a baseline for long-term studies to determine future benefits and impacts of biological control agents on plant communities infested with garlic mustard, should they be released. To monitor garlic mustard populations, we used a nationally standardized protocol in which data were collected on garlic mustard population density and cover, garlic mustard plant heights and silique production, insect damage to garlic mustard, cover of the associated plant community, and litter cover. We also collected data on available photosynthetically active radiation in the understory. The results underscore the variability in garlic mustard population dynamics. At only 6 of 12 sites did garlic mustard densities follow the predicted two-point cycles due to their biennial life cycle, with the first- or second-year life stage dominating in any given year. Available light did not differ strongly among sites, but shading by adult plants is implicated in keeping the populations of first-year plants low. Sites with greater garlic mustard cover had lower native species richness and cover than sites with lower garlic mustard cover. Absent biological control agents, garlic mustard is currently experiencing very little herbivory in Minnesota with an average of 2% of leaf area removed by herbivores. Our work shows the importance of pre-release monitoring at multiple sites over multiple years to adequately characterize populations. Without control, garlic mustard will likely continue to have negative impacts on northern forests.
Previous studies have characterized the development of the biological control insects, Galerucella calmariensis and Galerucella pusilla on purple loosestrife and on nontarget Lythraceae species, including two species native to Minnesota, winged loosestrife, and swamp loosestrife. The impact of Galerucella spp. on these plants, when grown in outdoor mesocosms that more closely mimics ecological host range, has not been reported. The first objective of this study was to compare the growth and seed capsule production of purple loosestrife, winged loosestrife, and swamp loosestrife, with and without exposure to Galerucella spp. With purple loosestrife, larval feeding on apical and lateral shoot buds resulted in fewer seed capsules, and reduced aboveground biomass and plant height compared to control plants. No measured plant growth or reproductive parameters were reduced as a result of beetle feeding on swamp loosestrife. Presence of Galerucella spp. on winged loosestrife resulted in a reduction of seed capsules in one of 2 yr of study. A second objective of our study was to compare the phenology of the three Lythraceae species in relation to that of Galerucella spp. In the northern United States, flowering and seed development in swamp loosestrife occurred a month later than in purple or winged loosestrife. The delayed flowering of swamp loosestrife resulted in avoidance of shoot meristem feeding damage caused by the first generation of beetles. Laboratory studies might have overestimated the host range of Galerucella spp. on swamp loosestrife with the finding of asynchronous flowering times of purple and swamp loosestrife. Our mesocosm studies confirm that previous laboratory host range testing did accurately predict the ecological host range of winged loosestrife.
Reservoir age offsets are widely used to correct marine and speleothem radiocarbon age measurements for various calibration purposes. They also serve as a powerful tracer for carbon cycle dynamics. However, a clear terminology regarding reservoir age offsets is lacking, sometimes leading to miscalculations. This note seeks to provide consistent conventions for reporting reservoir 14C disequilibria useful to a broad range of environmental sciences. This contribution introduces the F14R and δ14R metrics to express the relative 14C disequilibrium between two contemporaneous reservoirs and the R metric as the associated reservoir age offset.
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