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It was investigated how many cattle become infected with Trypanosoma vivax by subcutaneous (SC), intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) routes, using the same syringe and needle from an animal with acute T. vivax infection. Besides, the T. vivax viability in 109 injectable veterinary drugs (antibiotics, antiparasitics, reproductive hormones, vitamin complex and derivatives, vaccines, anaesthetics, anti-inflammatory/antipyretics, antitoxics). In the field assay, four groups were performed: T01, T02 and T03 animals that received saline solution with the same syringe and needle contaminated with T. vivax via SC, IM and IV routes, respectively, and T04 control animals that received only saline solution with the same syringe and needle IV. In the laboratory, drugs had their pH measured and T. vivax viability verified. The number of cattle infected with T. vivax via SC (3/20) was lower (P ≤ 0.05) compared to via IM (9/20), which was lower (P ≤ 0.05) compared to IV (15/20). The solution pH did not influence T. vivax viability. In 44% (48/109) of the products, T. vivax remained viable regardless of time, stooding out that in 100% of oxytocins the protozoan was verified, at some evaluation times. The mean of T. vivax quantified in foot-and-mouth and brucellosis vaccines and in doramectin-based products were higher (P ≤ 0.05) than found in blood + saline solution.
Bovine trypanosomosis has been spreading in Brazil. In the present study, we evaluated the spatial distribution, prevalence and risk factors of this disease in the state of Goiás, Brazil, and performed both molecular and phylogenetical analyses of Trypanosoma vivax. A total of 4049 blood samples were collected from cattle for a period of 2 years. The parasitological diagnosis was performed using the Woo method and a questionnaire was administered to the farmers to document risk factors associated with the disease in the herd. Positive samples were DNA sequenced and compared to GenBank codes. The prevalence of T. vivax was 8.84%, occurring on 24 ranches only in dairy cattle and mainly in the central and southern portions of the state. The acquisition of new animals infected with T. vivax and the administration of exogenous oxytocin to cows using the same syringe and needle were the main associated factors (P ≤ 0.05). After an outbreak, milk production decreased by 39.62%. The presence of biting flies (tabanids, Haematobia irritans and Stomoxys calcitrans) was not a risk factor (P > 0.05) for the occurrence of T. vivax. The epidemiological data demonstrate the importance of restricting the practice of auctions as well as eliminating the use of exogenous oxytocin in animals during milking. The samples tested by polymerase chain reaction were positive for T. vivax and were genetically homologous with T. vivax found in different states of Brazil and west Africa based on the 18S rRNA gene.
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