A phase field approach for structural topology optimization which allows for topology
changes and multiple materials is analyzed. First order optimality conditions are
rigorously derived and it is shown via formally matched asymptotic
expansions that these conditions converge to classical first order conditions obtained in
the context of shape calculus. We also discuss how to deal with triple junctions where
e.g. two materials and the void meet. Finally, we present several
numerical results for mean compliance problems and a cost involving the least square error
to a target displacement.