To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Urbanisation has modified the distribution and community composition of mosquito species (Culicidae). Habitat disturbance may increase the risk of loss of species diversity and the occurrence of vector-borne diseases. Studies on the presence of larvae and the eco-physicochemical characteristics of water bodies near urban areas provide information on the risk of these diseases. In this study, the presence of larvae in different types of urban and periurban water bodies in Villahermosa City, Tabasco, Mexico was analysed. The eco-physicochemical characteristics of each collecting site were measured. A total of 67 528 larvae were collected, 1366 were identified to species, and 15 species were observed. Although Culex spp. were the most dominant species, Anopheles albimanus was the only species present in all habitats. Despite the large variability in the parameters measured (especially in physicochemical parameters; e.g., pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids), differences were observed among the breeding sites. Weak correlations were found between eco-physicochemical parameters and species presence. Predators may have a major role in determining community processes in the region. Habitat disturbance may be responsible for eco-physicochemical variations altering mosquito community composition, resulting in the loss of endemic mosquito species and increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Villahermosa.
Early-onset psychosis (EOP) refers to the development of a first episode of psychosis before 18 years of age. Individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P) include adolescents and young adults, although most evidence has focused on adults. Negative symptoms are important prognostic indicators in psychosis. However, research focusing on children and adolescents is limited.
To provide meta-analytical evidence and a comprehensive review of the status and advances in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of negative symptoms in children and adolescents with EOP and at CHR-P.
PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42022360925) from inception to 18 August 2022, in any language, to identify individual studies conducted in EOP/CHR-P children and adolescents (mean age <18 years) providing findings on negative symptoms. Findings were systematically appraised. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed on the prevalence of negative symptoms, carrying out sensitivity analyses, heterogeneity analyses, publication bias assessment and quality assessment using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale.
Of 3289 articles, 133 were included (n = 6776 EOP, mean age 15.3 years (s.d. = 1.6), males = 56.1%; n = 2138 CHR-P, mean age 16.1 years (s.d. = 1.0), males = 48.6%). There were negative symptoms in 60.8% (95% CI 46.4%–75.2%) of the children and adolescents with EOP and 79.6% (95% CI 66.3–92.9%) of those at CHR-P. Prevalence and severity of negative symptoms were associated with poor clinical, functional and intervention outcomes in both groups. Different interventions were piloted, with variable results requiring further replication.
Negative symptoms are common in children and adolescents at early stages of psychosis, particularly in those at CHR-P, and are associated with poor outcomes. Future intervention research is required so that evidence-based treatments will become available.
The identification of somatic growth, through reference curves, can be used to create strategies and public policies to reduce public health problems such as malnutrition and obesity and to identify underweight, overweight and obesity. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify studies providing reference growth curves for weight status in children and adolescents. A systematic search was conducted in eight databases and in gray literature (Google scholar). To assess the risk of bias/methodological quality of studies, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional Studies (NHLBI) was used. Overall, 86 studies that met the inclusion criteria were included. Through the values of reference growth curves for the identification of underweight, overweight and obesity, it was possible to verify that there is great variability among percentiles for the identification of underweight, overweight and obesity. The most prevalent percentiles for underweight were P3 and P5; for overweight, the most prevalent was P85 and the most prevalent percentiles for obesity were P95 and P97. The most prevalent anthropometric indicators were Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Body Mass (BM) for age and height for age. Conclusion: Such data can demonstrate that the optimal growth must be reached, through the standard growth curves, but that the reference curves demonstrate a cut of the population growth, raising possible variables that can influence the optimal growth, such as an increase in the practice of physical activities and an awareness of proper nutrition.
To examine the parental food consumption and diet quality and its associations with children’s consumption in families at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus across Europe. Also, to compare food frequency consumption among parents and children from high-risk families to the European Dietary guidelines/recommendations.
Cross-sectional study using Feel4diabetes FFQ.
Families completed FFQ and anthropometric measures were obtained. Linear regression analyses were applied to investigate the relations between parental food consumption and diet quality and their children’s food consumption after consideration of potential confounders.
2095 European families (74·6 % mothers, 50·9 % girls). The participants included parent and one child, aged 6–8 years.
Parental food consumption was significantly associated with children’s intake from the same food groups among boys and girls. Most parents and children showed under-consumption of healthy foods according to the European Dietary Guidelines. Parental diet quality was positively associated with children’s intake of ‘fruit’ (boys: β = 0·233, P < 0·001; girls: β = 0·134, P < 0·05) and ‘vegetables’ (boys: β = 0·177, P < 0·01; girls: β = 0·234, P < 0·001) and inversely associated with their ‘snacks’ consumption (boys: β = –0·143, P < 0·05; girls: β = –0·186, P < 0·01).
The present study suggests an association between parental food consumption and diet quality and children’s food intake. More in-depth studies and lifestyle interventions that include both parents and children are therefore recommended for future research.
This study aimed to assess the impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 (PCV13) on the molecular epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children from Andalusia. A population-based prospective surveillance study was conducted on IPD in children aged <14 years from Andalusia (2018–2020). Pneumococcal invasive isolates collected between 2006 and 2009 in the two largest tertiary hospitals in Andalusia were used as pre-PCV13 controls for comparison of serotype/genotype distribution. Overall IPD incidence rate was 3.55 cases per 100 000 in 2018; increased non-significantly to 4.20 cases per 100 000 in 2019 and declined in 2020 to 1.69 cases per 100 000 (incidence rate ratio 2020 vs. 2019: 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20–0.89, P = 0.01). Proportion of IPD cases due to PCV13 serotypes in 2018–2020 was 28% (P = 0.0001 for comparison with 2006–2009). Serotypes 24F (15%) and 11A (8.3%) were the most frequently identified non-PCV13 serotypes (NVT) in 2018–2020. Penicillin- and/or ampicillin-resistant clones mostly belonged to clonal complex 156 (serotype 14-ST156 and ST2944 and serotype 11A-ST6521). The proportion of IPD cases caused by PCV13 serotypes declined significantly after the initiation of the PCV13 vaccination programme in 2016. Certain NVT, such as serotypes 24F and 11A, warrant future monitoring in IPD owing to invasive potential and/or antibiotic resistance rates.
Wild birds are hosts of Culicoides from as early on as the nesting stage when constrained to their nests. However, the environmental factors which determine the abundance and composition of Culicoides species within each bird nest are still understudied. We sampled Culicoides from Eurasian blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nests found in 2 types of forests located in southern Spain. Firstly, we monitored the abundance of Culicoides species in bird nests from a dry Pyrenean oak deciduous forest and a humid mixed forest comprising Pyrenean and Holm oaks throughout 2 consecutive years. During the 3rd year, we performed a cross-fostering experiment between synchronous nests to differentiate the role of rearing environment conditions from that of the genetically determined or maternally transmitted cues released by nestlings from each forest. We found 147 female Culicoides from 5 different species in the birds' nests. The abundance of Culicoides was higher in the dry forest than in the humid forest. Culicoides abundance, species richness and prevalence were greater when the nestlings were hatched later in the season. The same pattern was observed in the cross-fostering experiment, but we did not find evidence that nestling's features determined by the forest of origin had any effect on the Culicoides collected. These results support the notion that habitat type has a strong influence on the Culicoides affecting birds in their nests, while some life history traits of birds, such as the timing of reproduction, also influence Culicoides abundance and species composition.
This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of food parenting practices (FPP), including home availability of different types of foods and drinks, parental modelling of fruit intake, permissiveness and the use of food as a reward in the relationship between parental education and dietary intake in European children.
Single mediation analyses were conducted to explore whether FPP explain associations between parents’ educational level and children’s dietary intake measured by a parent-reported FFQ.
Six European countries.
Parent–child dyads (n 6705, 50·7 % girls, 88·8 % mothers) from the Feel4Diabetes-study.
Children aged 8·15 ± 0·96 years were included. Parental education was associated with children’s higher intake of water, fruits and vegetables and lower intake of sugar-rich foods and savoury snacks. All FPP explained the associations between parental education and dietary intake to a greater or lesser extent. Specifically, home availability of soft drinks explained 59·3 % of the association between parental education and sugar-rich food intake. Home availability of fruits and vegetables was the strongest mediators in the association between parental education and fruit and vegetable consumption (77·3 % and 51·5 %, respectively). Regarding savoury snacks, home availability of salty snacks and soft drinks was the strongest mediators (27·6 % and 20·8 %, respectively).
FPP mediate the associations between parental education and children’s dietary intake. This study highlights the importance of addressing FPP in future interventions targeting low-educated populations.
This paper presents a new approach for geometrically constrained path planning applied to the field of robotic grasping. The method proposed in this paper is based on the Fast Marching Square (FM
) and a path calculation approach based on an optimization evolutionary filter named Differential Evolution (DE). The geometric restrictions caused by the link lengths of the kinematic chain composed by the robot arm and hand are introduced in the path calculation phase. This phase uses both the funnel potential of the surroundings created with FM
and the kinematic constraints of the robot as cost functions to be minimized by the evolutionary filter. The use of an optimization filter allows for a near-optimal solution that satisfies the kinematic restrictions, while preserving the characteristics of a path computed with FM
. The proposed method is tested in a simulation using a robot composed by a mobile base with two arms.
The Gran Canaria Blue Chaffinch Fringilla polatzeki is a threatened, endemic, forest‐dwelling bird species of the Canary Islands, whose core population at the end of the 20th century was restricted to the pine forests of Inagua Nature Reserve (38 km2). A translocation programme released birds from a breeding centre into the nearby (<3 km) pine forests of La Cumbre in the years following 2010. From 2015 to 2019 the La Cumbre population was reinforced by translocation of wild juveniles from the source population of Inagua. We estimate the population size, the spatial variation of abundance, and recent temporal changes in density of the species in Inagua and La Cumbre by means of line transects, distance sampling, and habitat suitability modelling using random forests. The average density of the Blue Chaffinch in Inagua Nature Reserve was 10.2 birds/km2 in spring 2019, with a population estimated at 362 birds (95% CI: 257–489). The most important variables affecting the distribution of the Blue Chaffinch in Inagua were the amount of precipitation during the summer (July–September), the solar radiation in June, and the northern position in the reserve, highlighting the importance of abiotic factors related to thermal and hydric stress during the breeding season. The density was considerably lower in the translocated population inhabiting 21 km2 of pine forests in La Cumbre (3.3 birds/km2), with an estimate of 68 Blue Chaffinches (35–141) breeding freely in the wild. The translocation programme successfully contributed to the establishment of a second viable nucleus, accounting for 16% of the total population within a time span of 10 years. This result reinforces the role of translocations in preventing extinctions of endangered species with very low population sizes restricted to only one isolated area.
The notion of reference can be conceived as a dyadic relation between an expression and an entity or a set of entities; these entities, which will be usually extralinguistic, are the referent of the expression. Nonetheless, it is relevant to make two qualifications. On the one hand, the term reference is very often used ambiguously, since it frequently occurs instead of the expression referent; however, the context will help avoid possible misunderstandings. On the other hand, reference can be understood not as a dyadic relation between a linguistic expression and its referent, but as a triadic relation between speakers, an expression and the referent. Nonetheless, we will not emphasize this distinction, since the assertions about the reference of expressions could be paraphrased as ones about the speakers’ use(s) of them in order to refer.
Adoption of healthy dietary and snacking habits could support optimum physical and mental development in children as they define health in adulthood. This study assessed parameters associated with children’s snacking such as food home availability, parenting practices, and parents’ health beliefs. In this cross-sectional study 12 039 children, 49·4% boys 5–12 years, participating in the European Feel4Diabetes-Study were included. Children’s weekly consumption of sweets and salty snacks, home availability of snacks, food parenting practices, and health beliefs were assessed via questionnaires. Logistic regression was applied to explore associations of a) home availability of snacks, b) food parenting practices (permissiveness and rewarding with snacks) and c) parent’s opinions on deterministic health beliefs with children’s consumption of sweets and salty snacks. Results showed that home availability (sweets: ORadj: 4·76, 95 % CI: 4·32, 5·23; salty snacks: ORadj: 6·56, 95 % CI: 5·64, 7·61), allowing to consume (sweets: ORadj: 3·29, 95 % CI: 2·95, 3·67; salty snacks: ORadj: 3·41, 95 % CI: 2·98, 3·90) and rewarding with sweets/salty snacks (sweets: ORadj: 2·69, 95 % CI: 2·23, 3·24; salty snacks: ORadj: 4·34, 95 % CI: 3·57, 5·28) ‘sometimes/or less frequently’ compared to ‘always/or often’ were associated with lower weekly consumption of sweets and snacks. Parents’ disagreement compared to agreement with deterministic health beliefs and inattentive eating were associated with lower consumption of salty snacks and sweets in children. Overall, the findings of this study indicate that attempts to promote healthy snacking habits in children should aim to improve parental dietary habits, food parenting practices, health beliefs, and reducing home availability of unhealthy foods and snacks.
The study objective is to propose bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) ellipses for the population and investigate its use to assess nutritional status through the BMI/age ratio and the cardiovascular risk through waist circumference (WC).
Age, weight, height and WC were recorded, along with the values of resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PA) by impedance. Student’s t test and ANOVA were applied to ascertain the significance between means and a specific programme was applied to investigate the significance between ellipses.
A total of 467 students from public schools participated in the study: 120 children and 347 adolescents were evaluated, with respective means of age, weight and height of 8·2 years, 27·6 kg and 1·29 m and 12·7 years, 48·6 kg and 1·53 m, respectively.
The mean values of R/H, Xc/H and PA were 569·0 and 424·7 Ohm/m, 59·1 and 50·4 Ohm/m, and 5·9º and 6·8º for children and adolescents, respectively. The mean vectors for R/H and Xc/H show significant differences between for both age ranges and are inversely proportional to the BMI/A. As for WC, individuals without cardiovascular risk had higher R/H and lower Xc/H, but Xc and R in participants without cardiovascular risk were greater than with cardiovascular risk.
It was possible to propose confidence and tolerance BIVA ellipses for children and adolescent’s clinical evaluation. The method was also suitable to identify cardiovascular risk ellipses in these age groups, but it was not possible to draw nutritional classifications ellipses by BMI/age data.
The Monitoring Studies (MS) program, the approach developed by RedETS to generate postlaunch real-world evidence (RWE), is intended to complement and enhance the conventional health technology assessment process to support health policy decision making in Spain, besides informing other interested stakeholders, including clinicians and patients. The MS program is focused on specific uncertainties about the real effect, safety, costs, and routine use of new and insufficiently assessed relevant medical devices carefully selected to ensure the value of the additional research needed, by means of structured, controlled, participative, and transparent procedures. However, despite a clear political commitment and economic support from national and regional health authorities, several difficulties were identified along the development and implementation of the first wave of MS, delaying its execution and final reporting. Resolution of these difficulties at the regional and national levels and a greater collaborative impulse in the European Union, given the availability of an appropriate methodological framework already provided by EUnetHTA, might provide a faster and more efficient comparative RWE of improved quality and reliability at the national and international levels.
To examine the effect of the intervention implemented in the ToyBox-study on changes observed in age- and sex-specific BMI percentile and investigate the role of perinatal factors, parental perceptions and characteristics on this change.
A multicomponent, kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention with a cluster-randomised design. A standardised protocol was used to measure children’s body weight and height. Information was also collected from parents/caregivers via the use of validated questionnaires. Linear mixed effect models with random intercept for country, socio-economic status and school were used.
Selected preschools within the provinces of Oost-Flanders and West-Flanders (Belgium), Varna (Bulgaria), Bavaria (Germany), Attica (Greece), Mazowieckie (Poland) and Zaragoza (Spain).
A sample of 6268 preschoolers aged 3·5–5·5 years (51·9 % boys).
There was no intervention effect on the change in children’s BMI percentile. However, parents’ underestimation of their children’s actual weight status, parental overweight and mothers’ pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity were found to be significantly and independently associated with increases in children’s BMI percentile in multivariate modelling.
As part of a wide public health initiative or as part of a counseling intervention programme, it is important to assist parents/caregivers to correctly perceive their own and their children’s weight status. Recognition of excessive weight by parents/caregivers can increase their readiness to change and as such facilitate higher adherence to favourable behavioural changes within the family.
FFQ are one of the most widely used tools of research into nutritional epidemiology, and many studies have been conducted in several countries using this dietary assessment method. The present study aimed to evaluate the relative validity of FFQ, in comparison with other methods, in assessing dietary intake of children and adolescents, through a systematic review. Four electronic databases (Embase, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) found sixty-seven articles, which met the inclusion criteria (healthy children and adolescents from 3 to 18 years of age; journal articles written in English, Spanish and Portuguese between 1988 and March 2019; results showing the comparison between the FFQ with other methods of assessment of dietary intake). The articles were analysed by two independent reviewers. A meta-analysis was conducted using correlation coefficients as estimate effects between the FFQ and the reference standard method. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed to identify the probable source of heterogeneity. In fifty-five of the sixty-seven studies, a single dietary assessment method was used to evaluate the FFQ; nine combined the two methods and three used three reference methods. The most widely used reference method was the 24-h recall, followed by the food record. The overall relative validity of the FFQ to estimate energy, macronutrient, certain micronutrient and certain food item intakes in children and adolescents may be considered weak. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42016038706.
Breakfast (BF) is widely recognized as an important component of a healthy lifestyle and represents an important source of key nutrients in the diet for both adults and children. Furthermore, BF consumption seems to be associated with a better intake of vitamins and minerals in both, children and adolescents.
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between frequency and characteristics of BF consumption and its relation with micronutrients intake.
Material and Methods
An exhaustive search was carried out in three datasets in March 2019. The search strategy used to identify the articles was as follow: breakfast, food beverages appetite regulation, child nutritional physiological phenomena, diet, digestion, eating, feeding behavior, gastrointestinal absorption, hunger, nutritional requirements, nutritional status, nutritive value, breakfast skipping, meal skipping, fasting, food preferences, diet therapy, child, preschool, adolescent, breakfast skipping and meal skipping. Two independent reviewers performed the data extraction and assessed their quality and risk of bias following the PRISMA methodology and using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed comparing results based on type of BF: skip BF, Ready To Eat Cereal (RTEC) BF and other types of BF. DerSimonian and Laird estimators using random effects models were applied for continuous data. Effect sizes were calculated for each outcome.
Out of 3105 articles, we selected 30 full-text articles for inclusion and 7 were considered for meta-analysis.. Children who usually skip BF had significantly lower daily intake of vitamin A (SMD, -10.407; 95%CI: -14.147, -6.667) and vitamin C (SMD, -4.127; 95%CI: -5.091, -3.162) than BF consumers. The intake of vitamin B1 (SMD, -16.378; 95%CI: -29.110, -3.647) and vitamin B2 [SMD, -14.757; 95%CI: -20.247, -9.268] was lower in skippers than RTEC BF consumers.
Regarding to minerals, children who usually consume BF had significantly higher daily consumption of Calcium (SMD, -7.034; 95%CI: -9.029, -5.040), Iron (SMD, -6.552; 95%CI: -9.242, -3.861) and Sodium (SMD, -3.395; 95%CI: -5.554, -1.236) than BF skippers. The intake of Magnesium (SMD, -10.903; 95%CI: -18.078, -3.729) and Potassium (SMD, -6.972; 95%CI: -10.689, -3.254) was higher in RTEC BF consumers than BF skippers.
Evidence suggested that BF consumption and RTEC breakfast consumption seems to be associated with better micronutrient intake
Dietary patterns provide valuable information for the development of public health policies. Despite increasing interest in the role of fluids in health and disease there are limited data on drinking patterns in adults. The aim of this analysis was to identify and characterize patterns of fluid intake in adults in cross-sectional surveys in China, Indonesia, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay.
Data on fluid intake volume and type amongst 8159 adults (46% male) were collected using a validated 7-day fluid specific record (Liq.In7). A cluster analysis (partitioning around k-medoids algorithm) was used to identify relatively distinct clusters of subjects based on eight fluid types (water, milk and its derivatives, hot beverages (HB), sugar sweetened beverages (SSB), 100% fruit juices, artificial/non-nutritive sweetened beverages, alcoholic beverages, other beverages). Subjects were categorized according to total daily fluid intake as low (< 1500 mL/d), medium (> 1500- < 3000mL/d), high (> 3000mL- < 4000mL/d) or very high (> 4000mL/d). The clusters were characterized according to country of residence, socio-demographics and lifestyle factors.
The eight interpretable clusters identified were: (1) low drinkers – SSB (n = 2450), (2) low drinkers – HB (n = 1589), (3) medium drinkers - water (n = 1306), (4) medium drinkers – HB and SSB (n = 892), (5) medium drinkers - SSB (n = 262), (6) high drinkers – water (n = 817), (7) high drinkers – water & SSB (n = 313) and (8) very high drinkers – water (n = 530). Country of residence was the dominant characteristic in all clusters. In cluster #1 34% of subjects were resident in Mexico (v test 21), 43% of cluster #2 lived in China (v test 21.4). 47% of cluster #4 lived in Argentina (v test 24.2) with 30% living in Uruguay (v test 19.7), (v test 8). Cluster #3 was characterized by residence in Indonesia (v test 23.6) as were clusters #6 (v test 28.5), cluster #7 (v test 8.2) and cluster #8 (v test 24.5). To a lesser extent cluster #7 (high drinkers – water & SSB) was characterised by residence in Mexico (v test 3.6). In cluster #5, 51% and 30% lived in Mexico and Argentina, respectively; with 60% of this cluster being male.
Fluid intake patterns (clusters) varied according to the different countries. This information highlights the need to tailor interventions aimed at improving fluid intake behaviour and health to the specific adult populations.