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Social conflict in Peru has increased dramatically since 2004. The economic origins of these disputes, which result mostly from the growth of mining operations, have received considerable scholarly attention. The emergence of collective action directed at the performance of regional and local government, however, has received little notice. This essay examines Peru's regional and local governance conflicts on the basis of hundreds of reported cases. It investigates the nature of these episodes and the strategies adopted by community organizations to get their complaints addressed. It finds that the political opportunity of the posttransition period, dissatisfaction with government performance, and new participatory rights have helped to give rise to such collective action. Community protagonists choose between institutional and noninstitutional strategies but often combine them to help ensure success. Maintaining legitimacy proves essential to both sides. This article argues that these events represent both constraints and favorable developments for subnational democracy in Peru.
Ten species of macruran, anomuran, and brachyuran decapod crustaceans, arrayed in eight families, were collected from seven localities in the Jagüel and Roca Formations, west-central Argentina. All of the decapods were collected from the Maastrichtian Jaqüel Formation and a part of the Roca Formation dated as Maastrichtian–Danian. All but one of the taxa, Xanthilites gerthi Glaessner, represent first occurrences in the unit and six had not been described previously from Argentina. Six taxa, Thaumastoplax rocaensis n. sp., Proterocarcinus lophos n. gen. and sp., Lobonotus lobulata n. sp., Glyphithyreus wichmanni n. sp., and Costacopluma australis n. sp. are new. Comparison of the fauna with Cretaceous and Paleogene faunas in Chile, Antarctica, and New Zealand indicates that the Argentinian fauna was strongly influenced by dispersal from lower latitude, Atlantic and Tethyan sources in marked contrast to the high latitude, Pacific affinities of the other faunas. There is no evidence that the Argentinian brachyuran fauna was seriously affected by the K–T extinction event. Seven of the genera from the Roca Formation are known from Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks.
Examination of 186 specimens of the living brachiopod Laqueus rubellus (Sowerby), collected during four different months from Sagami Bay, Japan, has yielded 94 specimens of the pinnotherid crab, Pinnotheres laquei Sakai, living within the mantle cavity. This work provides the first quantitative statements regarding crab/brachiopod associations. All but four of the specimens were female crabs; the four male specimens occurred together with females in brachiopods collected during March, 1982. Pinnotherids, common associates of mollusks and echinoderms, tend to be host specific; however, anecdotal information received near the conclusion of this study suggests that P. laquei may visit multiple brachiopod host species. Although the crabs seem to be more common in larger brachiopods, there is some correspondence between crab size and brachiopod size. No physical evidence, such as malformation of the shell or lophophore loop, was observed in host brachiopods and, therefore, the association was judged to be commensal or symbiotic. It is probable that crabs were able to enter and exit the mantle cavity at will. This association of brachiopod and pinnotherid represents the only known occurrence of infestation of brachiopods by crabs and, with the exception of boring and encrusting organisms, is one of very few biotic associations, of any kind, for brachiopods. Although this association has not yet been reported from the fossil record, the nature of preservation of brachiopods and the methods of study, employing serial sectioning techniques, suggest the possibility of detecting this unusual association in the fossil record.
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