To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
Using abundances from the available largest, homogeneous sample of high resolution Barium (Ba) star spectra we calculated the ratios of different hs-like to ls-like elemental ratios and compared to different AGB nucleosynthesis models. The Ba star data show an incontestable increase of the hs-type/ls-type element ratio (for example, [Ce/Y]) with decreasing metallicity. This trend in the Ba star observations is predicted by low mass, non-rotating AGB models where 13C is the main neutron source and is in agreement with Kepler asteroseismology observations.
Planetary nebulae retain the signature of the nucleosynthesis and mixing events that occurred during the previous AGB phase. Observational signatures complement observations of AGB and post-AGB stars and their binary companions. The abundances of the elements heavier than iron such as Kr and Xe in planetary nebulae can be used to complement abundances of Sr/Y/Zr and Ba/La/Ce in AGB stars, respectively, to determine the operation of the slow neutron-capture process (the s process) in AGB stars. Additionally, observations of the Rb abundance in Type I planetary nebulae may allow us to infer the initial mass of the central star. Several noble gas components present in meteoritic stardust silicon carbide (SiC) grains are associated with implantation into the dust grains in the high-energy environment connected to the fast winds from the central stars during the planetary nebulae phase.
The Monχey project will provide a large and homogeneous set of stellar yields for the low- and intermediate- mass stars and has applications particularly to galactic chemical evolution modelling. We describe our detailed grid of stellar evolutionary models and corresponding nucleosynthetic yields for stars of initial mass 0.8 M⊙ up to the limit for core collapse supernova (CC-SN) ≈ 10 M⊙. Our study covers a broad range of metallicities, ranging from the first, primordial stars (Z = 0) to those of super-solar metallicity (Z = 0.04). The models are evolved from the zero-age main-sequence until the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the nucleosynthesis calculations include all elements from H to Bi. A major innovation of our work is the first complete grid of heavy element nucleosynthetic predictions for primordial AGB stars as well as the inclusion of extra-mixing processes (in this case thermohaline) during the red giant branch. We provide a broad overview of our results with implications for galactic chemical evolution as well as highlight interesting results such as heavy element production in dredge-out events of super-AGB stars. We briefly introduce our forthcoming web-based database which provides the evolutionary tracks, structural properties, internal/surface nucleosynthetic compositions and stellar yields. Our web interface includes user- driven plotting capabilities with output available in a range of formats. Our nucleosynthetic results will be available for further use in post processing calculations for dust production yields.
Cosmic radioactivity represents a cross-disciplinary theme and an interesting alternate viewpoint on cosmic nuclear astrophysics. Radioactive isotopes and their decay provide unique messages from sites of cosmic nucleosynthesis, as the decay is mediated by weak interaction physics and independent of environmental conditions. The radioactive clock of various isotopes traces stellar mixing processes and the process of solidification of bodies when the solar system was formed. Isotopic abundances directly reflect the conditions of their formation in the nucleosynthesis site, which is unobservable otherwise. Measurements range from meteorites and their included stardust grain compositions through to cosmic rays and electromagnetic radiation from infrared to gamma ray wavelengths. Thus, various astronomical disciplines with their different messengers of cosmic nucleosynthesis as seen through unstable, decaying isotopes are linked to the physics of nuclear reactions, and to theories and models of the variety of cosmic nucleosynthesis sites and of cosmic isotopic evolution.
The determination of heavy element abundances from planetary nebula (PN) spectra provides an exciting opportunity to study the nucleosynthesis occurring in the progenitor asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. We perform post-processing calculations on AGB models of a large range of mass and metallicity to obtain predictions for the production of neutron-capture elements up to the first s-process peak at strontium. We find that solar metallicity intermediate-mass AGB models provide a reasonable match to the heavy element composition of Type I PNe. Likewise, many of the Se and Kr enriched PNe are well fitted by lower mass models with solar or close-to-solar metallicities. However, those objects most enriched in Krand those PN with sub-solar Se/O ratios are difficult to explain with AGB-nucleosynthesis models. Furthermore, we compute s-process abundance predictions for low-mass AGB models of very low metallicity ([Fe/H]≈−2.3) using both scaled solar and an α-enhanced initial composition. For these models, O is dredged to the surface, which means that abundance ratios measured relative to this element (e.g. X/O) do not provide a reliable measure of initial abundance ratios, or of production within the star owing to internal nucleosynthesis.
The WGARG was created in 2001 to oversee the rapid growth of the quantitative determination and understanding of the abundance patterns seen in red-giant stars. As the field progresses we are regularly reminded of how broad and multi-disciplinary is this area of research.
After very dense and slow winds erode the outer layer of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star down to a thin H-rich layer (≃10−3 M⊙) the star becomes a post-AGB star and evolves at constant luminosity towards hotter temperatures. It may then becomes a planetary nebula nucleus (PNN) at the centre of a planetary nebula (PN). During these phases, the thin H-rich surface layer of the star is eroded by winds. Stardust oxide and silicate grains are recovered from meteorites. The origin of the “Group II grains” that show enrichments in 17O and depletions in 18O is currently explained by invoking the occurrence of some kind of extra-mixing process in AGB stars. We suggest instead that these grains originated from the winds of post-AGB stars and PNN. These winds show the signature of H-burning. We will do this by comparing our predictions from stellar models to the compositions observed in Group II stardust oxide and silicate grains. We find that the composition of the thin H-rich layer lost in the post-AGB and PNN winds is close to that of Group II grains, however the match with the Al ratios needs to be improved. Considering the uncertainities in the 25Mg and 26Al proton capture rates may be helped in this respect.
Observations of planetary nebulae have revealed a wealth of information about the composition of heavy elements synthesized by the slow neutron capture process (the s process). In some of these nebulae the abundances of neutron-capture elements are enriched by factors of 10 to 30 times the solar value, indicating that these elements were produced in the progenitor star while it was on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). In this proceedings we summarize results of our recent full s-process network predictions covering a wide range of progenitor masses and metallicities. We compare our model predictions to observations and show how this can provide important insights into nucleosynthesis processes occurring deep within AGB stars.
Elements heavier than iron are produced in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars via the slow neutron capture process (s process). Recent observations of s-process-enriched Carbon Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars have provided an unprecedented wealth of observational constraints on the operation of the s-process in low-metallicity AGB stars. We present new preliminary full network calculations of low-metallicity AGB stars, including a comparison to the composition of a few s-process rich CEMP stars. We also discuss the possibility of using halo planetary nebulae as further probes of low-metallicity AGB nucleosynthesis.
The vast majority of pre-solar grains recovered to date show the signature of an origin in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In AGB stars, the abundances of elements lighter than silicon and heavier than iron are largely affected by proton- and neutron-capture processes, respectively, while the compositions of the elements in between also carry the signature of the initial composition of the star. Dust is produced and observed around AGB stars and the strong mass loss experienced by these stars is believed to be driven by radiation pressure on dust grains. We briefly review the main developments that have occurred in the past few years in the study of AGB stars in relation to dust and pre-solar grains. From the nucleosynthesis point of view these include: more stringent constraints on the main neutron source nucleus, 13C, for the slow neutron capture process (the s process); the possibility of pre-solar grains coming from massive AGB stars; and the unique opportunity to infer the ‘isotopic’ evolution of the Galaxy by combining pre-solar grain data and AGB model predictions. Concerning the formation of grains in AGB stars, considerable progress has been achieved in modelling. In particular, self-consistent models for atmospheres and winds of C-stars have reached a level of sophistication which allows direct quantitative comparison with observations. In the case of stars with C/O < 1, however, recent work points to serious problems with the dust-driven wind scenario. A current trend in atmosphere and wind modelling is to investigate the possible effects of inhomogenieties (e.g., due to giant convection cells) with 2D/3D models.
We model the nucleosynthesis during a radiative interpulse phase of a rotating 3 M⊙ Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star. We find an enhanced production of the neutron source species 13C compared to non-rotating models due to shear mixing of protons and 12C at the core-envelope interface. We estimate that the resulting total production of heavy elements by slow neutron capture (s-process) is too low to account for most observations. This due to the fact that rotationally induced mixing during the interpulse phase causes a pollution of the 13C pocket layer with the neutron poison 14N. As a result we find a maximum neutron exposure of τmax = 0.04 mbarn–1 in the s-process layer of our solar metallicity model with rotation. This is about a factor of 5 … 10 less than required to reproduce the observed stellar s-process abundance patterns. We compare our results with models that include hydrodynamic overshooting mixing, and with simple parametric models including the combined effects of overshooting and mixing in the interpulse. Within the parametric model a range of mixing efficiencies during the interpulse phase correlates with a spread in the s-process-efficiency. Such a spread is observed in AGB and post-AGB stars as well as in pre-solar SiC grains.
H-deficient post-AGB objects, e.g. PG1159 type star K1-16 and born-again AGB star Sakurai's object, have been reported to be significantly iron-deficient. We find that the iron deficiencies expected due to neutron-capture nucleosynthesis during either the progenitor AGB evolution and/or the neutron burst that occurs as a result of the rapid burning of protons during a post-AGB He-flash are generally in line with observations.
The carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios of pre-solar SiC grains of type A+B suggest a proton-limited nucleosynthetic process as encountered, for instance, during the very late thermal pulse of post-AGB stars. We study the nuclear processes during this phase and find carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios which can reproduce those of A+B grains. These results are still preliminary because they depend on uncertain factors such as the details of mixing during the post-AGB thermal pulse, the rates of some nuclear reactions, and the assumptions on mixing during the progenitor AGB phase.
We discuss the occurrence of the s-process during the radiative interpulse phase of rotating AGB stars. Due to differential rotation, protons are mixed into 12C-rich layers after thermal pulses, in the course of the so called third dredge up episode. We follow the time evolution of key isotope abundances in the relevant layers with a post-processing code which includes time dependant mixing and nucleosynthesis. In rotating AGB models, the mixing persists during the entire interpulse phase due to the steep gradient of angular velocity at the envelope-core interface. As the layers containing protons and 12C, which are formed this way, become hotter, a 13C-pocket is formed in a natural way. However, in this situation also 14N is formed and spread over the entire 13C-pocket. We include the neutron consuming 14N(n,p) reaction in our network and determine to what extent it reduces the production of trans-iron elements. We propose that rotation may be responsible for the spread of efficiencies of the 13C neutron source as required by observations.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.