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Personality disorders are prevalent in 6–10% of the population, but their risk for cause-specific mortality is unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the association between personality disorders diagnosed in late adolescence and all-cause as well as cause-specific (cardiovascular-related, external-related) mortality.
We performed a longitudinal study on a historical prospective cohort based on nationwide screening prior to recruitment to the Israeli army. The study participants were 16–19-year-old persons who attended the army screening (medical and cognitive, including screening for psychiatric disorders) between 1967 and 2006. Participants were followed from 1967 till 2011.
The study included 2 051 606 subjects, of whom 1 229 252 (59.9%) were men and 822 354 (40.1%) were women, mean age 17.36 years. There were 55 508 (4.5%) men and 8237 (1.0%) women diagnosed with personality disorders. The adjusted hazard ratio (HRs) for coronary, stroke, cardiovascular, external-related causes and all-cause mortality among men with personality disorders were 1.34 (1.03–1.74), 1.82 (1.20–2.76), 1.45 (1.23–1.71), 1.41 (1.30–1.53) and 1.44 (1.36–1.51), respectively. The absolute rate difference for all-cause mortality was 56.07 and 13.19 per 105 person-years among men and women, respectively. Among women with personality disorders, the adjusted HRs for external-related causes and all-cause mortality were 2.74 (1.87–4.00) and 2.01 (1.56–2.58). Associations were already evident within 10 years of follow-up.
Personality disorder in late adolescence is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, external- and all-cause mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality is evident before the age of 40 years and may point to the importance of lifestyle education already in youth.
Suicide is major cause of death in the IDF. The Suicide Prevention Program (SPP) led to significant reduction in yearly rates of suicide. A study regarding demographic changes of those who died by suicide was done to further investigate its affect.
Nested case control retrospective study based on medical and HR data gathered between 1992 and 2016. Participants were divided into four groups: soldiers who died by suicide and non-suicidal soldiers, before and after SPP implementation.
Multivariate analysis with suicide as the binary logistic dependent variable before and after implementation of the SPP among four groups revealed that before SPP the OR was higher for males (OR, 7.885; 95% CI, 5.071–12.259;p < 0.001) compared to after (OR, 3.281; 95% CI, 1.600–6.726; p = 0.001). For support unit soldiers the values before SPP were OR, 14.962 and 95% CI, 8.427–26.563 (p < 0.001) while after SPP they were OR, 6.304 and 95% CI, 3.334–11.919 (p < 0.001). After SPP, OR was higher for psychiatric diagnosis at recruitment (OR, 5.830; 95% CI, 2.046–16.612; p = 0.001) than before SPP (OR, 2.422; 95% CI, 1.526–3.842; p < 0.001).For soldiers from Ethiopian ethnicity, after SPP values were higher (OR, 8.130 and 95% CI, 2.868–23.047 (p < 0.001) compared to before (OR, 3.522; 95% CI, 1.2891–6.650; p < 0.001). For those of Druse religion before values (OR, 4.027; 95% CI, 2.211–7.331; p < 0.001) were significant but not after.
While the SPP succeeded in reducing risk of suicide in situational factors, dispositional risk factors were not affected by the SPP. The OR decreased in critical masses and rose in unique and smaller groups.
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