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Childhood adversity and cannabis use are considered independent risk factors for psychosis, but whether different patterns of cannabis use may be acting as mediator between adversity and psychotic disorders has not yet been explored. The aim of this study is to examine whether cannabis use mediates the relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis.
Data were utilised on 881 first-episode psychosis patients and 1231 controls from the European network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Detailed history of cannabis use was collected with the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to assess exposure to household discord, sexual, physical or emotional abuse and bullying in two periods: early (0–11 years), and late (12–17 years). A path decomposition method was used to analyse whether the association between childhood adversity and psychosis was mediated by (1) lifetime cannabis use, (2) cannabis potency and (3) frequency of use.
The association between household discord and psychosis was partially mediated by lifetime use of cannabis (indirect effect coef. 0.078, s.e. 0.022, 17%), its potency (indirect effect coef. 0.059, s.e. 0.018, 14%) and by frequency (indirect effect coef. 0.117, s.e. 0.038, 29%). Similar findings were obtained when analyses were restricted to early exposure to household discord.
Harmful patterns of cannabis use mediated the association between specific childhood adversities, like household discord, with later psychosis. Children exposed to particularly challenging environments in their household could benefit from psychosocial interventions aimed at preventing cannabis misuse.
Child maltreatment (CM) and migrant status are independently associated with psychosis. We examined prevalence of CM by migrant status and tested whether migrant status moderated the association between CM and first-episode psychosis (FEP). We further explored whether differences in CM exposure contributed to variations in the incidence rates of FEP by migrant status.
We included FEP patients aged 18–64 years in 14 European sites and recruited controls representative of the local populations. Migrant status was operationalized according to generation (first/further) and region of origin (Western/non-Western countries). The reference population was composed by individuals of host country's ethnicity. CM was assessed with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Prevalence ratios of CM were estimated using Poisson regression. We examined the moderation effect of migrant status on the odds of FEP by CM fitting adjusted logistic regressions with interaction terms. Finally, we calculated the population attributable fractions (PAFs) for CM by migrant status.
We examined 849 FEP cases and 1142 controls. CM prevalence was higher among migrants, their descendants and migrants of non-Western heritage. Migrant status, classified by generation (likelihood test ratio:χ2 = 11.3, p = 0.004) or by region of origin (likelihood test ratio:χ2 = 11.4, p = 0.003), attenuated the association between CM and FEP. PAFs for CM were higher among all migrant groups compared with the reference populations.
The higher exposure to CM, despite a smaller effect on the odds of FEP, accounted for a greater proportion of incident FEP cases among migrants. Policies aimed at reducing CM should consider the increased vulnerability of specific subpopulations.
The association between childhood adversity (CA) and psychosis has been extensively investigated in recent years. An increasing body of research has also focused on the mediating or moderating role of biological and psychological mechanisms, as well as other risk factors that might account for the link between CA and psychosis. We conducted a systematic search of the PsychINFO, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Science databases for original articles investigating the role of genetic vulnerabilities, environmental factors, psychological and psychopathological mechanisms in the association between CA and psychosis up to August 2019. We included studies with individuals at different stages of the psychosis continuum, from subclinical psychotic experiences to diagnosed disorders. From the 28 944 records identified, a total of 121 studies were included in this review. Only 26% of the studies identified met the criteria for methodological robustness. Overall, the current evidence suggests that CA may be associated with psychosis largely independently of genetic vulnerabilities. More consistent and robust evidence supports interaction between early and recent adversities, as well as the mediating role of attachment and mood symptoms, which is suggestive of an affective pathway between CA and psychosis across the continuum from subclinical experiences to diagnosable disorder. This review highlighted numerous methodological issues with the existing literature, including selection bias, heterogeneity of measurement instruments utilised, and lack of control for potential confounders. Future research should address these limitations to more accurately estimate mediation and moderation effects on the CA-psychosis association to inform the development of preventive interventions.
Burnout is present at a high rate in emergency medicine. The ambulance driver-rescuers, who furnish first aid to the victims, are the non-medical part of the Italian 118-service staff. There is a lack of research on burnout risk in Italian Emergency Medical Services and, particularly, for this category of workers. The two Italian studies, including a little group of ambulance driver-rescuers, reported inconsistent findings.
This survey investigated for the first time the prevalence and exact profile of burnout in a large sample of Italian driver-rescuers. As a secondary aim, the study described how the items of the Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) cluster in components in this sample.
This cross-sectional census survey was conducted from June 2015 through May 2016 and involved all the driver-rescuers operating in Sicily, the biggest and most southern region of Italy. The subjects received a classification according to different profiles of burnout by using the Italian version of the MBI-HSS (burnout, engagement, disengagement, over-extension, and work-inefficacy). In order to explore the existence of independent factors, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted on the survey to obtain eigenvalues >one for each component in the data.
The final sample comprised 2,361 responders (96.6% of the initial sample). Of them, 29.8% were in burnout (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.8% to 31.8%) and 1.7% presented a severe form (95% CI, 1.1% to 2.3%); 30.0% were engaged in their work (95% CI, 21.0% to 34.8%), 24.7% of responders were disengaged (95% CI, 22.9% to 26.5%), 1.2% presented an over-extension profile (95% CI, 0.8% to 1.7%), and 12.6% felt work-inefficacy (95% CI, 11.3% to 14.1%). The factors loaded into a five-factor solution at PCA, explaining 48.1% of the variance and partially replicating the three-factor structure. The Emotional Exhaustion (EE) component was confirmed. New dimensions from Personal Accomplishment (PA) and Depersonalization (DP) sub-scales described empathy and disengagement with patients, respectively, and were responsible for the increased risk of burnout.
These results endorse the importance of screening and psychological interventions for this population of emergency workers, where burnout could manifest itself more insidiously. It is also possible to speculate that sub-optimal empathy skills could be related to the disengagement and work-inefficacy feelings registered.
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