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It has not yet been determined if the commonly reported cannabis–psychosis association is limited to individuals with pre-existing genetic risk for psychotic disorders.
We examined whether the relationship between polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-Sz) and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), as measured by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-42 (CAPE-42) questionnaire, is mediated or moderated by lifetime cannabis use at 16 years of age in 1740 of the individuals of the European IMAGEN cohort. Secondary analysis examined the relationships between lifetime cannabis use, PRS-Sz and the various sub-scales of the CAPE-42. Sensitivity analyses including covariates, including a PRS for cannabis use, were conducted and results were replicated using data from 1223 individuals in the Dutch Utrecht cannabis cohort.
PRS-Sz significantly predicted cannabis use (p = 0.027) and PLE (p = 0.004) in the IMAGEN cohort. In the full model, considering PRS-Sz and covariates, cannabis use was also significantly associated with PLE in IMAGEN (p = 0.007). Results remained consistent in the Utrecht cohort and through sensitivity analyses. Nevertheless, there was no evidence of a mediation or moderation effects.
These results suggest that cannabis use remains a risk factor for PLEs, over and above genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. This research does not support the notion that the cannabis–psychosis link is limited to individuals who are genetically predisposed to psychosis and suggests a need for research focusing on cannabis-related processes in psychosis that cannot be explained by genetic vulnerability.
This paper provides an up-to-date review of the problems related to the generation, detection and mitigation of strong electromagnetic pulses created in the interaction of high-power, high-energy laser pulses with different types of solid targets. It includes new experimental data obtained independently at several international laboratories. The mechanisms of electromagnetic field generation are analyzed and considered as a function of the intensity and the spectral range of emissions they produce. The major emphasis is put on the GHz frequency domain, which is the most damaging for electronics and may have important applications. The physics of electromagnetic emissions in other spectral domains, in particular THz and MHz, is also discussed. The theoretical models and numerical simulations are compared with the results of experimental measurements, with special attention to the methodology of measurements and complementary diagnostics. Understanding the underlying physical processes is the basis for developing techniques to mitigate the electromagnetic threat and to harness electromagnetic emissions, which may have promising applications.
Au cours des procédés de fabrication utilisant le PET (Poly-éthylène Téréphthalate) les déformations biaxiales vécues par le matériau induisent des changements importants de sa microstructure. La compréhension de ces modifications est cruciale pour permettre la mise au point de modèles prédictifs des caractéristiques mécaniques finales. Afin d'identifier les effets d'une sollicitation thermomécanique complexe sur la microstructure (cristallinité, orientation moléculaire, taille des zones cristallines), des essais de traction biaxiale, à chaud, ont été réalisées sur des éprouvettes amorphes. La microstructure du matériau a ensuite été étudiée par densimétrie, dichroïsme infra-rouge et diffraction X. Les influences du taux, de la vitesse et de la température d'élongation ainsi que du séquençage ont été étudiées.
Pedigree and marker data from a multiple-generation pig selection experiment have been analysed
to screen for loci affecting quantitative traits (QTL). Pigs from a base population were selected
either for low backfat thickness at fixed live weight (L-line) or high live weight at fixed age (F-line). Selection was based on single-trait own performance and DNA was available on selected
individuals only. Genotypes for three marker loci with known positions on chromosome 4 were
available. The transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) was originally described in human genetics
to test for linkage between a genetic marker and a disease-susceptibility locus, in the presence of
association. Here, we adapt the TDT to test for linkage between a marker and QTL favoured by
selection, and for linkage disequilibrium between them in the base population. The a priori
unknown distribution of the test statistic under the null hypothesis, no linkage, was obtained via
Monte Carlo simulation. Significant TDT statistics were found for markers AFABP and SW818 in
the F-line, indicating the presence of a closely linked QTL affecting growth performance. In the L-line, none of the markers studied showed significance. This study emphasizes the potential of the
TDT as a quick and simple approach to screen for QTL in situations where marker genotypes are
available on selected individuals. The results suggest that previously identified QTL in crosses of
genetically diverse breeds may also segregate in commercial selection lines.
L'histoire des crises économiques utilise depuis longtemps le phénomène des faillites comme indicateur des difficultés propres au cycle des affaires. Pourtant l'unanimité ne s'est pas encore faite sur le rôle et la place des défaillances d'entreprises au moment du retournement de la conjoncture et dans la dépression.
Malgré l'existence d'un fonds d'archives non négligeable pour l'ensemble de la France, la relation avec les crises économiques est rarement traitée. Hormis la tentative pionnière d'Ernest Labrousse et de ses collaborateurs en 1956, la nécessité d'une synthèse d'ensemble n'a émergé de la masse des travaux à base locale que tout récemment.