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Urban slums provide suitable conditions for infestation by rats, which harbour and shed a wide diversity of zoonotic pathogens including helminths. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with the probability and intensity of infection of helminths of the digestive tract in an urban slum population of Rattus norvegicus. Among 299 rats, eleven species/groups of helminths were identified, of which Strongyloides sp., Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and, the human pathogen, Angiostrongylus cantonensis were the most frequent (97, 41 and 39%, respectively). Sex interactions highlighted behavioural differences between males and females, as eg males were more likely to be infected with N. brasiliensis where rat signs were present, and males presented more intense infections of Strongyloides sp. Moreover, rats in poor body condition had higher intensities of N. brasiliensis. We describe a high global richness of parasites in R. norvegicus, including five species known to cause disease in humans. Among these, A. cantonensis was found in high prevalence and it was ubiquitous in the study area – knowledge which is of public health importance. A variety of environmental, demographic and body condition variables were associated with helminth species infection of rats, suggesting a comparable variety of risk factors for humans.
There is a paucity of efficient cryopreservation protocols for primordial follicles enclosed in the ovarian tissue from non-human primates (NHP), in special New World primates. Our objective was to establish an optimal procedure for the recovery of ovarian biopsies from capuchin monkeys. To this end, we adapted a trap door biopsy method. Follicular density and quality of the biopsies were evaluated and ultrasound analysis was performed before and continuously after surgery to assess ovarian structure. Ovarian tissue biopsies recovered by the trap door technique allowed the successful harvesting of primordial follicles from capuchin monkeys, and no complication was recorded. The female cycle was not affected by surgery and no adherence was found thereafter. In conclusion, the adaptation of a trap door biopsy method is a safe procedure and allows recovery of healthy primordial follicles.
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