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The penultimate deglaciation was characterized by a sub-millennial-scale warm event in the Heinrich Stadial 11(HS11), termed the 134-ka event. However, its precise timing and structure remain poorly constrained due to the lack of high-resolution and precisely dated records. We present an oxygen isotope record of a speleothem with well-developed annual lamina from Zhangjia Cave, located on the north margin of the Sichuan Basin, characterizing Asian summer monsoon (ASM) changes in the 134-ka event, which included an increase excursion of ca. 149 years and decrease excursion of ca. 200 years, inferred from 3.3‰ δ18O variations. This event also divided the weak ASM interval-II (WMI-II), corresponding to HS11, into two stages, the WMI-IIa 132.8–134.1 ka and WMI-IIb 134.4–136.4 ka. With a comparable climatic pattern globally, the 134-ka event is essentially similar to the millennial-scale events in last glacial–deglacial period. Particularly, the observed weak-strong-weak ASM sequence (138.8–132.8 ka) is largely controlled by changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) forced by the meltwater of northern high-latitude ice sheets. Moreover, our results underpin that AMOC, rather than the global ice volume, is more critical to ASM variations during the last two deglaciations.
With advancements in cancer treatments, the survival rates of patients with their first primary cancer (FPC) have increased, resulting in a rise in the number of patients with second primary cancer (SPC). However, there has been no assessment on the incidence of suicide among patients with SPC. This study assessed the occurrence of suicide among patients with SPC and compared them with that in patients with FPC.
This was a retrospective, population-based cohort study that followed patients with FPC and SPC diagnosed from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 17 registries database between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2019.
For patients with SPC, an age of 85+ years at diagnosis was associated with a higher incidence of suicide death (HR, 1.727; 95% CI, 1.075–2.774), while the suicide death was not considerably different in the chemotherapy group (P > 0.05). Female genital system cancers (HR, 3.042; 95% CI, 1.819–6.361) accounted for the highest suicide death among patients with SPC. The suicide death distribution of patients with SPC over time indicated that suicide events mainly occurred within 5 to 15 years of diagnosis. Compared with patients with FPC, patients with SPC in general had a lower risk of suicide, but increased year by year.
The risk of suicide was reduced in patients with SPC compared with patients with FPC, but increased year by year. Therefore, oncologists and related health professionals need to provide continuous psychological support to reduce the incidence of suicide. The highest suicide death was found among patients with female genital system cancer.
Instability evolutions of shock-accelerated thin cylindrical SF$_6$ layers surrounded by air with initial perturbations imposed only at the outer interface (i.e. the ‘Outer’ case) or at the inner interface (i.e. the ‘Inner’ case) are numerically and theoretically investigated. It is found that the instability evolution of a thin cylindrical heavy fluid layer not only involves the effects of Richtmyer–Meshkov instability, Rayleigh–Taylor stability/instability and compressibility coupled with the Bell–Plesset effect, which determine the instability evolution of the single cylindrical interface, but also strongly depends on the waves reverberated inside the layer, thin-shell correction and interface coupling effect. Specifically, the rarefaction wave inside the thin fluid layer accelerates the outer interface inward and induces the decompression effect for both the Outer and Inner cases, and the compression wave inside the fluid layer accelerates the inner interface inward and causes the decompression effect for the Outer case and compression effect for the Inner case. It is noted that the compressible Bell model excluding the compression/decompression effect of waves, thin-shell correction and interface coupling effect deviates significantly from the perturbation growth. To this end, an improved compressible Bell model is proposed, including three new terms to quantify the compression/decompression effect of waves, thin-shell correction and interface coupling effect, respectively. This improved model is verified by numerical results and successfully characterizes various effects that contribute to the perturbation growth of a shock-accelerated thin heavy fluid layer.
A model-free adaptive robust control based on time delay estimation (TDE) is proposed for robot in the presence of disturbance and input saturation. TDE is utilized to estimate the complicated nonlinear terms of the robot including unknown dynamics and disturbance, and a TDE error observer is developed to estimate the inevitable TDE error. When the input torque of the robot exceeds the upper or lower limit of the input saturation, an auxiliary system and a saturation deviation boundary adaptive law are employed to mitigate the negative impact of input saturation on the position tracking. Finally, the robust control law is obtained by backstepping. The stability of the closed-loop system is proved by Lyapunov functions, and the validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparative simulations and experiments. Compared with the model-based controllers and other model-free controllers, the proposed method does not necessitate the accurate dynamic model of the complicated system and with lower computation. Moreover, it can guarantee the desired position tracking performance of the robot even subject to disturbance and input saturation simultaneously.
Decreasing symptom-to-door (S2D) delay is of vital importance for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The factors associated with S2D delay in STEMI patients have not been well-characterized.
The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with S2D delay in patients with STEMI.
The PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase databases were searched for data. References from the selected articles and relevant background papers were also manually searched to identify additional eligible studies. The included articles were reviewed and assessed for risk of bias. The level of evidence for each identified factor was evaluated using a semiquantitative synthesis.
Twelve (12) papers were included in the review. Factors associated with S2D delay were complex and could be divided into sociodemographic, clinical history, and onset characteristics. The level of evidence regarding female sex and diabetes was strong, and the evidence was moderate regarding older age, smoking, history of hypertension, self-transport, or referral.
Female sex, older age, previous diabetes, previous hypertension, smoking, and self-transport are all strong or moderate risk factors for S2D time delay in patients with ST-segment myocardial infarction. More efforts should be made to educate at-risk populations concerning symptoms of STEMI and the importance of seeking early medical assistance.
To evaluate the potential superiority of donanemab vs. aducanumab on the percentage of participants with amyloid plaque clearance (≤24.1 Centiloids [CL]) at 6 months in patients with early symptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD) in phase 3 TRAILBLAZER-ALZ-4 study. The amyloid cascade in AD involves the production and deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) as an early and necessary event in the pathogenesis of AD.
Participants (n = 148) were randomized 1:1 to receive donanemab (700 mg IV Q4W [first 3 doses], then 1400 mg IV Q4W [subsequent doses]) or aducanumab (per USPI: 1 mg/kg IV Q4W [first 2 doses], 3 mg/kg IV Q4W [next 2 doses], 6 mg/kg IV Q4W [next 2 doses] and 10 mg/kg IV Q4W [subsequent doses]).
Baseline demographics and characteristics were well-balanced across treatment arms (donanemab [N = 71], aducanumab [N = 69]). Twenty-seven donanemab-treated and 28 aducanumab-treated participants defined as having intermediate tau.
Upon assessment of florbetapir F18 PET scans (6 months), 37.9% donanemab-treated vs. 1.6% aducanumab-treated participants achieved amyloid clearance (p < 0.001). In the intermediate tau subpopulation, 38.5% donanemab-treated vs. 3.8% aducanumab-treated participants achieved amyloid clearance (p = 0.008).
Percent change in brain amyloid levels were −65.2%±3.9% (baseline: 98.29 ± 27.83 CL) and −17.0%±4.0% (baseline: 102.40 ± 35.49 CL) in donanemab and aducanumab arms, respectively (p < 0.001). In the intermediate tau subpopulation, percent change in brain amyloid levels were −63.9%±7.4% (baseline: 104.97 ± 25.68 CL) and −25.4%±7.8% (baseline: 102.23 ± 28.13 CL) in donanemab and aducanumab arms, respectively (p ≤ 0.001).
62.0% of donanemab-treated and 66.7% of aducanumab-treated participants reported an adverse event (AE), there were no serious AEs due to ARIA in donanemab arm and 1.4% serious AEs (one event) due to ARIA were reported in aducanumab arm.
This study provides the first active comparator data on amyloid plaque clearance in patients with early symptomatic AD. Significantly higher number of participants reached amyloid clearance and amyloid plaque reductions with donanemab vs. aducanumab at 6 months.
Previously presented at the Clinical Trials on Alzheimer's Disease - 15th Conference, 2022.
Four species of Porpidia are newly reported from China, including one species new to science (Porpidia crystallina) and three records (Porpidia umbonifera, P. seakensis and P. cf. contraponenda) new to China. Porpidia crystallina is characterized by a macrocarpa-type exciple containing crystals, a Cinereorufa-green epihymenium, large ascospores and a lack of secondary metabolites. Morpho-anatomical, chemical and phylogenetic analyses were carried out to elucidate the placement of the species and to support the delimitation of the new taxon. Detailed taxonomic descriptions, ecological and chemical characters, and illustrations are provided for each species. A key to all known Chinese Porpidia species is also provided.
This study analyzes the linewidth narrowing characteristics of free-space-running Brillouin lasers and investigates the approaches to achieve linewidth compression and power enhancement simultaneously. The results show that the Stokes linewidth behavior in a free-space-running Brillouin laser cavity is determined by the phase diffusion of the pump and the technical noise of the system. Experimentally, a Stokes light output with a power of 22.5 W and a linewidth of 3.2 kHz was obtained at a coupling mirror reflectivity of 96%, which is nearly 2.5 times compressed compared with the linewidth of the pump (7.36 kHz). In addition, the theorical analysis shows that at a pump power of 60 W and a coupling mirror reflectivity of 96%, a Stokes output with a linewidth of 1.6 kHz and up to 80% optical conversion efficiency can be achieved by reducing the insertion loss of the intracavity. This study provides a promising technical route to achieve high-power ultra-narrow linewidth special wavelength laser radiations.
High-power femtosecond mid-infrared (MIR) lasers are of vast importance to both fundamental research and applications. We report a high-power femtosecond master oscillator power amplifier laser system consisting of a single-mode Er:ZBLAN fiber mode-locked oscillator and pre-amplifier followed by a large-mode-area Er:ZBLAN fiber main amplifier. The main amplifier is actively cooled and bidirectionally pumped at 976 nm, generating a slope efficiency of 26.9%. Pulses of 8.12 W, 148 fs at 2.8 μm with a repetition rate of 69.65 MHz are achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power ever achieved from a femtosecond MIR laser source. Such a compact ultrafast laser system is promising for a wide range of applications, such as medical surgery and material processing.
Germplasm innovation can provide materials for breeding sugarcane cultivars. Saccharum officinarum is the main source of high-sugar and high-yield genes in sugarcane breeding. ‘Nobilization’ is the theoretical basis for exploiting S. officinarum, and S. officinarum authenticity directly affects sugarcane nobility breeding efficiency. Herein, the authenticity of 22 SLC-series S. officinarum clones imported from Sri Lanka and preserved in the China National Germplasm Repository of Sugarcane (NGRS) was explored by four-primer amplification-arrested mutation PCR (ARMS PCR) and somatic chromosome number counting. The amplified bands from SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131 were the same with those from S. officinarum clone Badila, i.e. a common band of 428 bp and a S. officinarum-specific band of 278 bp, hence they were tentatively assigned as S. officinarum clones. The other 20 SLC clones had both 278 bp (S. officinarum-specific) and 203 bp (S. spontaneum-specific) bands, which are hybrid characteristics. In addition, the chromosome numbers of SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131 are both 80, belong to typical S. officinarum. While the chromosome numbers of the other 20 materials are ranging from 101 to 129, consistent with hybrids of S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. This molecular cytological characterization indicates that among the 22 introduced SLC-series clones, only two, SLC 08 120 and SLC 08 131, were S. officinarum. Future agronomic trait and resistance analyses could facilitate their use as crossing parents in sugarcane breeding.
Previous observational studies have reported potential associations among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obesity, and diabetes (including type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T1DM/T2DM]). However, whether the association between ADHD and diabetes is mediated by obesity is unknown.
With two-sample Mendelian randomization, we analysed the causal effect of ADHD on T1DM and T2DM and six obesity-related traits [including body mass index, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percentage and basal metabolic rate] and the causal effect of these obesity-related traits on T1DM/T2DM. Finally, with multivariable Mendelian randomization, we explored and quantified the possible mediation effects of obesity-related traits on the causal effect of ADHD on T1DM/T2DM.
Our results showed that ADHD increased the risk of T2DM by 14% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.140, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.005–1.293] but with no evidence of an effect on T1DM (OR = 0.916, 95% CI = 0.735–1.141, P = 0.433.). In addition, ADHD had a 6.1% increased causal effect on high WC (OR = 1.061, 95% CI = 1.024–1.099, P = 0.001) and an 8.2% increased causal effect on high WHR (OR = 1.082, 95% CI = 1.035–1.131, P = 0.001). In addition, a causal effect of genetically predicted high WC (OR = 1.870, 95% CI = 1.594–2.192, P < 0.001) on a higher risk of T2DM was found. In further analysis, WC mediated approximately 26.75% (95% CI = 24.20%–29.30%) of the causal association between ADHD and T2DM.
WC mediates a substantial proportion of the causal effect of ADHD on the risk of T2DM, which indicated that the risk of T2DM induced by ADHD could be indirectly reduced by controlling WC as a main risk factor.
Carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli (CR-GNB) colonization screening was initiated across high-risk departments (PICU, NICU, neonatal wards, and hematology departments) in January 2017, and several CR-GNB cohort and patient-placement strategies were introduced throughout the hospital in January 2018. The colonization and infection rates decreased to varying degrees from 2017 to 2021.
There is still controversy about optimal dietary iodine intake as the Universal Salt Iodization policy enforcement in China. A modified iodine balance study was thus conducted to explore the suitable iodine intake in Chinese adult males using the iodine overflow hypothesis. In this study, thirty-eight apparently healthy males (19·1 (sd 0·6) years) were recruited and provided with designed diets. After the 14-d iodine depletion, daily iodine intake gradually increased in the 30-d iodine supplementation, consisting of six stages and each of 5 d. All foods and excreta (urine, faeces) were collected to examine daily iodine intake, iodine excretion and the changes of iodine increment in relation to those values at stage 1. The dose–response associations of iodine intake increment with excretion increment were fitted by the mixed effects models, as well as with retention increment. Daily iodine intake and excretion were 16·3 and 54·3 μg/d at stage 1, and iodine intake increment increased from 11·2 μg/d at stage 2 to 118·0 μg/d at stage 6, while excretion increment elevated from 21·5 to 95·0 μg/d. A zero iodine balance was dynamically achieved as 48·0 μg/d of iodine intake. The estimated average requirement and recommended nutrient intake were severally 48·0 and 67·2 μg/d, which could be corresponded to a daily iodine intake of 0·74 and 1·04 μg/kg per d. The results of our study indicate that roughly half of current iodine intakes recommendation could be enough in Chinese adult males, which would be beneficial for the revision of dietary reference intakes.
The resurgence and outbreaks of mumps occur frequently in many countries worldwide in recent years, even in countries with high vaccination coverage. In this study, a descriptive and spatiotemporal clustering analysis at the township level was conducted to explore the dynamic spatiotemporal aggregation and epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Wuhan. During 2005 and 2019, there were 40 685 cases reported in Wuhan, with an average annual morbidity of 28.11 per 100 000 populations. The morbidity showed a fluctuating tendency, and peaked in 2010 and 2018. Bimodal seasonality was found, with a large peak between May and July, and a mild peak from November to January in the following year. Male students aged 5–9-year-old were the main risk group of mumps infection. Significant global spatial auto-correlation was detected except in 2007, 2009 and 2015. The spatial and temporal scan statistics indicated that the hot-spots mainly located at the western and southern areas of Wuhan with variations almost every year. Our findings could assist the public health authorities to develop and improve targeted health strategies, and allocate health resources rationally.
The Lochkovian, Pragian, and basal part of the Emsian, which represent the post-Kwangsian Orogeny strata in the South China Block, are mainly composed of siliciclastic rocks. This lithological composition impedes investigation of Pragian and Lochkovian conodont biostratigraphy in the South China Block, which results in a persistent controversy on the age of relevant lithological units. The present study provides new evidence by reporting for the first time Lochkovian conodonts obtained from the South China Block, specifically the Gaoling Member of the Nahkaoling Formation at the Lingli section, central Guangxi. The conodont fauna, consisting of Pandorinellina exigua lingliensis Lu n. subsp., Pandorinellina exigua exigua, Zieglerodina? tuojiangensis Lu n. sp., Amydrotaxis praejohnsoni, and Eognathodus cf. E. irregularis, places the studied interval of the Gaoling Member in the lower or middle Lochkovian (contingent upon varying definitions for the base of the middle Lochkovian) to lower Pragian. Moreover, Amydrotaxis praejohnsoni, which was reported previously only in North America and eastern Australia, is herein also recorded in the South China Block, and thus may play an important role in intercontinental biostratigraphical correlation. By shedding light on the age of the upper limit of the underlying Lianhuashan Formation at the Lingli section, the present study indicates that the Kwangsian Orogeny ended before the late Lochkovian. This date is slightly earlier than the previously estimated late Lochkovian based on studies of fossil plants from the siliciclastic rocks deposited after the Kwangsian Orogeny.
As optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has been widely adopted for the generation of extreme intensity laser sources, nonlinear crystals of large aperture are demanded for high-energy amplifiers. Yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCa4O(BO3)3, YCOB) is capable of being grown with apertures exceeding 100 mm, which makes it possible for application in systems of petawatt scale. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge, an ultra-broadband non-collinear optical parametric amplifier with YCOB for petawatt-scale compressed pulse generation at 800 nm. Based on the SG-II 5 PW facility, amplified signal energy of approximately 40 J was achieved and pump-to-signal conversion efficiency was up to 42.3%. A gain bandwidth of 87 nm was realized and supported a compressed pulse duration of 22.3 fs. The near-field and wavefront aberration represented excellent characteristics, which were comparable with those achieved in lithium triborate-based amplifiers. These results verified the great potential for YCOB utilization in the future.
We demonstrate an ultra-broadband high temporal contrast infrared laser source based on cascaded optical parametric amplification, hollow-core fiber (HCF) and second harmonic generation processes. In this setup, the spectrum of an approximately 1.8 μm laser pulse has near 1 μm full bandwidth by employing an argon gas-filled HCF. Subsequently, after frequency doubling with cascaded crystals and dispersion compensation by a fused silica wedge pair, 9.6 fs (~3 cycles) and 150 μJ pulses centered at 910 nm with full bandwidth of over 300 nm can be generated. The energy stability of the output laser pulse is excellent with 0.8% (root mean square) over 20 min, and the temporal contrast is >1012 at –10 ps before the main pulse. The excellent temporal and spatial characteristics and stability make this laser able to be used as a good seed source for ultra-intense and ultrafast laser systems.
The highly nonlinear evolution of the single-mode stratified compressible Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) is investigated via direct numerical simulation over a range of Atwood numbers ($A_T=0.1$–$0.9$) and Mach numbers ($Ma=0.1$–$0.7$) for characterising the isothermal background stratification. After the potential stage, it is found that the bubble is accelerated to a velocity which is well above the saturation value predicted in the potential flow model. Unlike the bubble re-acceleration behaviour in quasi-incompressible RTI with uniform background density, the characteristics in the stratified compressible RTI are driven by not only vorticity accumulation inside the bubble but also flow compressibility resulting from the stratification. Specifically, in the case of strong stratification and high $A_T$, the flow compressibility dominates the bubble re-acceleration characters. To model the effect of flow compressibility, we propose a novel model to reliably describe the bubble re-acceleration behaviours in the stratified compressible RTI, via introducing the dilatation into the classical model that takes into account only vorticity accumulation.