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Breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) is a promising indicator of iodine status in lactating women. However, there is limited data on its usefulness to reflect maternal iodine deficiency. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess iodine concentration in breast milk and urine samples in exclusively breastfeeding women. Eligible pregnant women undergoing routine antenatal care in a large hospital in Shaanxi Province, China, were followed up from the third trimester of pregnancy until the first week of lactation. Urine samples (20 mL) were collected during pregnancy and lactation. Iodine concentration in samples were measured based on Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. Breast milk samples (5 mL) were provided during lactation. A Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) was constructed to determine the diagnostic performance of BMIC. An iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was completed twice during pregnancy and lactation. A total of 200 women completed the study. The overall median BMIC was 89 μg/L, indicating iodine sufficiency (i.e., BMIC reference range between 60 and 465 μg/L). Women reported similar median UIC during pregnancy and lactation (112 and 113 μg/L, respectively), but their iodine status differed — mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy and iodine sufficiency during lactation. The ROC for BMIC using UIC as a reference standard was 0.755 (95% CI: 0.644., 0.866). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that women were iodine sufficient in the first week of lactation as assessed by UIC, which was consistent with BMIC. These findings suggested that BMIC is a useful biomarker to assess iodine status in lactating women.
An experimental investigation of the stereocamera's systematic error is carried out to optimize three-dimensional (3-D) dust observation on the HL-2A tokamak. It is found that a larger 3-D region occupied by all calibration points is able to reduce the 3-D reconstruction systematic error of the stereocamera. In addition, the 3-D reconstruction is the most accurate around the region where the calibration points are located. Based on these experimental results, the design of the stereocamera on the HL-2A tokamak is presented, and a set of practical procedures to optimize the 3-D reconstruction accuracy of the stereocamera are proposed.
The Huangshaping deposit is unique in southern Hunan Province, China, as it hosts economic reserves of both W–Mo and Pb–Zn mineralization, which are usually associated with granite and granodiorite porphyry in this area, respectively. This study reports results of in situ LA-MC-ICP-MS sulphur isotopic composition analyses conducted on sulphides from both W–Mo and Pb–Zn mineralization from the Huangshaping deposit with the aim of constraining ore genesis for this deposit. All samples from the proximal W–Mo mineralization have relatively uniform and high δ34S values (8.7 ‰ to 16.0 ‰), close to the range for carbonate sediments in this deposit (13.8 ‰ to 18.1 ‰). These patterns suggest that the granite porphyry in this deposit was the sulphur source for W–Mo mineralization, and that the assimilation of evaporite from the carbonate sediments led to the high δ34S values of the granite porphyry. Sulphides from the Pb–Zn mineralization have δ34S values (2.2 ‰ to 10.3 ‰) lower than those of the W–Mo mineralization, and generally increase in this paragenetic order, with the lowest δ34S values being similar to those of the basement (3.8 ‰ to 7.7 ‰). These patterns indicate that the original sulphur for the Pb–Zn mineralization was most likely derived from the basement, with input of sulphur from the carbonate sediments increasing during the evolution of ore-forming fluids. On the basis of the measured sulphur isotopic compositions, it is suggested that the ore-forming materials for the W–Mo mineralization were derived from the granite porphyry, whereas ore-forming materials extracted from the basement dominated the Pb–Zn mineralization.
The Lochkovian (Lower Devonian) conodont biostratigraphy in China is poorly known, and conodont-based subdivision schemes for the Lochkovian in peri-Gondwana (the Spanish Central Pyrenees, the Prague Synform, Sardinia, and the Carnic Alps) have not been tested in China. Therefore, we studied conodonts from the lower part (Bed 9 to Bed 13) of the Shanjiang Formation at the Alengchu section of Lijiang, western Yunnan to test the application of established subdivision schemes. The conodont fauna is assignable to 12 taxa belonging to eight genera (Ancyrodelloides, Flajsella, Lanea, Wurmiella, Zieglerodina, Caudicriodus, Pelekysgnathus, and Pseudooneotodus), and enables recognition of two chronostratigraphical intervals from the lower part of the Shanjiang Formation. The interval ranging from the uppermost part of Bed 9 to the upper part of Bed 10 belongs to the lower Lochkovian; whereas an interval covering the uppermost part of Bed 11 to the upper part of Bed 13 is correlated with the upper half of the middle Lochkovian. The Silurian-Devonian boundary is probably located within Bed 9, in the basal part of the Shanjiang Formation. However, the scarcity of specimens precludes definitive identification of bases of the lower, middle, and upper Lochkovian as well as other conodont zones recognized in peri-Gondwana.
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Fangcang shelter hospitals were opened in Wuhan, China, to isolate and care for patients with mild or moderate symptoms. The patients and staff in the hospitals faced mental health challenges. This paper reports the experiences and mental health needs from them.
Following the qualitative design, semi-structured interviews were conducted in the EastWest Lake Fangcang Shelter Hospital, Wuhan on March 2020. Data collection and analysis was based on grounded theory. Open coding was adapted and a structured codebook was developed through coding seminars. The themes and subthemes were then confirmed through thematic analysis. The findings were further explained and integrated in a theoretical framework.
A total of 10 COVID-19 patients and 13 staff, including doctors, nurses, psychiatrists, and policemen participated in the interviews. They have common needs, as well as their own needs. The perspectives from the staff also did complement for needs of the patients. The mental health needs were generalized into four themes, that is, basic needs, information and communication, emotional needs, and social support, each with several subthemes. In addition, there were some external factors that regulated the internal needs, which were summarized in a theoretical framework.
The study indicates the directions on hospital management, mental health services, policy making, and social work to meet the mental health needs of the inpatients and staff from temporary shelter hospitals like Fangcang in Wuhan during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This research communication addressed the hypothesis that late lactation cows offered an oat-grain-based supplement or a high level of α-TOC supplementation at pasture would have improved milk composition and processability. Over a grazing period of 49 d, 48 Holstein Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were: control, pasture only (CTRL), pasture + 2.65 kg DM barley-based concentrate + 350 IU α-TOC/kg (BARLO), pasture + 2.65 kg DM oat-based concentrate + 350 IU α-TOC/kg (OATLO) and pasture + 2.65 kg DM oat-based concentrate + 1050 IU α-TOC/kg (OATHI). Within this randomised complete block design experiment cows were blocked on days in milk (DIM) and balanced for parity, milk yield and composition. Rennet coagulation time (RCT) was reduced in milk from cows offered OATHI compared to CTRL cows and OATLO. Concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was increased by OATHI compared to OATLO and in OATLO compared to CTRL. Supplementation with OATHI reduced individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in milk compared to OATLO. In conclusion, supplementing grazing dairy cows with an oat-based supplement improved total milk CLA concentration compared to pasture only. Offering a high level of α-TOC (2931 IU/d) to dairy cows reduced RCT, individual SFA and increased total CLA concentration of milk compared to a lower α-TOC level (738 IU α-TOC/d).
Examine mother–son, mother–daughter, father–son and father–daughter resemblance in weight status, and potential modifying effects of socio-demographic and childcare characteristics.
1973 school-age children and their parents from five mega-cities across China in 2017.
Pearson correlation coefficients (r) for BMI of father–son, father–daughter, mother–son and mother–daughter pairs were 0·16, 0·24, 0·26 and 0·24, respectively, while their weighted kappa coefficients (k) were 0·09, 0·14, 0·04 and 0·15, respectively. Children aged 6–9 years (r ranged from 0·30 to 0·35) had larger BMI correlation with their parents than their counterparts aged 10–14 years or 15–17 years (r ranged from 0·15 to 0·24). Children residing at home (r ranged from 0·17 to 0·27) had greater BMI correlations with their parents than children residing at school/other places. BMI correlation coefficients were significant if children were mainly cared for by their mothers (r ranged from 0·17 to 0·29) but non-significant if they were mainly cared for by others. Only children who ate the same meal as their parents ‘most times’ (r ranged from 0·17 to 0·27) or had dinner with their parents ‘at most times’ (r ranged from 0·21 to 0·27) had significant BMI correlation with their parents. Similarly, children who had dinner with their parents ‘most times’ but not ‘sometimes,’ had significant BMI correlation coefficients.
Parent–child resemblance in weight status was modest and varied by child age, gender, primary caregiver, whether having similar food or dinner with parents in China.
Hypothermia (core temperature <36°C) during major surgeries could result in a number of adverse events such as surgical site infection, bleeding, and prolonged hospital stay. The incidence of intraoperative hypothermia was 44.3 percent in China in 2015, with only 10.7 percent of patients receiving effective hypothermia prevention measures during major surgeries. By systematically examining the adverse risks for patients using different warming measures (active and passive), our study discussed the potential of bringing the most effective one(s) into clinical guidelines.
Articles, ongoing trials and grey literatures were retrieved from PubMed, The Cochrane Library and Clinical Trials till February 2019. Bair HuggerTM (BH) was determined to be the reference group and all randomized controlled trials including BH were included. In the control group, we kept all possible warming measures. Adverse effect indicators were decided using scoping reviews and then applied in literature screening. Type (open/endoscopic) and length of surgery were included in sub-group analysis.
A total of forty-two studies were included, with twenty-seven of them passive insulation measures and fifteen active measures. Compared with passive measures, BH had significant advantages, such as in surgical site infection (risk ratio [RR] = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05, 0.80), chills (RR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.54) and hospitalization stay (mean difference [MD]=−1.27d, 95% CI: -2.05, -0.48). Compared with active insulation measures, BH had no significant advantages. Patients with open or longer surgeries (≥2 hours) experienced higher risks.
Generally, an active warming system is more effective in lowering risks (e.g., hypothermia, surgical site infection, chills, length of stay) than passive ones, especially for patients going through non-endoscopic or longer surgeries. Among the active warming systems, BH does the same job as other active insulation measures. Given that the practice of peri-operative hypothermia prevention using active warming systems is not popular in China, the use of BH and other active insulation measures during major surgeries are recommended to improve the safety and potentially reduce the cost of treating those clinical adverse events.
Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection in Wuhan City, China, pediatric cases have gradually increased. It is very important to prevent cross-infection in pediatric fever clinics, to identify children with fever in pediatric fever clinics, and to strengthen the management of pediatric fever clinics. According to prevention and control programs, we propose the guidance on the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period, which outlines in detail how to optimize processes, prevent cross-infection, provide health protection, and prevent disinfection of medical staff. The present consideration statement summarizes current strategies on the pre-diagnosis, triage, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection, which provides practical suggestions on strengthening the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period.
Birth weight influences not only brain development, but also mental health outcomes, including depression, but the underlying mechanism is unclear.
The phenotypic data of 12,872–91,009 participants (59.18–63.38% women) from UK Biobank were included to test the associations between the birth weight, depression, and brain volumes through the linear and logistic regression models. As birth weight is highly heritable, the polygenic risk scores (PRSs) of birth weight were calculated from the UK Biobank cohort (154,539 participants, 56.90% women) to estimate the effect of birth weight-related genetic variation on the development of depression and brain volumes. Finally, the mediation analyses of step approach and mediation analysis were used to estimate the role of brain volumes in the association between birth weight and depression. All analyses were conducted sex stratified to assess sex-specific role in the associations.
We observed associations between birth weight and depression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.968, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.957–0.979, p = 2.29 × 10−6). Positive associations were observed between birth weight and brain volumes, such as gray matter (B = 0.131, p = 3.51 × 10−74) and white matter (B = 0.129, p = 1.67 × 10−74). Depression was also associated with brain volume, such as left thalamus (OR = 0.891, 95% CI = 0.850–0.933, p = 4.46 × 10−5) and right thalamus (OR = 0.884, 95% CI = 0.841–0.928, p = 2.67 × 10−5). Additionally, significant mediation effects of brain volume were found for the associations between birth weight and depression through steps approach and mediation analysis, such as gray matter (B = –0.220, p = 0.020) and right thalamus (B = –0.207, p = 0.014).
Our results showed the associations among birth weight, depression, and brain volumes, and the mediation effect of brain volumes also provide evidence for the sex-specific of associations.
The fracture toughness of 617 Ni-based weld metal (WM) under different elevated temperatures was tested with a novel method and its fracture mechanism was investigated in this paper. It was found that the fracture toughness of WM was lower than that of base metal (BM) at the same temperature, which was mainly due to the coarse columnar structure, differences in misorientation, and precipitated phases. For both BM and WM, the fracture toughness was lower at elevated temperature due to decreased strength. Much more micro-voids caused by Ti(C, N) and M23C6 inside grains of BM could be observed adjacent to the crack path, which accounted for the dramatically decreased fracture toughness of BM at elevated temperature. In comparison, fewer micro-voids could be observed in WM due to the lack of those second particles. As a result, the J0.2 value and propagation path morphology both showed that the WM had more stable microstructure even though possessing lower toughness.
This paper presents a soft robot which can imitate the crawling locomotion of an earthworm. Locomotion of the robot can be achieved by expanding and contracting the body that is made of flexible material. A link of the earthworm-like robot is combined with three modules, and a multi-cavity earthworm-like soft robot is combined with multiple links. The multiple links of the earthworm-like soft robot are fabricated by silicone in the three-dimensional printed customized molds. Experiments on a single module, two-links, and three-links show that the soft robot can move and bend on condition of modules extension and contraction in a specified gait. The development of the earthworm-like soft robot shows a great prospect in many complicated environments such as pipeline detection.