To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Response to lithium in patients with bipolar disorder is associated with clinical and transdiagnostic genetic factors. The predictive combination of these variables might help clinicians better predict which patients will respond to lithium treatment.
To use a combination of transdiagnostic genetic and clinical factors to predict lithium response in patients with bipolar disorder.
This study utilised genetic and clinical data (n = 1034) collected as part of the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi+Gen) project. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were computed for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, and then combined with clinical variables using a cross-validated machine-learning regression approach. Unimodal, multimodal and genetically stratified models were trained and validated using ridge, elastic net and random forest regression on 692 patients with bipolar disorder from ten study sites using leave-site-out cross-validation. All models were then tested on an independent test set of 342 patients. The best performing models were then tested in a classification framework.
The best performing linear model explained 5.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response and was composed of clinical variables, PRS variables and interaction terms between them. The best performing non-linear model used only clinical variables and explained 8.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response. A priori genomic stratification improved non-linear model performance to 13.7% (P = 0.0001) and improved the binary classification of lithium response. This model stratified patients based on their meta-polygenic loadings for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia and was then trained using clinical data.
Using PRS to first stratify patients genetically and then train machine-learning models with clinical predictors led to large improvements in lithium response prediction. When used with other PRS and biological markers in the future this approach may help inform which patients are most likely to respond to lithium treatment.
Driving and stopping driving present challenging issues for older people living with memory problems and the family members supporting them. Changes to driving status impact the individual stopping driving and their family members. CarFreeMe is an existing, effective driving cessation program for older people that may be applicable to older people living with dementia. The purpose of this study was to adapt the program and explore feasibility and key stakeholder perspectives.
The Medical Research Council guidelines for conducting research into complex interventions guided the development, acceptability and feasibility piloting. A multidisciplinary approach was taken, and key stakeholders were involved throughout the process. This included an adaptation process, followed by expert reference group feedback and case series pilot study.
The background research indicated that some key changes were required to meet the needs of people living with dementia. Aspects of the content, language, format and activities were adapted and an additional module was created for family members – whose involvement was identified as important. A more personalized, flexible approach was recommended. The expert reference group [psychologists (n = 2), occupational therapists (n = 3) and dementia behavior consultants (n = 2)] indicated the program was appropriate and needed, and made recommendations for feasibility. Pilot testing with three families indicated acceptability.
A driving cessation program adapted for use with people living with dementia and their families required some changes to meet the needs and situations based on feedback from key stakeholders. Future studies will evaluate implementation outcomes across a range of settings.
We prospectively assessed the (1) frequency and socio-economic correlates of takeaway food consumption during adolescence; and (2) association between frequent takeaway food consumption with intakes of major food groups and anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP). In total, 699 Sydney schoolchildren (380 girls and 319 boys) who had dietary data at both 12 and 17 years of age were included for analyses. Takeaway food consumption was self-reported and based on a single question. Anthropometric measures and BP were collected. The proportion of participants who ate takeaway foods once per week or more increased significantly over 5 years from the age of 12 to 17 years: 35·5–44·1 % (P<0·0001). In total, 12-year-old girls compared with boys had reduced odds of takeaway foods once per week or more at the age of 17 years (P=0·01), multivariable-adjusted OR 0·63 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·90). In total, 12-year-old children who ate takeaway foods once per week or more had significantly lower mean fruit (220·3 v. 253·0 g/d; P=0·03) and vegetable consumption (213·2 v. 247·7 g/d; P=0·004), 5 years later (at 17 years of age). Frequent takeaway food consumption at the age of 12 years was not associated with anthropometric indices and BP at the age of 17 years. Consumption of takeaway foods became more frequent during adolescence, particularly among boys, and it was associated with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables.
The Balanced Menus Challenge (BMC) is a national effort to bring the healthiest, most sustainably produced meat available into health-care settings to preserve antibiotic effectiveness and promote good nutrition. The present study evaluated the outcomes of the BMC in the Maryland/Washington, DC region.
The BMC is a cost-effective programme whereby participating hospitals reduce meat purchases by 20 % of their budget, then invest the savings into purchasing sustainably produced meat. A mixed-methods retrospective assessment was conducted to assess (i) utilization of the BMC ‘implementation toolkit’ and (ii) achievement of the 20 % reduction in meat purchases. Previous survey data were reviewed and semi-structured interviews were conducted.
Hospitals located in the Maryland/Washington, DC region, USA, that adopted the BMC.
Twelve hospitals signed the BMC in the Maryland/Washington, DC region and six were available for interview.
Three hospitals in the Maryland/Washington, DC region that signed the BMC tracked their progress and two achieved a reduction in meat procurement by ≥20 %. One hospital demonstrated that the final outcome goal of switching to a local and sustainable source for meat is possible to achieve, at least for a portion of the meal budget. The three hospitals that reduced meat purchases also received and used the highest number of BMC implementation tools. There was a positive correlation between receipt and usage of implementation tools (r=0·93, P=0·005).
The study demonstrates that hospitals in the Maryland/Washington, DC region that sign the BMC can increase the amount of sustainably produced meat purchased and served.
Driving cessation has demonstrated impacts on well-being and lifestyle. Despite the recognized reluctance of older people to plan for driving cessation, this study has identified a new group who has a stated plan to stop driving within 12 months. Although gradual reduction of driving has been documented as part of the usual driving cessation, this study explored the differences between retired drivers and those with a stated plan to retire within 12 months in sociodemographic, well-being and lifestyle outcomes.
This study extracted all baseline data from a clinical trial exploring the effectiveness of a group program for older retiring and retired drivers. Sociodemographic data included age, gender, health status, educational level, and living situation. All participants completed measures related to episodes away from home, well-being, and lifestyle. These were compared using parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis.
Participants (n = 131) included 68 retired drivers (mean age 79.8 years) and 63 retiring drivers (mean age 77.8 years). Retiring drivers engaged in more episodes away from home (p = 0.03), and more social activities (p = 0.02), used less alternative transport (p < 0.001), displayed fewer anxiety (p = 0.05), and depressive (p = 0.01) symptoms, but demonstrated lower transport and lifestyle self-efficacy (p = 0.04).
Both retired and retiring drivers require support for driving cessation and community engagement. Retiring drivers may be in a critical position to engage in driving cessation interventions to improve self-efficacy and begin adapting community mobility.
We aimed to establish associations of duration of breast-feeding with mean BMI and waist circumference, as well as the likelihood of being overweight/obese, during early childhood.
Cross-sectional, population-based study. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured and BMI calculated. Interviewer-administered questionnaire determined whether the child was ever breast-fed and the duration of breast-feeding.
Infants and pre-school children (n 2092) aged 1–6 years were examined in the Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study during 2007–2009.
Of the children aged 1–6 years, 1270 had been breast-fed compared with 822 who were never breast-fed. After multivariable adjustment, 1–6-year-old children who were ever breast-fed compared with those who were not had significantly lower BMI, 16·7 (se 0·1) kg/m2v. 17·1 (se 0·2) kg/m2 (P = 0·01). Decreasing BMI was associated with increasing duration of breast-feeding (Ptrend = 0·002). After multivariable adjustment, each month increase in breast-feeding was associated with an average BMI decrease of 0·04 kg/m2 (P = 0·002) and 0·03 kg/m2 (P = 0·03) among children aged 1–2 years and 3–4 years, respectively. In 1–2-year-old children, each month increase in breast-feeding duration was associated with a 0·06 cm decrease in waist circumference (P = 0·04). Significant associations were not observed among 5–6-year-old children. Children who were ever breast-fed v. those never breast-fed were less likely to be overweight/obese (multivariable-adjusted OR = 0·54; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·83).
We demonstrated a modest influence of breast-feeding on children's BMI during early childhood, particularly among those aged less than 5 years.
Background: This study explored the transport and lifestyle issues of older retired and retiring drivers participating in the University of Queensland Driver Retirement Initiative (UQDRIVE), a group program to promote adjustment to driving cessation for retired and retiring older drivers.
Methods: A mixed method research design explored the impact of UQDRIVE on the transport and lifestyle issues of 55 participants who were of mean age 77.9 years and predominantly female (n = 40). The participants included retired (n = 32) and retiring (n = 23) drivers. Transport and lifestyle issues were identified using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and rated pre- and post-intervention.
Results: Paired t-tests demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in performance (t = 10.5, p < 0.001) and satisfaction (t = 9.9, p < 0.001) scores of individual issues. Qualitative content analysis identified three categories of issues including: protecting my lifestyle; a better understanding of transport options; and being prepared and feeling okay.
Conclusions: Participation in UQDRIVE had a positive and significant effect on the issues of the participants. The results highlight that although all participants stated issues related predominantly to practical concerns, there were trends in the issues identified by the drivers and retired drivers that were consistent with their current phase of the driving cessation process.