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Convergence liberalism has emerged as a prominent interpretation of public reason liberalism. Yet, while its main rival in the public reason literature—the Rawlsian consensus account of public reason—has faced serious scrutiny regarding its ability to secure equal citizenship for all members of society, especially for members of historically subordinated groups, convergence liberalism has not. With this article, we hope to start a discussion about convergence liberalism and its (in)ability to address group-based social inequalities. In particular, we aim to show that given the core features of the view and real-world pluralism, the policies needed to secure gender equality and protect equal citizenship for women will not be justified. We make our case by considering various inequalities that are due to the gendered division of labor and potential convergence liberal responses.
Because of interest in monitoring crop response to weed interference, greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate interference of purple and yellow nutsedge on the growth, development, and spectral response of cotton and soybean. Cotton fresh weight was reduced 9 to 42% compared with the control when grown with yellow and purple nutsedge. Fresh weight of soybean was reduced 27 to 60% when it emerged simultaneously with yellow nutsedge and 45 to 63% when it emerged 7 d after yellow nutsedge. Soybean fresh weight was reduced 30 to 35% when it emerged simultaneously with purple nutsedge and 44 to 72% when it emerged 7 d after purple nutsedge. Reflectance data were analyzed using wavelet transformation techniques with the HAAR mother wavelet. Nine extracted features from the cotton and soybean leaf reflectance measurements were used to classify single-leaf cotton and soybean reflectance measurements to predict whether cotton or soybean was growing in the presence or absence of purple and yellow nutsedge. After training the system, the ability to separate leaf reflectance measurements of crops growing weed free from those growing in the presence of purple and yellow nutsedge was tested using cross-validation with the nearest mean classifier. Cross-validation accuracy results for cotton were 62 to 70%. Cross-validation accuracy for soybean and yellow nutsedge was similar, regardless of emergence, and ranged from 60 to 71%. Features extracted from the soybean reflectance measurements were not as effective in classifying soybean leaf reflectance measurements based on the presence or absence of purple nutsedge. A decrease in accuracy was observed for both simultaneous and delayed soybean emergence in purple nutsedge fresh weight categories from more than 2,560 g to more than 3,420 g. Overall, the system correctly classified soybean emerging simultaneously with purple nutsedge 58 to 74% and soybean emerging 7 d after purple nutsedge 53 to 67%. These results indicate the potential of differentiating crops under stress using spectral reflectance, although refinements to the system must be made before it is field ready.
Pendimethalin is commonly applied for PRE weed control in container nursery production. Field and laboratory trials were conducted to determine herbicide effectiveness and leaching of two pendimethalin formulations in pine bark, the primary component used in the growing medium of container-grown plants in the South. The microencapsulated (ME) formulation of pendimethalin gave lower control of southern crabgrass and leached deeper than the emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation in pine bark. The EC formulation controlled southern crabgrass 93% compared with only 70% with the ME formulation at 4.48 kg ai ha−1. After applying 3.4 kg ai ha−1 pendimethalin and 17.8 cm of irrigation water, the ME formulation showed greater leaching into the 3- to 6- and 6- to 9-cm depths than the EC formulation on the basis of a southern crabgrass bioassay. Using a microwave extraction method, only 0.91 mg kg−1 pendimethalin was found in the 3- to 6-cm pine bark depth compared with 4.0 mg kg−1 for the ME formulation. Below the 6-cm depth, no pendimethalin was detected when the EC formulation was applied, but 0.5 ppm was found for the ME formulation. No pendimethalin was detected in effluent collected from irrigation water for the EC; however, 3.0 mg kg−1 was collected from leachate for the ME formulation. Pendimethalin ME is leaching much deeper than the EC formulation in the pine bark profile, which results in lower weed control. This extensive leaching of ME formulation may be due to capsule movement with the irrigation water, combined with a delayed release of pendimethalin, which then binds to the pine bark much lower in the container profile.
In 2003, Natalie Maines of the Dixie Chicks denounced President George W. Bush from a concert stage in London, England leading to serious career consequences for the country music trio. In response to three years of public criticism and radio boycotts, the Dixie Chicks released their single ‘Not Ready to Make Nice’, with an accompanying video critiquing the oppressive institutional power that sought to silence them. Through an analysis of music, text and images in this song, this paper explores how the Dixie Chicks responded to the backlash and regained their voice in the music industry. The paper offers a critical summary of the political incident, an interpretation of the images of symbolic containment and resistance that are prevalent in the video, and an interpretation of the musical elements in relation to the lyrics and images. Through the intersection of lyrics, music and images the Dixie Chicks create a platform of resistance to the social and institutional oppression they experienced.
This essay considers whether liberal political theory has tools with which to count gender, and so gender relations, as political. Can liberal political theory count sub-ordination among the harms of sex inequality that the state ought to correct? Watson defends a version of deliberative democracy—liberalism—as able to place issues of social inequality in the form of hierarchical social identities at the center of its normative commitments, and so at the center of securing justice.
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