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International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11) has inserted complex post-traumatic stress disorder (cPTSD) as a clinically distinct disorder, different from PTSD. The diagnosis of cPTSD has the same requirements for the one of PTSD, in addition to disturbances of self-organization (DSO – e.g., disturbances in relationships, affect dysregulation, and negative self-concept).
This study aimed to explore suicidality in PTSD and cPTSD. We examined also the association between clinical dimensions of hopelessness (feelings, loss of motivation, future expectations) and other symptomatologic variables.
The sample, recruited at the Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, consisted of 189 subjects, 132 diagnosed with PTSD, and 57 with cPTSD, according to the ICD-11 criteria. Participants underwent the following clinical assessments: Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS).
cPTSD showed significantly higher BHS-total (p = 0.01) and BHS-loss of motivation subscale (p <0.001) scores than PTSD. Besides, cPTSD showed significantly higher scores in all clinical variables except for the IES-intrusive subscale. By controlling for the confounding factor “depression”, suicidality in cPTSD (and in particular the BHS-total) appears to be correlated with IES-total score (p = 0.042) and with DES-Absorption (p = 0.02). Differently, no such correlations are found in PTSD.
Our study shows significant symptomatologic differences between PTSD and cPTSD, including suicidality. Indeed, suicidality in cPTSD appears to be correlated with the “loss of motivation” dimension, which fits well within the ICD-11 criteria of DSO.
Brain connectivity changes have been recently demonstrated in victims of psychological traumas treated with the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR).
Forty victims of psychological traumas were investigated at the first EMDR session (t0) and at the last one performed after processing the index trauma (t1).
To investigate differences in EEG functional source connectivity during bilateral ocular stimulation (BS) during EMDR therapy at t0 and t1.
Brain electrical activity during whole EMDR sessions was record with a 37-channel EEG. EEG functional connectivity analysis was based on the lagged phase synchronization (LPS), derived by a two-step eLoreta procedure: dimensionality reduction of inverse matrix from 6239 voxels to 28 regions of interest (ROIs); LPS index computation, for each spectrum band, in all possible ROI pairs.
Significant differences were detected between t0 and t1 in alpha band LPS indexes. A prevalent enhancement in right intrahemispheric functional connectivity was found in t1 respect to t0, particularly among ROI pairs of (a) frontal regions (anterior frontal, orbital frontal, lateral frontal cortices) and limbic structures (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC), (b) frontal regions and associative areas (insula cortex, parietal lobe), (c) ACC and primary visual cortex and (d) ACC and associative areas.
These findings suggest that EMDR efficacy is associated to electrical brain connectivity changes during BS. An enhancement in the right hemisphere alpha band functional connectivity of areas involved in cognitive control, emotional processing and visual associative functions may play a key role in the elaboration of psychological traumas.
During the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) changes of brain electrical activity was recently demonstrated in victims of psychological traumas.
Thirty-one victims of psychological traumas were investigated at the first EMDR session (t0) and at the last one performed after processing the index trauma (t1).
To investigate differences in EEG source activity and EEG source functional connectivity (EEG-SFC) in eyes closed condition before the beginning of t0 and t1 EMDR therapy session.
Electrical source activity was computed by eLORETA from a 37-channel EEG. EEG-SFC analysis was based on the lagged phase synchronization (LPS), derived by a two-step eLORETA procedure: dimensionality reduction of inverse matrix from 6239 voxels to 28 regions of interest (ROIs); LPS indices computation, for each spectrum band, in all possible ROI pairs.
Resting-state EEG source activity resulted in a low frequency increase of posterior cingulate cortex and a high frequency (beta2 and gamma) decrease in right prefrontal and parietal cortex between t0 and t1. Significant enhancements of EEG-SFC were detected in t1 respect to t0 between ROI pairs of theta band right temporo-parahippocampal regions and alpha band fronto-parietal regions.
Significant modifications of resting-state electrical brain activity were present after EMDR therapy. These findings suggest that the elaboration of psychological traumas induced by EMDR produces, in a resting-state condition, an enhancement of activity and functional connectivity of cerebral sources involved in cognitive control and emotional processing.
NGC 205 is a small galaxy (M/M⊙ = 0.7 × 109; MV = −16.6) currently located 36′ NW of M31. It is classified as dE because in ground-based images it appears as an elliptical body. However past investigations have revealed characteristics that are more typical of a disk galaxy: the specific frequency of globular clusters is 1.8; the large scale dynamics shows partial rotational support; there is a significant amount (106M⊙) of rotating gas (molecular and atomic) and dust; the central regions harbor a fairly complex stellar population, including a 100–500 Myr old nucleus surrounded by 50- and 100-Myr old stellar associations (see references in Monaco et al. 2009; M09). Very recently, thanks to hst/acs imaging we have been able to reveal a young central ‘field’ population (M09), extending out to ~40″ in radius (~160 pc). The luminosity function of the main sequence can be fitted with Saviane et al. (2004) model of continuous star formation (SF) from at least ~600 Myr ago to ~60 Myr ago. We found that 1.5 × 105M⊙ in stars were produced from ~300 Myr to ~60 Myr ago, with a SF rate of 7 × 10−4M⊙ yr−1. A continuous SF seems to support the latest simulations of NGC 205 orbit: Howley et al. (2008) found that the galaxy must be moving with a velocity 300–500 km s−1 (comparable to the escape velocity) along an almost radial orbit, and it should be approaching M31 for the first time. An episodic SF triggered by passages through M31 disk every ~300 Myr in a bound orbit (Cepa & Beckman 1988) is excluded by our data.
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