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In recent years, there has been increased use of dicamba due to the introduction of dicamba-resistant cotton and soybean in the United States. Therefore, there is a potential increase in off-target movement of dicamba and injury to sensitive crops. Flue-cured tobacco is extremely sensitive to auxin herbicides, particularly dicamba. In addition to yield loss, residue from drift or equipment contamination can have severe repercussions for the marketability of the crop. Studies were conducted in 2016, 2017, and 2018 in North Carolina to evaluate spray-tank cleanout efficiency of dicamba using various cleaning procedures. No difference in dicamba recovery was observed regardless of dicamba formulation and cleaning agent. Dicamba residue decreased with the number of rinses. There was no difference in dicamba residue recovered from the third rinse compared with residue from the tank after being refilled for subsequent tank use. Recovery ranged from 2% to 19% of the original concentration rate among the three rinses. Field studies were also conducted in 2018 to evaluate flue-cured tobacco response to reduced rates of dicamba ranging, from 1/5 to 1/10,000 of a labeled rate. Injury and yield reductions varied by environment and application timing. When exposed to 1/500 of a labeled rate at 7 and 11 wk after transplanting, tobacco injury ranged from 39% to 53% and 10% to 16% 24 days after application, respectively. The maximum yield reduction was 62%, with a 55% reduction in value when exposed to 112 g ha−1 of dicamba. Correlations showed significant relationships between crop injury assessment and yield and value reductions, with Pearson values ranging from 0.24 to 0.63. These data can provide guidance to growers and stakeholders and emphasize the need for diligent stewardship when using dicamba technology.
Currently, there are seven herbicides labeled for U.S. tobacco production; however, additional modes of action are greatly needed in order to reduce the risk of herbicide resistance. Field experiments were conducted at five locations during the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons to evaluate flue-cured tobacco tolerance to S-metolachlor applied pretransplanting incorporated (PTI) and pretransplanting (PRETR) at 1.07 (1×) and 2.14 (2×) kg ai ha−1. Severe injury was observed 6 wk after transplanting at the Whiteville environment in 2017 when S-metolachlor was applied PTI. End-of-season plant heights from PTI treatments at Whiteville were likewise reduced by 9% to 29% compared with nontreated controls, although cured leaf yield and value were reduced only when S-metolachlor was applied PTI at the 2× rate. Severe growth reduction was also observed at the Kinston location in 2018 where S-metolachlor was applied at the 2× rate. End-of-season plant heights were reduced 11% (PTI, 2×) and 20% (PRETR, 2×) compared with nontreated control plants. Cured leaf yield was reduced in Kinston when S-metolachlor was applied PRETR at the 2× rate; however, treatments did not impact cured leaf quality or value. Visual injury and reductions in stalk height, yield, quality, and value were not observed at the other three locations. Ultimately, it appears that injury potential from S-metolachlor is promoted by coarse soil texture and high early-season precipitation close to transplanting, both of which were documented at the Whiteville and Kinston locations. To reduce plant injury and the negative impacts to leaf yield and value, application rates lower than 1.07 kg ha−1 may be required in these scenarios.
Research was conducted to evaluate absorption, translocation, and metabolism of foliar-applied trifloxysulfuron in flue-cured tobacco. The majority of 14C-trifloxysulfuron was absorbed by 4 h, with an accumulation in the plant of 43% of the radioactivity after 72 h. Translocation of radioactivity did not significantly differ between harvest timings of 4 to 72 h after treatment. Not more than 4% of applied 14C-trifloxysulfuron moved out of the treated leaves of tobacco, whereas less than 1.9% accumulated in any one part. Tobacco metabolized 14C-trifloxysulfuron rapidly, with 60.9% of the absorbed herbicide remaining in the parent herbicide form 4 h after treatment, whereas only 12.1% remained after 72 h. These data suggest that limited absorption and translocation, as well as rapid metabolism, are the basis for tobacco tolerance to foliar-applied trifloxysulfuron and illustrate the potential safe and effective use of trifloxysulfuron in tobacco for POST weed control.
Studies were conducted to evaluate uptake, translocation, and metabolism of root-absorbed 14C-sulfentrazone in peanut, prickly sida, and pitted morningglory. Peanut absorbed more than five and three times greater 14C-sulfentrazone than pitted morningglory and prickly sida, respectively. All plant species translocated appreciable amounts (≥ 39%) of radioactivity to the leaves. The three plant species had some capacity to metabolize 14C-sulfentrazone. At 3 h after treatment, 7, 29, and 71% of the radioactivity in the shoots of peanut, prickly sida, and pitted morningglory, respectively, was sulfentrazone. Sulfentrazone levels in the shoots at 3 and 6 h after treatment correspond to reported tolerance levels, with peanut being the most tolerant of the three species, whereas prickly sida and pitted morningglory are moderately tolerant and completely susceptible to sulfentrazone, respectively. Levels of metabolites varied among species, plant part, and harvest timing. On the basis of these data, tolerance in peanut is largely due to its ability to rapidly metabolize sulfentrazone.
Research was conducted to evaluate root uptake, translocation, and metabolism of 14C-sulfentrazone alone or in a mixture with clomazone in solution in flue-cured tobacco transplants. Uptake and translocation of sulfentrazone was rapid and was not affected by the addition of clomazone. Fifty-nine and 65% of the 14C absorbed by the plant was translocated to the leaves within 24 h with sulfentrazone alone and in the clomazone plus sulfentrazone mixture, respectively. Differences in plant metabolism were observed between sulfentrazone alone and sulfentrazone plus clomazone. After 3 h, 66% of the 14C recovered from the leaves was metabolized when sulfentrazone was applied alone, compared to 91% when sulfentrazone was applied with clomazone. The difference could indicate that metabolism of sulfentrazone by tobacco transplants was enhanced by the presence of clomazone.
Development and utilization of dicamba-, glufosinate-, and 2,4-D-resistant crop cultivars will potentially have a significant influence on weed management in the southern United States. However, off-site movement to adjacent nontolerant crops and other plants is a concern in many areas of eastern North Carolina and other portions of the southeastern United States, especially where sensitive crops are grown. Cotton, peanut, and soybean are not resistant to these herbicides, will most likely be grown in proximity, and applicators will need to consider potential adverse effects on nonresistant crops when these herbicides are used. Research was conducted with rates of glufosinate, dicamba, and 2,4-D designed to simulate drift on cotton, peanut, and soybean to determine effects on yield and quality and to test correlations of visual estimates of percent injury with crop yield and a range of growth and quality parameters. Experiments were conducted in North Carolina near Lewiston-Woodville and Rocky Mount during 2009 and 2010. Cotton and peanut (Lewiston-Woodville and Rocky Mount) and soybean (two separate fields [Rocky Mount] during each year were treated with dicamba and the amine formulation of 2,4-D at 1/2, 1/8, 1/32, 1/128, and 1/512 the manufacturer's suggested use rate of 280 g ai ha−1 and 540 g ai ha−1, respectively. Glufosinate was applied at rates equivalent to 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 the manufacturer's suggested use rate of 604 g ai ha−1. A wide range of visible injury was noted at both 1 and 2 wk after treatment (WAT) for all crops. Crop yield was reduced for most crops when herbicides were applied at the highest rate. Although correlations of injury 1 and 2 WAT with yield were significant (P ≤ 0.05), coefficients ranged from −0.25 to −0.50, −0.36 to −0.62, and −0.40 to −0.67 for injury 1 WAT vs. yield for cotton, peanut, and soybean, respectively. These respective crops had ranges of correlations of −0.17 to −0.43, −0.34 to −0.64, and −0.41 to −0.60 for injury 2 WAT. Results from these experiments will be used to emphasize the need for diligence in application of these herbicides in proximity to crops that are susceptible as well as the need to clean sprayers completely before spraying sensitive crops.
Experiments were conducted to determine tobacco tolerance to CGA-362622 applied pretransplant (PRE-T) and postemergence (POST) to tobacco and applied the previous year preemergence (PRE) and POST to cotton. CGA-362622 applied at 3.75 or 7.5 g ai/ha PRE-T injured ‘K326’ flue-cured tobacco 1%, whereas POST treatments resulted in 4 to 5% injury. Tobacco injury was transient with no mid- or late-season injury noted. Tobacco yields from all CGA-362622 POST treatments were not different from the nontreated weed-free check. Tobacco treated with 7.5 g/ha CGA-362622 PRE-T yielded greater than nontreated weed-free tobacco or tobacco treated with CGA-362622 POST. When grown in rotation, tobacco was not injured, and yields were not influenced by CGA-362622 applied PRE or POST to cotton the previous year.
Field trials were conducted in 2001 at the Tobacco Research Station near Oxford, NC, and in 2002 at the Lower Coastal Plains Research Station near Kinston, NC, to determine tobacco yield, injury, and shikimic acid accumulation in response to simulated glyphosate drift. Glyphosate was applied to 12- to 13-cm-high tobacco ‘K326’ early postemergence at 0, 9, 18, 35, 70, 140, 280, 560, and 1,120 (1×) g ai/ha. Crop injury was rated 7 and 35 d after treatment (DAT) and shikimic acid accumulation in leaves at 7 DAT, tobacco yield, and leaf grade index (whole-plant index of harvest interval leaf value) were also assessed. Shikimic acid accumulation and injury symptoms increased similarly as glyphosate rate increased. Glyphosate rates of 140 g/ha (0.125 of recommended rate) or higher resulted in significant crop injury, reduced tobacco yield, and decreased leaf grade index. Shikimic acid accumulation at 7 DAT was inversely related to tobacco yield. Shikimic acid accumulation was found to be an effective diagnostic tool to determine glyphosate drift in tobacco; however, in-season data are needed to correlate shikimic acid accumulation with yield loss.
The new mythological, magical, and liturgical texts which are published by M. Virolleaud in Ugaritica V are very important. I want to thank Professor Schaeffer for giving me the opportunity to work on these texts. One very important text from this group is text 612 (RS 24.249). M. Virolleaud thinks that we are missing about ten lines from the lower edge or the central portion of the text. This text is the most complete ritual calendar that we have from Ugarit for any one month. Texts 3 and 173 (in Gordon, UT) give us more than one month but they are also very fragmentary. Text 613 (RS 24.253) of the new texts is also a text that covers more than one month but it does not seem to use the same structure as the other texts. At any rate, I think that it is important to use text 612 as a basis for this study, and therefore at the outset I want to give my translation.
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