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Pioneered by the US, recent mega-regional trade agreements such as the CPTPP have incorporated ‘regulatory coherence’ provisions—mirroring the US Administrative Procedural Act's core designs—to balance between domestic regulatory autonomy and international cooperation. Building upon existing literature that traces the trajectories of the diffusion of regulatory coherence across jurisdictions, this article analyses how Australia's constitutional tradition could effectively condition the development of regulatory coherence in a Westminster-based model of governance. It is argued that the global entrenchment of regulatory coherence is contingent upon the inherent boundary defined by the political dynamics and constitutional structures within a jurisdiction.
The relationship of a diet low in fiber with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) attributable to a diet low in fiber globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional, and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4.07 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): [2.08, 6.34]) to 4.60 (95% UI: [2.59, 6.90]), and in Central Sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7.46 (95% UI: [3.64, 11.90]) to 9.34 (95% UI: [4.69, 15.25]). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardized YLDs rates attributable to a diet low in fiber in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increase in Central Asia, Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fiber in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and Central Sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardized YLDs rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fiber.
Central glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been found to play an important role in the interpretation of cognitive abnormalities of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly focused on the extinction failure of fear memory. Potential of using GR antagonist as a pharmacological agent to prevent PTSD-related fear memory disruption is worth investigating.
We aimed to examine whether GR antagonist Mifepristone (RU486) administered before single prolonged stress (SPS) can prevent rats from fear memory extinction impairment.
In the present study, SPS was employed in rats to induce a rodent model of PTSD. 60 minutes before SPS, RU486 (20 mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Seven days after SPS, rats received a protocol of behavioral testing to measure their abilities of specific fear memory (by a cue-dependent fear conditioning paradigm) and nonspecific spatial memory (by T-maze). Neurochemically, we measured plasma corticosterone with or without dexamethasone suppression, activation ratio of GR and levels of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in amygdala, paraventricular nucleus, dorsal and ventral hippocampus.
Our results found that RU486 exerted protective effects on SPS-induced fear extinction impairment. Corticosterone of SPS-RU486 rats was less suppressed by dexamethasone. GR became less activated in dorsal hippocampus of SPS-RU486
The findings supported the utility of GR antagonism in preventing the development of PTSD.