Elemental analysis of dental hard tissues is of importance. The aim of this study is to evaluate X-ray microanalysis (XRMA) of bovine enamel in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with different coatings. The buccal surface of bovine incisors was polished flat, one-third was coated with carbon, one-third with gold, leaving one-third uncoated for XRMA in an SEM equipped with an energy-dispersive microanalysis system. The elements oxygen, sodium, magnesium, phosphorous, chlorine, potassium, and calcium were analyzed using their respective characteristic K X-ray series. Comparisons were made with analyses of glass produced by fusion of the bovine enamel, showing that oxygen analyses using the K X-ray series are reliable and preferable to calculating oxygen by stoichiometry for natural enamel. For the gold-coated and uncoated analyses, carbon was also measured using the K X-ray series. Small area Analyses in small areas (80 × 80 μm) in variable pressure-SEM mode with low vacuum (20 Pa), without any coating, midway between 40 μm wide gold lines 140 μm apart to avoid build-up of electrostatic charge is the preferred method, especially if carbon is included in the analysis. The analyses of bovine enamel are sufficiently reproducible to be regarded as quantitative for all elements except carbon.