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Evidence supporting collection of follow-up blood cultures for Gram-negative bacteremia is mixed. We sought to understand why providers order follow-up blood cultures when managing P. aeruginosa bacteremia and whether follow-up blood cultures in this context are associated with short- and long-term survival.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult inpatients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia at the University of Maryland Medical Center in 2015–2020. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression with time-varying covariates were used to evaluate the association between follow-up blood cultures and time to mortality within 30 days of first positive blood culture. Provider justifications for follow-up blood cultures were identified through chart review.
Of 159 eligible patients, 127 (80%) had follow-up blood cultures, including 9 (7%) that were positive for P. aeruginosa and 10 (8%) that were positive for other organisms. Follow-up blood cultures were typically collected “to ensure clearance” or “to guide antibiotic therapy.” Overall, 30-day mortality was 25.2%. After risk adjustment for patient characteristics, follow-up blood cultures were associated with a nonsignificant reduction in mortality risk (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.08; P = .071). In exploratory analyses, the potential mortality reduction from follow-up blood cultures was driven by their use in patients with Pitt bacteremia scores >0.
Follow-up blood cultures are commonly collected for P. aeruginosa bacteremia but infrequently identify persistent bacteremia. Targeted use of follow-up blood cultures based on severity of illness may reduce unnecessary culturing.
Contract Law: Cases and Materials presents a selection of well-chosen cases and illuminating commentary ideal for introducing students to the study of contract law in Australia. Developed to accompany Stewart, Swain and Fairweather's Contract Law: Principles and Context, this casebook maintains the accessibility of the principles text while providing the depth and analysis of topics required to learn contract law. Following the structure of the principles text, this text explores areas not traditionally covered in other casebooks, such as resolving disputes, preparing to make a contract, preliminary agreements, and interpreting contracts. Each chapter also briefly explores contracts in international contexts. Containing well-chosen, carefully curated cases and extracts, Contract Law: Cases and Materials takes a practical approach to student learning and integrates rich pedagogy to build critical thinking and analysis skills, making it an invaluable resource for contract law students.
Whereas scholars have typically modeled climate change as a global collective action challenge, we offer a dynamic theory of climate politics based on the present and future revaluation of assets. Climate politics can be understood as a contest between owners of assets that accelerate climate change, such as fossil fuel plants, and owners of assets vulnerable to climate change, such as coastal property. To date, obstruction by “climate-forcing” asset holders has been a large barrier to effective climate policy. But as climate change and decarbonization policies proceed, holders of both climate-forcing and “climate-vulnerable” assets stand to lose some or even all of their assets' value over time, and with them, the basis of their political power. This dynamic contest between opposing interests is likely to intensify in many sites of political contestation, from the subnational to transnational levels. As it does so, climate politics will become increasingly existential, potentially reshaping political alignments within and across countries. Such shifts may further undermine the Liberal International Order (LIO); as countries develop pro-climate policies at different speeds and magnitudes, they will have incentives to diverge from existing arrangements over trade and economic integration.
Background: As many as 40% of infants aged ≤12 months and 10%–28% of children aged 13–24 months are colonized by Clostridioides difficile. The IDSA and the SHEA recommend that testing should never be routinely recommended for infants ≤12 months of age and should not be routinely performed for children 1–2 years of age unless other causes are excluded. We report implementation of C. difficile diagnostic stewardship at 2 children’s hospitals. Methods: We implemented age-based restrictions for C. difficile testing at hospital A (∼200-bed, free-standing, children’s hospital) and hospital B (∼100-bed children’s hospital within a larger hospital). Both sites are part of the same multicampus institution, and both used nucleic acid amplification testing to detect C. difficile throughout the study. In May 2018, we implemented an electronic order set for C. difficile that provided alerts to avoid testing young infants and patients with recent use of laxatives, stool softeners, or enemas, but providers could order C. difficile testing at their discretion. In October 2018, we implemented a more restrictive diagnostic stewardship algorithm for C. difficile. No testing was allowed for infants aged ≤12 months. Approval pediatric infectious diseases staff was required to test children aged 13–24 months. Pathology resident approval was required to test children aged ≥24 months who had received laxatives, stool softeners, or enemas within ≤24 hours. Clinical microbiology laboratory supervisors reinforced rejection of nondiarrheal stool specimens for testing. Providers at both campuses were informed about the new testing guidelines by e-mail. We compared the number of tests sent and positive cases of healthcare facility-onset C. difficile (HO-CDI) by age strata before and after the implementation of the restrictive testing algorithm. Results: After the intervention, the number of tests in infants significantly declined; 2 infants aged ≤12 months and 4 infants aged 13–24 months were tested for C. difficile (Table). After the intervention, the number of tests per month declined at hospital A, as did the number of HO-CDI cases at both hospitals. Rejections of nondiarrheal stools significantly increased after the intervention (P < .001). Conclusions:C. difficile diagnostic stewardship for children was successfully implemented using a rule-based alert system in the electronic health record. This intervention was associated with a reduced number of tests sent and cases of HO-CDI. This strategy was cost-saving and prevented misdiagnosis, unnecessary antibiotic therapy, and overestimation of HO-CDI rates.
Anecdotal evidence suggests the use of bolus tube feeding is increasing in the long-term home enteral tube feed (HETF) patients. A cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of bolus tube feeding and to characterise these patients was undertaken. Dietitians from ten centres across the UK collected data on all adult HETF patients on the dietetic caseload receiving bolus tube feeding (n 604, 60 % male, age 58 years). Demographic data, reasons for tube and bolus feeding, tube and equipment types, feeding method and patients’ complete tube feeding regimens were recorded. Over a third of patients receiving HETF used bolus feeding (37 %). Patients were long-term tube fed (4·1 years tube feeding, 3·5 years bolus tube feeding), living at home (71 %) and sedentary (70 %). The majority were head and neck cancer patients (22 %) who were significantly more active (79 %) and lived at home (97 %), while those with cerebral palsy (12 %) were typically younger (age 31 years) but sedentary (94 %). Most patients used bolus feeding as their sole feeding method (46 %), because it was quick and easy to use, as a top-up to oral diet or to mimic mealtimes. Importantly, oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were used for bolus feeding in 85 % of patients, with 51 % of these being compact-style ONS (2·4 kcal (10·0 kJ)/ml, 125 ml). This survey shows that bolus tube feeding is common among UK HETF patients, is used by a wide variety of patient groups and can be adapted to meet the needs of a variety of patients, clinical conditions, nutritional requirements and lifestyles.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Early life stress is known to greatly impact neurodevelopment during critical periods, conferring risk for various psychopathologies, including the onset and exacerbation of schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. The endocannabinoid system is highly integrated into the stress response and may be one means by which early life stress produces such deleterious effects. Using a naturalistic, ecologically valid animal model, this study explored interactions between the stress response and endocannabinoid systems within the cerebellum, a region dense with the CB1 endocannabinoid receptors and shown to be susceptible to stress. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study explored behavioral and neural impacts of early life stress in Long-Evans rats reared with or without limited access to bedding material during postnatal day (PND) 2-9. Corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured at PND8 and 70. During PND50-70, rats were assessed on Novel Object Recognition to test memory, Rotarod to evaluate cerebellar integrity, Elevated Plus Maze to assay anxiety, Social Preference, and Eyeblink Conditioning, a cerebellar-dependent and endocannabinoid-mediated task. Lipid analysis was performed on PND70 tissue samples of cerebellar interpositus (IP) nucleus via high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Both male and female rats experiencing early life stress exhibited significantly impaired recognition memory (N = 16-20/group). Female rats having undergone stress exhibited decreased social preference compared to normally reared females (N = 11/group). Stressed males showed facilitated eyblink conditioning compared to normally reared males (N = 7-9/group). There were no group differences in rotarod or elevated plus maze performance or CORT levels at PND8 or 70 across rearing groups. At PND70, male rats experiencing early life stress exhibited a significant decrease in 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and arachidonic acid levels in the IP nucleus compared to normally reared males (N = 8-9/group). Compared to normally reared females, those experiencing early life stress exhibited a significant increase in prostaglandin E2 levels in the IP nucleus (N = 6-7/group). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Early life stress, induced by limited bedding, resulted in sex-specific behavioral and lipid impairments. Results suggest that stress causes long-term alterations in endocannabinoid dynamics in males in the cerebellar IP nucleus and sex-related lipids in female cerebellum. These changes may contribute to observed long-term behavioral aberrations. Moreover, findings suggest these behavioral changes may be the result of negative-feedback dysfunction (as evidenced by decreased endocannabinoids in males) or increased neural inflammation or proliferation (as evidenced by increased prostaglandins in females). Future analysis will quantify mRNA and protein for cannabinoid receptors to better characterize aberrations to this system. Moreover, other neural regions dense with cannabinoid receptors (i.e., PFC, hippocampus) will be investigated. This work provides a basis for understanding stress impacts on the development of cognitive deficits observed in psychotic and anxiety disorders. Specifically, facilitation of eyblink conditioning complements research in humans with anxiety disorders. Broadly, understanding stress-related endocannabinoid dysregulation may provide insights into risks for, and the development of, psychopathology and uncover novel therapeutic targets with high translational power.
The aim of this study was to compare satisfaction with residence, wellbeing and physical health of continuing care retirement community (CCRC) residents with people who considered enrolling in the same CCRCs but elected not to move. A total of 101 participants were recruited from 13 CCRCs located in multiple cities in the United States of America. A phone interview was conducted with participants three months or less from enrolment and one year later. Compared with those who chose not to move, CCRC residents reported lower satisfaction at baseline, but higher satisfaction at one year. Wellbeing declined from baseline to follow-up for both groups, but was higher in CCRC residents both at baseline and at one year. CCRCs might consider giving new residents a longer cancellation period in order to allow sufficient time for the adjustment process. This, in turn, might both prevent an early departure and affect the decision of potential CCRC residents to move into the community.
Monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins participate in research that partitions variance in health, disease, and behavior into genetic and environmental components. However, there are other innovative roles for twins in medical research. One such way is involving MZ and/or DZ twins in co-twin control-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To our knowledge, no reviews have been conducted that summarizes the involvement of twins in RCTs. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature search using the U.S. Clinical Trials Database, NHS electronic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychINFO for RCTs on publications involving MZ and/or DZ twins as RCT participants. Out of the 186,027 clinical trials registered in the U.S. clinical trial register ClinicaTrails.gov, only six RCTs used twins as participants. From 1,598 articles identified in our search, 50 peer-reviewed English language publications met our pre-defined inclusion criteria. Sample sizes for RCTs have ranged from a total number of participants from 2 to 1,162; however, 32 (64%) studies had a sample size of 100 or less, and of those, 12 (24%) had fewer than 10. Both MZ and DZ twins have been recruited to the RCTs. In most instances (33/50) each twin from a pair were assigned to different study arms. Most of those studies included MZ twins only. Despite the methodological advantages, the use of MZ and DZ twins as participants in interventional RCTs appeared limited. The continuous development of innovative twin designs, especially RCTs, indicates that twin research can extend beyond the more widely recognized heritability estimates.
We sought to gather a comprehensive list of funding strategies and opportunities for emergency medicine (EM) centres across Canada, and make recommendations on how to successfully fund all levels of research activity, including research projects, staff salaries, infrastructure, and researcher stipends.
We formed an expert panel consisting of volunteers recognized nationally for their scholarly work in EM. First, we conducted interviews with academic leaders and researchers to obtain a description of their local funding strategies using a standardized open-ended questionnaire. Panelists then identified emerging funding models. Second, we listed funding opportunities and initiatives at the provincial, national, and international levels. Finally, we used an iterative consensus-based approach to derive pragmatic recommendations after incorporating comments and suggestions from participants at an academic symposium.
Our review of funding strategies identified four funding models: 1) investigator dependent model, 2) practice plan, 3) generous benefactor, and 4) mixed funding. Recommendations in this document include approaches for research contributors and producers (seven recommendations), for local academic leaders (five recommendations), and for national organizations, such as the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) (three recommendations).
Funding for research in EM varies across Canada and is largely insecure. We offer recommendations to help facilitate funding for large and small projects, for salary support, and for local and national leaders to advance EM research. We believe that these recommendations will increase funding for all levels of EM research activity, including research projects, staff salaries, infrastructure, and researcher stipends.
The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain views from general practitioners (GPs) who piloted the electronic risk assessment tools (eRATs) for suspected lung or colorectal cancer. We wanted to find out whether GPs were able to integrate these tools into their everyday practice. We were also keen to identify facilitators and barriers to their more widespread use.
Cancer remains one of UK’s biggest health problems, in terms of morbidity and mortality. Comparative European data show that five-year survival figures for many cancers are lower in the United Kingdom than in comparable European countries. eRATs are intended to aid recognition of symptoms of lung and colorectal cancers in patients aged 40 years and over.
This was a qualitative study; telephone interviews were conducted with 23 GPs who piloted the eRATs. A systematic qualitative analysis was applied to the data. The normalisation process model was used after data collection. This theory-driven conceptual framework was used to examine the operationalisation of this intervention in Primary Care.
Electronic decision-support tools appear to be useful additions to the resources available to GPs in order to assist them with recognizing potential cancer symptoms. However, the tools need to be refined in order to integrate them into GP practice. The tools raised GPs’ awareness about cancer because of the prompt facility of the software, although this also raised the potential of ‘prompt fatigue’. GPs constantly receive alerts via their clinical system, particularly related to the Quality and Outcomes Framework. The integration of eRATs into routine practice could be engendered by improvement to the training packages that accompany them, and by its delivery via a platform compatible with all GP clinical systems.
Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,” published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.
Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and other ventilator-associated events (VAEs) and to improve outcomes for mechanically ventilated adults, children, and neonates. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals,” published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.
Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and other ventilator-associated events (VAEs) and to improve outcomes for mechanically ventilated adults, children, and neonates. This document updates "Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals," published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.
We are undertaking a project (MAGMO) to examine large-scale magnetic fields pervading regions of high-mass star formation. The project will test if the orientations of weak large-scale magnetic fields can be maintained in the contraction (and field amplification) to the high densities encountered in high-mass star forming regions. This will be achieved through correlating targeted observations of ground-state hydroxyl (OH) maser emission towards hundreds of sites of high-mass star formation spread throughout the spiral arms of the Milky Way. Through the Zeeman splitting of the OH maser emission these observations will determine the strength and orientation of the in-situ magnetic field. The completion of the southern hemisphere Methanol Multibeam survey has provided an abundance of targets for ground-state OH maser observations, approximately 1000 sites of high-mass star formation. With this sample, much larger and more homogeneous than previously available, we will have the statistics necessary to outweigh random fluctuations and observe an underlying Galactic magnetic field if it exists. We presented details of the overall progress of the project illustrated by the results of a pilot sample of sources towards the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm tangent, where a coherent field is implied.
The purpose of this study was to determine if different language measures resulted in the same classifications of language dominance and proficiency for a group of bilingual pre-kindergarteners and kindergarteners. Data were analyzed for 1029 Spanish–English bilingual pre-kindergarteners who spanned the full range of bilingual language proficiency. Parent questionnaires were used to quantify age of first exposure and current language use. Scores from a short test of semantic and morphosyntactic development in Spanish and English were used to quantify children's performance. Some children who were in the functionally monolingual range based on interview data demonstrated minimal knowledge of their other languages when tested. Current use accounted for more of the variance in language dominance than did age of first exposure. Results indicate that at different levels of language exposure children differed in their performance on semantic and morphosyntax tasks. These patterns suggest that it may be difficult to compare the results of studies that employ different measures of language dominance and proficiency. Current use is likely to be a useful metric of bilingual development that can be used to build a comprehensive picture of child bilingualism.
First and foremost descriptions of language used by 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old developing African American English (AAE)-speaking children give us some insight into their general patterns and norms of language use. Descriptions such as those in this book serve as a starting point for presenting child AAE as the native variety of some children that they acquire and develop systematically in stages. Owing to ever-present discussions about race, ethnicity, and education, questions about language use and child AAE are often raised in the context of the quest to overcome barriers to academic success. To what extent do differences between AAE and mainstream American English (MAE) impede academic success? This is an important question and considerable focus has been placed on different angles from which the topic is addressed. It is my hope that the information in this book will have practical application in a number of areas and disciplines related to linguistics and that it might be useful not only in showing how the language of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old developing AAE-speaking children differs from that of their peers from other speech communities but also how it is similar to their peers’ language. In trying to learn more about developing-child AAE, it is important to describe it in its own right; however, given what we know about inherent variability in adult AAE, we raise the question about developmental patterns of variation in child AAE, also.
This book can be used in linguistics and general education courses that address properties of developmental and adult AAE and in general courses about early language use in different speech communities. It can also be used in courses designed to introduce teachers, early childhood specialists, and speech pathologists to language patterns in the speech of some African American children. The language samples and linguistic description are geared toward illustrating what is meant by systematic language use and patterns in development. In addition the data collected from scenarios and elicitation tasks should also be useful in discussions about the developmental paths child AAE speakers take in using certain constructions.