To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) required swift preparation to protect healthcare personnel (HCP) and patients, especially in light of personal protective equipment (PPE) shortages. Due to a lack of a pre-existing bio-containment unit, we needed to develop a novel approach to cohort patients while working with the pre-existing physical space.
Prevent disease transmission to non-COVID-19 patients and HCP caring for COVID-19 patients, optimize PPE usage, and provide a comfortable and safe working environment.
An interdisciplinary workgroup developed a combination of approaches to convert existing spaces into COVID-19 containment units with high-risk zones (HRZs). We developed standard workflow and visual management in conjunction with updated staff training and workflows. Infection Prevention created PPE standard practices for ease of use, conservation, and staff safety.
The interventions resulted in one possible case of patient-to-HCP transmission and zero cases of patient-to-patient transmission. PPE usage decreased with the HRZ model while maintaining a safe environment of care. COVID-19 unit staff were extremely satisfied with PPE availability (76.7%) and efforts to protect them from COVID-19 (72.7%). Approximately half of COVID-19 unit HCP agreed (54.8%) that PPE monitors played an essential role in staff safety.
The HRZ model of containment unit is an effective method to prevent the spread of COVID-19 with several benefits. It is easily implemented and scaled to account for census changes. Our experience suggests that other institutions do not need to modify existing physical structures to create similarly protective spaces.
Background: Working while ill, or presenteeism, has been documented at substantial levels among healthcare personnel (HCP) along with its consequences for both patient and HCP safety. Limited literature has been published on HCP presenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic, and specific motivations for this behavior are not well described. Understanding both individual and systemic factors that contribute to presenteeism is key to reducing respiratory illness transmission in the healthcare setting. We characterized the frequency of and motivations for presenteeism in the workforce of a large academic medical center during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: We deployed a voluntary, anonymous electronic survey to HCP at University of North Carolina (UNC) Medical Center in December 2021, which was approved by the UNC Institutional Review Board. We received 591 responses recruited through employee newsletters. Respondents recounted their frequency of presenteeism since March 2020, defined as coming to work feeling feverish plus cough and/or sore throat. In total, 24.6% reported presenteeism at least once, with 8.1% reporting twice and 5.3% 3 or more times. Asking more generally about any symptoms while working, the following were most common: headache (26%), sinus congestion (20%), sore throat (13%), cough (13%), and muscle aches (9.3%). Results: Motivations for presenteeism fell broadly into 4 categories: (1) perception of low risk for COVID-19 infection, (2) concerns about workplace culture and operations, (3) issues with sick leave, and (4) concerns about employment record and status. Among HCP reporting at least 1 instance, the most common motivations for presenteeism included feeling low risk for COVID-19 infection due to mild symptoms (59.9%), being vaccinated (50.6%), avoiding increasing colleagues’ workload (48.3%), avoiding employment record impact (39.6%), and saving sick days for other purposes (37.9%). Asked to identify a primary motivation, 40.3% reported feeling low risk for COVID-19 infection due to mild symptoms or vaccination, 21.2% reported a workplace culture issue (ie, increasing colleague workload, perception of weakness, responsibility for patients), 20.6% reported sick leave availability and use (including difficulty finding coverage) and 17.8% reported employment record ramifications including termination. Conclusions: This survey coincided with 2the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 ο (omicron) variant locally, and as such, risk perceptions and motivations for presenteeism may have changed. Responses were self-reported and generalizability is limited. Still, these results highlight the importance of risk messaging and demonstrate the many factors to be considered as potential presenteeism motivators. Mitigating these drivers is particularly critical during high-risk times such as pandemics or seasonal peaks of respiratory illness.
Clozapine is the only drug licensed for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) but the real-world clinical and cost-effectiveness of community initiation of clozapine is unclear.
The aim was to assess the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of community initiation of clozapine.
This was a naturalistic study of community patients recommended for clozapine treatment.
Of 158 patients recommended for clozapine treatment, 88 (56%) patients agreed to clozapine initiation and, of these, 58 (66%) were successfully established on clozapine. The success rate for community initiation was 65.4%; which was not significantly different from that for in-patient initiation (58.82%, χ2(1,88) = 0.47, P = 0.49). Following clozapine initiation, there was a significant reduction in median out-patient visits over 1 year (from 24.00 (interquartile range (IQR) = 14.00–41.00) to 13.00 visits (IQR = 5.00–24.00), P < 0.001), and 2 years (from 47.50 visits (IQR = 24.75–71.00) to 22.00 (IQR = 11.00–42.00), P < 0.001), and a 74.71% decrease in psychiatric hospital bed days (z = −2.50, P = 0.01). Service-use costs decreased (1 year: –£963/patient (P < 0.001); 2 years: –£1598.10/patient (P < 0.001). Subanalyses for community-only initiation also showed significant cost reductions (1 year: –£827.40/patient (P < 0.001); 2 year: –£1668.50/patient (P < 0.001) relative to costs prior to starting clozapine. Relative to before initiation, symptom severity was improved in patients taking clozapine at discharge (median Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score: initial visit: 80 (IQR = 71.00–104.00); discharge visit 50.5 (IQR = 44.75–75.00), P < 0.001) and at 2 year follow-up (Health of Nation Outcome Scales total score median initial visit: 13.00 (IQR = 9.00–15.00); 2 year follow-up: 8.00 (IQR = 3.00–13.00), P = 0.023).
These findings indicate that community initiation of clozapine is feasible and is associated with significant reductions in costs, service use and symptom severity.
Characterize and compare SARS-CoV-2–specific immune responses in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from nursing home residents during and after natural infection
SARS-CoV-2–infected nursing home residents
A convenience sample of 14 SARS-CoV-2–infected nursing home residents, enrolled 4–13 days after real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, were followed for 42 days. Post diagnosis, plasma SARS-CoV-2–specific pan-Immunoglobulin (Ig), IgG, IgA, IgM, and neutralizing antibodies were measured at 5 timepoints and GCF SARS-CoV-2–specific IgG and IgA were measured at 4 timepoints.
All participants demonstrated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among 12 phlebotomized participants, plasma was positive for pan-Ig and IgG in all 12, neutralizing antibodies in 11, IgM in 10, and IgA in 9. Among 14 participants with GCF specimens, GCF was positive for IgG in 13 and IgA in 12. Immunoglobulin responses in plasma and GCF had similar kinetics; median times to peak antibody response was similar across specimen types (4 weeks for IgG; 3 weeks for IgA). Participants with pan-Ig, IgG, and IgA detected in plasma and GCF IgG remained positive through this evaluation’s end 46–55 days post-diagnosis. All participants were viral culture negative by the first detection of antibodies.
Nursing home residents had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in plasma and GCF after infection. Kinetics of antibodies detected in GCF mirrored those from plasma. Non-invasive GCF may be useful for detecting and monitoring immunologic responses in populations unable or unwilling to be phlebotomized.
Schools are part of a community and, as such, teachers are involved in a range of interactions with colleagues, parents/carers and the wider community. Forming and maintaining positive relationships with a range of stakeholders is an integral part of a teacher’s role and improves outcomes for students. Teachers also have a range of ethical and legislative responsibilities to fulfil in their interactions with colleagues, families and the wider community. This chapter provides practical advice to guide you through various approaches to forming and maintaining positive relationships, while also gaining knowledge about how to navigate difficulties that may arise during the course of interacting with others.
Introduction to Education provides pre-service teachers with an overview of the context, craft and practice of teaching in Australian schools as they commence the journey from learner to classroom teacher. Each chapter poses questions about the nature of teaching students, and guides readers though the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Incorporating recent research and theoretical literature, Introduction to Education presents a critical consideration of the professional, policy and curriculum contexts of teaching in Australia. The book covers theoretical topics in chapters addressing assessment, planning, safe learning environments, and working with colleagues, families, carers and communities. More practical chapters discuss professional experience and building a career after graduation. Rigorous in conception and practical in scope, Introduction to Education welcomes new educators to the theory and practical elements of teaching, learning, and professional practice.
As industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists, we have expertise in applying psychological and/or organizational science to the workplace. However, many of us haven’t taken the time to think about how our I-O psychology knowledge can apply to our teaching practice. We walk through some examples of how I-O psychology research can help us be better teachers, and the goal of our paper is to encourage readers to make evidence-based changes to their teaching based on I-O psychology research. We organize our discussion around four areas: training and development, diversity and inclusion, groups and teams, and leadership. Within each, we offer small, medium, and large changes that could be incorporated into classrooms. We hope that readers will be inspired to build on what they do in their classrooms to help students learn about (and be inspired by) our field.
Experiencing poverty increases vulnerability for dysregulated hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and compromises long-term health. Positive parenting buffers children from HPA axis reactivity, yet this has primarily been documented among families not experiencing poverty. We tested the theorized power of positive parenting in 124 parent–child dyads recruited from Early Head Start (Mage = 25.21 months) by examining child cortisol trajectories using five samples collected across a standardized stress paradigm. Piecewise latent growth models revealed that positive parenting buffered children's stress responses when controlling for time of day, last stress task completed, and demographics. Positive parenting also interacted with income such that positive parenting was especially protective for cortisol reactivity in families experiencing greater poverty. Findings suggest that positive parenting behaviors are important for protecting children in families experiencing low income from heightened or prolonged physiologic stress reactivity to an acute stressor.
The aim of the study was to assess the impact of different lunchbox messages on parents’ intention to pack a healthy lunchbox.
This study employed an experimental design.
A series of messages were developed to align with the six constructs of the Health Belief Model. Messages were also developed that were (and were not) personalised and varied based on the source of the information provided (university, school, dietitian and health promotion service). During a telephone survey, participants were read the content of each message and asked about their intention to pack a healthy lunchbox.
Parents of primary school-aged children were randomised to receive different messages to encourage the packing of healthy lunchboxes.
The study was completed by 511 parents. Linear mixed regression analyses identified significant differences (P < 0·05) in intention scores between variant messages targeting the same behavioural constructs for ‘susceptibility’, ‘severity’, ‘benefits’ and ‘barriers’ but not ‘cues to action’ or ‘self-efficacy’. The highest mean behavioural intention score was for ‘benefits’, whilst the lowest mean score was for ‘barriers’. There were no significant differences in intention scores of parents receiving messages from a dietitian, university, health promotion team or school (P = 0·37). Intention scores did not differ in which messages were personalised based on child’s name (P = 0·84) or grade level (P = 0·54).
The findings suggest that messages that focus on the benefits of packing healthy lunchboxes may be particularly useful in improving intentions of parents to pack healthy foods for their children to consume at school.