To unveil the adaptation of Litopenaeus vannamei to elevated ambient ammonia-N, crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) was knocked down to investigate its function in glucose metabolism pathway under ammonia-N exposure. When CHH was silenced, haemolymph glucose increased significantly during 3–6 h, decreased significantly during 12–48 h and recovered to the control groups’ level at 72 h. After CHH knock-down, dopamine (DA) contents reduced significantly during 3–24 h, which recovered after 48 h. Besides, the expressions of guanylyl cyclase (GC) and DA1R in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly, while DA4R increased significantly. Correspondingly, the contents of cyclic AMP (cAMP), cyclic GMP (cGMP) and diacylglycerol (DAG) and the expressions of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase G (PKG), AMP active protein kinase α (AMPKα) and AMPKγ were significantly down-regulated, while the levels of protein kinase C (PKC) and AMPKβ were significantly up-regulated. The expressions of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and GLUT2 decreased significantly, while GLUT1 increased significantly. Moreover, glycogen content, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase activities in hepatopancreas and muscle were significantly increased. Furthermore, the levels of key enzymes hexokinase, pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase in glycolysis (GLY), rate-limiting enzymes citrate synthase in tricarboxylic acid and critical enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose diphosphate and glucose-6-phosphatase in gluconeogenesis (GNG) were significantly decreased in hepatopancreas. These results suggest that CHH affects DA and then they affect their receptors to transmit glucose metabolism signals into the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei under ammonia-N stress. CHH acts on the cGMP-PKG-AMPKα-CREB pathway through GC, and CHH affects DA to influence cAMP-PKA-AMPKγ-CREB and DAG-PKC-AMPKβ-CREB pathways, thereby regulating GLUT, inhibiting glycogen metabolism and promoting GLY and GNG. This study contributes to further understand glucose metabolism mechanism of crustacean in response to environmental stress.