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To assess potential changes in the pathogens attributed to central-line–associated bloodstream infections between 2019 and 2020, hospital data from the National Healthcare Safety Network were analyzed. Compared to 2019, increases in the proportions of pathogens identified as Enterococcus faecalis and coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed during 2020.
To determine the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on healthcare-associated infection (HAI) incidence in US hospitals, national- and state-level standardized infection ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each quarter in 2020 and compared to those from 2019.
Central–line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated events (VAEs), select surgical site infections, and Clostridioides difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia laboratory-identified events reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network for 2019 and 2020 by acute-care hospitals were analyzed. SIRs were calculated for each HAI and quarter by dividing the number of reported infections by the number of predicted infections, calculated using 2015 national baseline data. Percentage changes between 2019 and 2020 SIRs were calculated. Supporting analyses, such as an assessment of device utilization in 2020 compared to 2019, were also performed.
Significant increases in the national SIRs for CLABSI, CAUTI, VAE, and MRSA bacteremia were observed in 2020. Changes in the SIR varied by quarter and state. The largest increase was observed for CLABSI, and significant increases in VAE incidence and ventilator utilization were seen across all 4 quarters of 2020.
This report provides a national view of the increases in HAI incidence in 2020. These data highlight the need to return to conventional infection prevention and control practices and build resiliency in these programs to withstand future pandemics.
We analyzed 2017 healthcare facility-onset (HO) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteremia data to identify hospital-level factors that were significant predictors of HO-VRE using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) multidrug-resistant organism and Clostridioides difficile reporting module. A risk-adjusted model that can be used to calculate the number of predicted HO-VRE bacteremia events in a facility was developed, thus enabling the calculation of VRE standardized infection ratios (SIRs).
Acute-care hospitals reporting at least 1 month of 2017 VRE bacteremia data were included in the analysis. Various hospital-level characteristics were assessed to develop a best-fit model and subsequently derive the 2018 national and state SIRs.
In 2017, 470 facilities in 35 states participated in VRE bacteremia surveillance. Inpatient VRE community-onset prevalence rate, average length of patient stay, outpatient VRE community-onset prevalence rate, and presence of an oncology unit were all significantly associated (all 95% likelihood ratio confidence limits excluded the nominal value of zero) with HO-VRE bacteremia. The 2018 national SIR was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.93–1.09) with 577 HO bacteremia events reported.
The creation of an SIR enables national-, state-, and facility-level monitoring of VRE bacteremia while controlling for individual hospital-level factors. Hospitals can compare their VRE burden to a national benchmark to help them determine the effectiveness of infection prevention efforts over time.
Using data from the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), we assessed changes to intensive care unit (ICU) bed capacity during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Changes in capacity varied by hospital type and size. ICU beds increased by 36%, highlighting the pressure placed on hospitals during the pandemic.
Data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC NHSN) were analyzed to understand the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in acute-care hospitals. Descriptive analysis of the standardized infection ratio (SIR) was conducted by location, location type, geographic area, and bed size.
The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) throughout key regions of the United States in early 2020 placed a premium on timely, national surveillance of hospital patient censuses. To meet that need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), the nation’s largest hospital surveillance system, launched a module for collecting hospital coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) data. We present time-series estimates of the critical hospital capacity indicators from April 1 to July 14, 2020.
From March 27 to July 14, 2020, the NHSN collected daily data on hospital bed occupancy, number of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and the availability and/or use of mechanical ventilators. Time series were constructed using multiple imputation and survey weighting to allow near–real-time daily national and state estimates to be computed.
During the pandemic’s April peak in the United States, among an estimated 431,000 total inpatients, 84,000 (19%) had COVID-19. Although the number of inpatients with COVID-19 decreased from April to July, the proportion of occupied inpatient beds increased steadily. COVID-19 hospitalizations increased from mid-June in the South and Southwest regions after stay-at-home restrictions were eased. The proportion of inpatients with COVID-19 on ventilators decreased from April to July.
The NHSN hospital capacity estimates served as important, near–real-time indicators of the pandemic’s magnitude, spread, and impact, providing quantitative guidance for the public health response. Use of the estimates detected the rise of hospitalizations in specific geographic regions in June after they declined from a peak in April. Patient outcomes appeared to improve from early April to mid-July.
Background:Staphylococcus aureus has long been an important cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and remains the second most common HAI pathogen in the United States. Often resistant to several antibiotics, S. aureus infections are difficult to treat and can leave patients at risk for serious complications such as pneumonia and sepsis. HAI pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) results have been reported to NHSN since its inception in 2005. Previous NHSN surveillance reports have presented national annual benchmarks for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Whether there have been any significant changes over time in the prevalence of methicillin resistance among S. aureus infections reported to NHSN has not been previously assessed. Methods:S. aureus AST data from central-line–associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and inpatient surgical site infections reported from acute-care hospitals between 2009 and 2018 were analyzed. S. aureus was defined as MRSA if it was reported as resistant to oxacillin, cefoxitin, or methicillin. A national percentage resistant (%R) was calculated for each year as the number of resistant pathogens divided by the number of pathogens tested for susceptibility multiplied by 100. A generalized linear mixed model with logistic function was created to evaluate annual changes in the percentage resistant. Several patient-level and hospital-level characteristics were assessed as potential covariates. To account for differential baseline %R values between individual hospitals, specification of random intercept and slope were used during model creation. Differences in the trend of %R between HAI types were assessed using interaction terms. Data were analyzed using SAS v 9.3 software, and P < .05 was considered significant. Results: Overall, 3,317 hospitals reported at least 1 S. aureus pathogen tested for susceptibility between 2009 and 2018. The national unadjusted %R decreased from 49.2% (2009) to 41.2% (2018), with similar decreases seen in each HAI type (Table 1). After adjusting for significant covariates, a statistically significant annual 3% decrease in the prevalence of resistance was observed (Fig. 1). Significant differences between HAI types did not exist. Conclusions: The percentage of healthcare-associated S. aureus resistant to oxacillin, cefoxitin, or methicillin has declined consistently over the past 10 years. Continued efforts in infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship are vital to sustaining this decline.
Describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that occurred during 2015–2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Data from central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated events (VAEs), and surgical site infections (SSIs) were reported from acute-care hospitals, long-term acute-care hospitals, and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. This analysis included device-associated HAIs reported from adult location types, and SSIs among patients ≥18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated for each HAI type, location type, surgical category, and surgical wound closure technique.
Overall, 5,626 facilities performed adult HAI surveillance during this period, most of which were general acute-care hospitals with <200 beds. Escherichia coli (18%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%), and Klebsiella spp (9%) were the 3 most frequently reported pathogens. Pathogens varied by HAI and location type, with oncology units having a distinct pathogen distribution compared to other settings. The %NS for most pathogens was significantly higher among device-associated HAIs than SSIs. In addition, pathogens from long-term acute-care hospitals had a significantly higher %NS than those from general hospital wards.
This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance among select HAIs and pathogens, stratified by several factors. These data underscore the importance of tracking antimicrobial resistance, particularly in vulnerable populations such as long-term acute-care hospitals and intensive care units.
To describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) among pediatric patients that occurred in 2015–2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Antimicrobial resistance data were analyzed for pathogens implicated in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs), and surgical site infections (SSIs). This analysis was restricted to device-associated HAIs reported from pediatric patient care locations and SSIs among patients <18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated by HAI type, location type, and surgical category.
Overall, 2,545 facilities performed surveillance of pediatric HAIs in the NHSN during this period. Staphylococcus aureus (15%), Escherichia coli (12%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (12%) were the 3 most commonly reported pathogens associated with pediatric HAIs. Pathogens and the %NS varied by HAI type, location type, and/or surgical category. Among CLABSIs, the %NS was generally lowest in neonatal intensive care units and highest in pediatric oncology units. Staphylococcus spp were particularly common among orthopedic, neurosurgical, and cardiac SSIs; however, E. coli was more common in abdominal SSIs. Overall, antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was less prevalent in pediatric HAIs than in adult HAIs.
This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance patterns among pediatric HAIs. These data highlight the need for continued antimicrobial resistance tracking among pediatric patients and should encourage the pediatric healthcare community to use such data when establishing policies for infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship.
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