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Adolescents often experience heightened socioemotional sensitivity warranting their use of regulatory strategies. Yet, little is known about how key socializing agents help regulate teens’ negative emotions in daily life and implications for long-term adjustment. We examined adolescent girls’ interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) with parents and peers in response to negative social interactions, defined as parent and peer involvement in the teen’s enactment of emotion regulation strategies. We also tested associations between rates of daily parental and peer IER and depressive symptoms, concurrently and one year later. Adolescent girls (N = 112; Mage = 12.39) at temperamental risk for depressive disorders completed a 16-day ecological momentary assessment protocol measuring reactivity to negative social interactions, parental and peer IER, and current negative affect. Results indicated that adolescents used more adaptive strategies with peers and more maladaptive strategies with parents in daily life. Both parental and peer IER down-regulated negative affect, reflected by girls’ decreased likelihood of experiencing continued negative affect. Higher proportions of parental adaptive IER predicted reduced depressive symptoms one year later. Findings suggest that both parents and peers effectively help adolescent girls down-regulate everyday negative emotions; however, parents may offer more enduring benefits for long-term adjustment.
Little is known about the early history of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), including the timing and circumstances of its introduction into new cultural environments. To evaluate its spatio-temporal spread across Eurasia and north-west Africa, the authors radiocarbon dated 23 chicken bones from presumed early contexts. Three-quarters returned dates later than those suggested by stratigraphy, indicating the importance of direct dating. The results indicate that chickens did not arrive in Europe until the first millennium BC. Moreover, a consistent time-lag between the introduction of chickens and their consumption by humans suggests that these animals were initially regarded as exotica and only several centuries later recognised as a source of ‘food’.
The semi-slug, Parmarion martensi, is an intermediate host of the zoonotic nematode, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the aetiological agent of neuroangiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease in humans. Rearing methods were developed for P. martensi to facilitate studies on nematode transmission and control. Parmarion martensi exhibited high survivorship when reared on a diet of dog food and fresh fruits and vegetables in temperature-controlled cabinets at 21.4°C, 98% relative humidity and 12:12 L:D cycle. Rearing containers were lined with moist paper towels for substrate and plastic pots were provided for hiding/resting and egg-laying. Under these conditions, time to first reproduction was 165.3 ± 12.3 days, fecundity was approximately 34.5 ± 7.8 eggs per adult, and hatch rate was 52.7 ± 3.2%. Survivorship post egg hatch was 86.2 ± 2.9% at 30 days (neonates had a mortality rate of about 14%) and 99% thereafter for up to a year. The demographics of laboratory-reared and wild-caught P. martensi were similar except for the weight of reproductive adults, which was significantly higher in laboratory-reared adults (4.0 ± 0.2 g) than in field-collected adults (1.5 ± 0.1 g).
To utilise a community-based participatory approach in the design and implementation of an intervention targeting diet-related health problems on Navajo Nation.
A dual strategy approach of community needs/assets assessment and engagement of cross-sectorial partners in programme design with systematic cyclical feedback for programme modifications.
Navajo Nation, USA.
Navajo families with individuals meeting criteria for programme enrolment. Participant enrolment increased with iterative cycles.
The Navajo Fruit and Vegetable Prescription (FVRx) Programme.
A broad, community-driven and culturally relevant programme design has resulted in a programme able to maintain core programmatic principles, while also allowing for flexible adaptation to changing needs.
Neuropsychological deficits following brain injury include cognitive impairment, difficulties with emotion, changes in self-identity, impairment in insight, behavioural challenges and personality change. The reviews rehabilitation for neuropsychological problems and includes specific reference to mild traumatic brain injury and traumatic brain injury in children.
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