To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Plant-based diets may increase the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency due to limited intake of animal-source foods, while dietary folate increases when adhering to plant-based diets. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the B12 and folate status of Norwegian vegans and vegetarians using dietary B12 intake, B12 and folic acid supplement use, and biomarkers (serum B12 (B12), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) and serum folate). Vegans (n 115) and vegetarians (n 90) completed a 24-h dietary recall and a FFQ and provided a non-fasting blood sample. cB12, a combined indicator for evaluation of B12 status, was calculated. B12 status was adequate in both vegans and vegetarians according to the cB12 indicator; however 4 % had elevated B12. Serum B12, tHcy, MMA concentrations and the cB12 indicator (overall median: 357 pmol/l, 9·0 µmol/l, 0·18 µmol/l, 1·30 (cB12)) did not differ between vegans and vegetarians, unlike for folate (vegans: 25·8 nmol/l, vegetarians: 21·6 nmol/l, P = 0·027). Serum B12 concentration < 221 pmol/l was found in 14 % of all participants. Vegetarians revealed the highest proportion of participants below the recommended daily intake of 2 µg/d including supplements (40 v. 18 %, P < 0·001). Predictors of higher serum B12 concentrations were average daily supplement use and older age. Folate deficiency (< 10 nmol/l) was uncommon overall (< 2·5 %). The combined indicator cB12 suggested that none of the participants was B12-depleted; however, low serum B12 concentration was found in 14 % of the participants. Folate concentrations were adequate, indicating adequate folate intake in Norwegian vegans and vegetarians.
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
To utilize complementary biochemical and dietary data collected before the initiation of national flour fortification to (i) identify micronutrient insufficiencies or deficiencies and dietary inadequacies in Palestinian women and children in vulnerable communities and (ii) assess the suitability of the current wheat flour fortification formula.
Quantitative dietary intake questionnaires were administered and fasting venous blood samples collected in randomly selected households in Gaza City and Hebron. The impact of fortification was simulated by estimating the additional micronutrient content of fortified wheat flour.
Households in Gaza City and Hebron that were not receiving food aid from social programmes.
Non-pregnant women (18–49 years) and children aged 36–83 months.
The micronutrients with highest prevalence of insufficiency were vitamin D in women (84–97 % with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/l) and vitamin B12 in women and children (43–82 % with serum B12 <221 pmol/l). Deficiencies of vitamin A, Fe and Zn were also of public health concern. Current levels of wheat flour fortificants were predicted to improve, but not eliminate, micronutrient intake inadequacies. Modification of fortificant concentrations of vitamin D, thiamin, vitamin B12, Zn and folic acid may be indicated.
Micronutrient insufficiencies or deficiencies and intake inadequacies were prevalent based on either biochemical or dietary intake criteria. Adjustments to the current fortification formula for wheat flour are necessary to better meet the nutrient needs of Palestinian women and children.
Experiments were made over 2 years at two sites using three varieties to investigate the relationship between total yield, number of tubers > 1 cm and the yield of tubers in the 60–80 mmsize range. Regressionanalysisrevealed that yield of tubers in the 60–80 mm size range was a linear function of total yield and number of tubers > 1 cm. The effect of changes in tuber shape on this relationship is discussed.
Some of the most interesting and enigmatic cnidarians are classified within the hydrozoan subclass Trachylina. Despite being relatively depauperate in species richness, the clade contains four taxa typically accorded ordinal status: Actinulida, Limnomedusae, Narcomedusae and Trachymedusae. We bring molecular data (mitochondrial 16S and nuclear small and large subunit ribosomal genes) to bear on the question of phylogenetic relationships within Trachylina. Surprisingly, we find that a diminutive polyp form, Microhydrula limopsicola (classified within Limnomedusae) is actually a previously unknown life stage of a species of Stauromedusae. Our data confirm that the interstitial form Halammohydra sp. (Actinulida) is derived from holopelagic direct developing ancestors, likely within the trachymedusan family Rhopalonematidae. Trachymedusae is shown to be diphyletic, suggesting that the polyp stage has been lost independently at least two times within trachyline evolution. Narcomedusae is supported as a monophyletic group likely also arising from trachymedusan ancestors. Finally, some data, albeit limited, suggest that some trachyline species names refer to cryptic species that have yet to be sorted taxonomically.
To document the consumption during pregnancy of pulque, a traditional central Mexican alcoholic beverage, and its relationship to subsequent infant size, physical growth and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.
Prospective cohort study.
Six villages in rural, central Mexico in 1984–1985.
Seventy mother–infant pairs.
Most women (72.9%) consumed pulque during pregnancy, and 28.6% consumed more than 150 g ethanol week−1 from the beverage. Individuals who consumed pulque showed no compensating decrease in energy obtained from other foods. Pulque consumption possessed curvilinear relationships with both infant length (at 1 and 6 months) and Bayley mental performance (at 6 months). Heavy pulque intakes were associated with smaller infant size and poorer mental performance. In modest quantities, pulque consumption may have been beneficial due to its micronutrient content.
Intakes of alcohol from pulque were common among pregnant women in these rural, central Mexican villages. Given current scientific knowledge of the adverse effects of ethanol on foetal development, public health interventions are needed to reduce heavy pulque consumption during pregnancy in some areas of rural Mexico.
This is a short report of a ‘safari’ held in conjunction with the International Congress of Nutrition in September 2005, in Futululu, St. Lucia, South Africa. Participants were several members of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences Task Force on Indigenous Peoples' Food Systems and Nutrition, other interested scientists and members of the Kwa Zulu indigenous community. The paper describes the rationale for and contributions towards understanding what might be successful interventions that would resonate among indigenous communities in many areas of the world. A summary of possible evaluation strategies of such interventions is also given.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
The availabilities of nutrients from a representative rural Mexican diet (RMD) and a representative urban Mexican diet (UMD) were evaluated by balance experiments in sixteen Mexican women. Compared with UMD, the plant-based RMD led to a higher number of defaecations and higher faecal excretion of dry matter, fat, nitrogen and energy. Apparent digestibility of N from RMD was only 67% compared with 90% from UMD. N balance was 0.4 and 2.6 g/d with RMD and UMD respectively (P < 0.001). Apparent digestibility of energy was 89 and 95% from RMD and UMD respectively (P < 0.001). Calculation of the metabolizable energy (ME) using Atwater's (Atwater & Bryant, 1900) general factors overestimates the determined ME in RMD by 8%. The Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (World Health Organization, 1985) recommended factors for correction of digestibility of fibre intake overestimate energy and protein absorption from RMD. The diets provided similar amounts of zinc, and its apparent absorption from RMD was 0.5 mg/d (4.6%) and its balance was 0.1 mg/d. This compared with values for UMD of 1.6 mg/d (16%) and 1.2 mg/d respectively. Iron intake was higher from RMD (17.4 v. 11.6 mg/d; P < 0.01), but apparent absorption was 17 v. 35% and balance was 2.7 and 3.8 mg/d (P < 0.001) for RMD and UMD respectively. RMD also contained more calcium (745 v. 410 mg/d) but apparent absorption from RMD was negative (−136 v. 15 mg/d) and balance was more negative (−197 v.−77 mg/d; P < 0.05). Thus, the content of these minerals is not low in the rural diet but their bioavailabilities are poor.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.