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Preoperative enteric screening for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae was conducted in 360 patients prospectively observed for surgical site infection (SSI). ESBL colonization (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.4) and dirty wound classification (aOR, 3.6) were associated with SSI; no association between carbapenem prophylaxis and reduction in SSI was detected.
To evaluate behavioral-based interventions to improve hand hygiene (HH) among healthcare workers (HCWs) at a Thai tertiary care center.
A quasi-experimental study was performed in 6 intensive care units with computer-generated allocation. Baseline demographic characteristics, self-reported stage of HH behavioral commitment, and observed HH adherence were examined from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2012 (preintervention), and from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2013 (postintervention). Self-reported HH was categorized by the stages construct from the Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change. The intensive care unit group randomization was to either standard-of-care HH education every 3 months (S1), intensified HH interventions (S2), or intensified HH interventions plus increased availability of alcohol-based handrub throughout the unit (S3).
Among125 HCWs from 6 intensive care units (42 in S1, 41 in S2, 42 in S3) there were 1,936 total HH observations; most HCWs (100 [ 80%]) were nurses or nurse assistants. Compared with preintervention, overall postintervention HH adherence improved in HCWs assigned to S2 (65% vs 85%; P=.02) and S3 (66% vs 95%; P=.005) but not S1 (68% vs 71%; P=.84). Improvement in HH adherence was demonstrated among HCWs who reported lower stages of HH commitment in S2 (21% vs 84%; P<.001) and S3 (24% vs 89%; P<.001) and in HCWs who self-reported higher stages of commitment in S3 (78% vs 96%; P<.001).
HCW HH programs may benefit from stage-based tailored strategies to promote sustained HH adherence.
Pulmonary infection (P = .01) and an infectious diseases consultation (P = .04) were associated with carbapenem de-escalation; pulmonary infection and septic shock were associated with unsuccessful de-escalation. Successful de-escalaltion was associated with lower mortality (0% vs 23%; P < .001) and shorter duration of carbapenem use (4 vs 10 days; P ≤.001).
In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended “My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” (5MHH) to optimize hand hygiene (HH). Uptake of these recommendations by healthcare workers (HCWs) remains uncertain.
We prospectively observed HCW compliance to 5MHH. After observations, eligible HCWs who consented to interviews completed surveys on factors associated with HH compliance based on constructs from the transtheoretical model of behavioral change (TTM) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Survey results were compared with observed HCW behaviors.
There were 968 observations among 123 HCWs, of whom 110 (89.4%) were female and 63 (51.3%) were nurses. The mean HH compliance for all 5MHH was 23.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.1%-28.3%) by direct observation versus 82.4% (95% CI, 79.9%-84.9%) by self report. The HCW 5MHH compliance was associated with critical care unit encounters (P < .05), medicine unit encounters (P = 0.08, P <.001), immunocompromised patient encounters (P <. 05), and HCW prioritized patient advocacy (P <.001). Self-reported TTM stages of action or maintenance (P = .08) and the total TPB behavior score correlated with observed 5MHH (r = 0.21, P = .02) and with self-reported 5MHH compliance (r = 0.53, P < .001).
Observed HCW compliance to 5MHH was associated with the type of hospital unit, type of provider-patient encounter, and theory-based behavioral measures of 5MHH commitment.
Central Thailand was severely affected by black-water flooding between September and November 2011, with resultant closure of 30 regional hospitals. Few data are available for the incidence of nosocomial infections and patterns of preflood versus postflood multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and mold. We therefore conducted a survey of the hospitals in central Thailand in order to evaluate the patterns of nosocomial infections, MDROs, mold, and flood preparedness plans after these floods.
On the basis of a hospital list from the Ministry of Public Health, we identified 104 hospitals in 15 provinces of central Thailand that were affected, but not necessarily closed, by extensive floods. We designed and then conducted a survey, from July 1 through October 31, 2012, that inquired about hospital characteristics, postflood hospital preparedness plans, administrative support, institutional safely culture, incidence of nosocomial infections, and prevalence of MDROs and mold colonization or infection. All 104 secondary care (>100 beds) and tertiary care (>250 beds) hospitals in 15 central Thailand provinces were invited to participate.
The devastating clinical and economic implications of floods exemplify the need for effective global infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies for natural disasters. Reopening of hospitals after excessive flooding requires a balance between meeting the medical needs of the surrounding communities and restoration of a safe hospital environment. Postflood hospital preparedness plans are a key issue for infection control epidemiologists, healthcare providers, patients, and hospital administrators. We provide recent IPC experiences related to reopening of a hospital after extensive black-water floods necessitated hospital closures in Thailand and the United States. These experiences provide a foundation for the future design, execution, and analysis of black-water flood preparedness plans by IPC stakeholders.
To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of an influenza control bundle to minimize healthcare-associated seasonal influenza transmission among healthcare workers (HCWs) in an intensive care unit (ICU) equipped with central air conditioning.
A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a 500-bed tertiary care center in Thailand from July 1, 2005, through June 30, 2009. The medical ICU (MICU) implemented an influenza control bundle including healthcare worker (HCW) education, influenza screening of adult community-acquired pneumonia patients, antiviral treatment of patients and ill HCWs who tested positive for influenza, promotion of influenza vaccination among HCWs, and reinforcement of standard infection control policies. The surgical ICU (SICU) and coronary care unit (CCU) received no intervention.
The numbers of influenza infections among HCWs during the pre- and postintervention periods were 18 cases in 5,294 HCW-days and 0 cases in 5,336 HCW-days in the MICU (3.4 vs 0 cases per 1,000 HCW-days; P < .001), 19 cases in 4,318 HCW-days and 20 cases in 4,348 HCW-days in the SICU (4.4 vs 4.6 cases per 1,000 HCW-days; P = .80), and 18 cases in 5,000 HCW-days and 18 cases in 5,143 HCW-days in the CCU (3.6 vs 3.5 cases per 1,000 HCW-days; P = .92), respectively. Outbreak-related influenza occurred in 7 MICU HCWs, 6 SICU HCWs, and 4 CCU HCWs before intervention and 0 MICU HCWs, 9 SICU HCWs, and 8 CCU HCWs after intervention. Before and after intervention, 25 (71%) and 35 (100%) of 35 MICU HCWs were vaccinated, respectively (P < .001); HCW vaccination coverage did not change significantly in the SICU (21 [70%] of 30 vs 24 [80%] of 30; P = .89) and CCU (19 [68%] of 28 vs 21 [75%] of 28; P = .83). The estimated costs of US $6,471 per unit for postintervention outbreak investigations exceeded the intervention costs of US $4,969.
A sustained influenza intervention bundle was associated with clinical and economic benefits to a Thai hospital.
We report an outbreak of influenza A (2009) H1N1 among healthcare workers in a coronary care unit in Thailand. The attack rate was 32% (7 of 32 healthcare workers) after detection of influenza A (2009) H1N1 pneumonia in the index patient. Estimated costs for the outbreak investigation and control plan were 12-fold higher than estimated costs of vaccination for healthcare workers.
We evaluated the impact of education and an antifungal stewardship program for candidiasis on prescribing practices, antifungal consumption, Candida species infections, and estimated costs at a Thai tertiary care hospital.
A hospital-wide, quasi-experimental study was conducted for 1.5 years before the intervention and 1.5 years after the implementation of an antifungal stewardship program. Inpatient antifungal prescriptions were prospectively observed, and patients' demographic, clinical, and administrative-cost data were collected. Interventions included education, introduction of an antifungal hepatic and/or renal dose adjustment tool, antifungal prescription forms, and prescription-control strategies.
After the intervention, there was a 59% reduction in antifungal prescriptions (from 194 to 80 prescriptions per 1,000 hospitalizations; P < .001). Inappropriate antifungal use decreased (from 71% to 24%; P < .001), a sustained reduction in antifungal use was observed (r = 0.83; P < .001), and fluconazole use decreased (from 242 to 117 defined daily doses per 1,000 patient-days; P < .001). Reductions in the incidence of infection with Candida glabrata (r = 0.69; P < .001) and Candida krusei (r = 0.71; P < .001) were observed, whereas the incidence of infection with Candida albicans (r = —0.81; P < .001) increased. Total cost savings were US$31,615 during the 18-month postintervention period.
Implementation of an antifungal stewardship program was associated with appropriate antifungal drug use, improved resource utilization, and cost savings.