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ABSTRACT IMPACT: Novel adipokines like tetranectin help explain why some people progress from obesity to diseases like diabetes, atherosclerosis, and dislipidemia OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Obesity has an established association with diabetes, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. Preventing progression from obesity to insulin resistance requires understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the loss of insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue is well known to function as an endocrine organ that produces many kinds of adipokines. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Blood sample analysis from human patients and mice was used to determine associations between tetranectin and obesity. Samples were tested with a monoclonal anti-tetranectin antibody for detection with western blot. A tetranectin mutant knock out mouse line was compared to wild type littermates on high fat diet for 4 months. Insulin tolerance tests and glucose tolerance were used to determine progression to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Histological analysis of metabolic tissue was used to demonstrate adipocyte hypertrophy and liver steatosis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the current study, we report the identification and initial characterization of a novel adipokine tetranectin. Tetranectin, which is coded by the C-type lectin domain family 3 member B (CLEC3B) gene, is ubiquitously expressed in various mouse tissues, whereas it is highly enriched in white adipose tissue. We found that the serum level of tetranectin was much higher in both obese and diabetic patients. Knocking out the tetranectin gene in mice protected against glucose intolerance in males but reduced insulin and glucose tolerance in females, without effects on food intake and body weight for either sex. Mechanistically, tetranectin targets liver tissues and its deficiency increases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in females. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: We have identified a novel adipokine which mediates a different metabolic crosstalk among tissues to maintain systemic glucose and lipid metabolism in different genders. Further investigation of tetranectin’s function could yield a new target for precise therapeutic treatment for obesity and its associated metabolic diseases in different genders
Epidemiological data for Toxoplasma gondii regarding malignancy have gained increasing attention; however, the information about T. gondii infection among children with malignant lymphoma (ML) in China is unclear. Therefore, 314 children with lymphoma and 314 healthy children, age- and gender-matched, were recruited to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the participants and identify the risk factors of infection. Blood samples from all participants were collected and examined for T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA. The results showed that the overall seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies (including IgG and/or IgM) in ML patients and healthy controls was 19.8% and 9.9%, respectively. Contact with the cats, consumption of oysters and history of chemotherapy were estimated to be the risk factors for T. gondii infection in children with lymphoma by multivariable logistic regression analysis, whereas in healthy children, contact with cats and consumption of oysters were the risk factors. Moreover, among various histological types of lymphoma, individuals with NK/T-cell lymphoma, B-small lymphocytic lymphoma, marginal zone B-lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma had a higher seroprevalence than healthy controls (P < 0.05). These findings indicated the high prevalence of T. gondii infection in children with lymphoma, and hence, efforts should be performed to evaluate the effect of the infection further in lymphoma patients.
Approximately 50 % of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) suffer from anaemia, with Fe deficiency being the most common cause. CD52 monoclonal antibody (mAb) targets the cell surface CD52 and is effective in depleting lymphocytes through cytolytic effects in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of anti-mouse CD52 mAb on Fe-deficient anaemia in IBD. IL-10 knockout mice (IL-10− / −) of 12 weeks with established colitis were treated with anti-mouse CD52 mAb once per week for 2 weeks. Severity of colitis, blood T lymphocytes, blood Hb, haematocrit, plasma erythropoietin (EPO), serum Fe concentration, transferrin saturation, splenic Fe stores, expression of liver hepcidin mRNA, Western blotting of the phosphorylated form of Smad1/5/8 and total Smad1 were measured at the end of the experiment. IL-10− / − mice treated with CD52 mAb showed a reduction in the percentage of CD4+ and CD4+CD45+ T cells in blood and weight loss typically associated with colonic inflammation, serum levels of EPO, the expression of liver hepcidin mRNA and total Smad1 protein, while they showed an increase in Hb concentrations, haematocrit, levels of serum Fe, transferrin saturation and splenic Fe stores. The present results indicated that anti-CD52 therapy may ameliorate Fe-deficient anaemia by reducing colonic inflammation. These findings may open novel horizons in the treatment of patients with IBD by resetting of immunological homeostasis in the gut by depleting the activated T cells in the gut mucosa.
A ferroelectric memory diodes that consists of Au/Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/Bi4Ti3O12/p-Si multilayer configuration was fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The ferroelectric properties and the electrical characteristics of the ferroelectric film system were investigated. The polarization-voltage curve of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/Bi4Ti3O12 thin films system had an asymmetry hysteresis loop with Pr=20μC/cm2 and Ec=48 kV/cm, and the decay in remnant polarization was only 10% after 109 switching cycles. The C-V curve and the I-V curve showed memory effects derived from the ferroelectric polarization of PZT/BIT films. The current density was 6.7×10−8A/cm2 at a voltage of +4V, and the conductivity behavior is discussed. The results suggested that the growth of the BIT ferroelectric layer is helpful to good ferroelectric properties, fatigue and capacitance retention characteristics.
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