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Copy number variation (CNV) is a very common type of gene variation with high frequency. In recent years, CNV has been paid more attention in various fields, especially in livestock and poultry breeding, which has promoted the progress of breeding. WW domain binding protein 1-like (WBP1L) is a protein coding gene, which plays an important role in cattle populations, and its function has been extensively studied, but it is not clear whether the copy number of the gene can affect the growth and development of cattle populations. In this study, CNV of WBP1L gene was detected in 732 cattle of seven breeds (Qinchuan cattle, QC; Pinan cattle, PN; Yuengling cattle, YL; Xianan cattle, XN; Jiaxian cattle, JX; natural Guyuan cattle, NGY; Jian cattle, JA). In addition, the relationship between CNV and growth phenotype of cattle was studied. The experimental data indicate that the copy number of WBP1L was obviously correlated with heart girth of PN cattle (**P < 0.01), rump length (RL) and body weight (BW) of PN cattle (*P < 0.05), withers height (WH), RL, body length, chest depth and BW of JX cattle (*P < 0.05), WH of NGY cattle (*P < 0.05) and WH of JA cattle (*P < 0.05). It was proved that CNV of WBP1L gene could be used as molecular marker locus for genetic breeding of the above four cattle breeds.
Participation in social activities might increase older adults’ chances to interact with other people and has been found to be important in reducing the likelihood of depression. A picture of older adults’ attitudes towards ageing and their self-esteem constructed through the lens of how they interact with other people might cast light on the sources of older adults’ depression. This study explored the influences of social participation and attitudes towards ageing on depression of Chinese older adults. Using two waves data from the China Longitudinal Ageing Social Survey (CLASS) in 2014 and 2016 (6,908 participants in 2014 and 3,477 participants in both 2014 and 2016), we found that social participation in 2014 could prevent the risk of depression in both the 2014 and 2016 cohorts. In addition, both psychosocial loss and psychosocial growth in 2014 were negatively associated with depression in both 2014 and 2016. However, there was no evidence that social participation moderated the relationship between attitudes towards ageing and depression in either cohort. Social policies need to encourage older adults’ conversion from ‘passive participation’ to ‘active participation’. This could help older adults understand the process of ageing and their value to society, as well as have positive effects on older adults’ mental health.
The present study evaluated whether fat mass assessment using the triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness provides additional prognostic value to the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) framework in patients with lung cancer (LC). We performed an observational cohort study including 2672 LC patients in China. Comprehensive demographic, disease and nutritional characteristics were collected. Malnutrition was retrospectively defined using the GLIM criteria, and optimal stratification was used to determine the best thresholds for the TSF. The associations of malnutrition and TSF categories with survival were estimated independently and jointly by calculating multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Malnutrition was identified in 808 (30·2 %) patients, and the best TSF thresholds were 9·5 mm in men and 12 mm in women. Accordingly, 496 (18·6 %) patients were identified as having a low TSF. Patients with concurrent malnutrition and a low TSF had a 54 % (HR = 1·54, 95 % CI = 1·25, 1·88) greater death hazard compared with well-nourished individuals, which was also greater compared with malnourished patients with a normal TSF (HR = 1·23, 95 % CI = 1·06, 1·43) or malnourished patients without TSF assessment (HR = 1·31, 95 % CI = 1·14, 1·50). These associations were concentrated among those patients with adequate muscle mass (as indicated by the calf circumference). Additional fat mass assessment using the TSF enhances the prognostic value of the GLIM criteria. Using the population-derived thresholds for the TSF may provide significant prognostic value when used in combination with the GLIM criteria to guide strategies to optimise the long-term outcomes in patients with LC.
Cerebrovascular disease is the most common cause of death in China, and the incidence of ischemic stroke (240 per 100,000 people) is higher than that of hemorrhagic stroke (82 per 100,000 people). More than 80 percent of strokes can be prevented by early control of risk factors. Therefore, identifying and managing high-risk groups is a top priority in preventing stroke. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is a key prediction tool for stratifying stroke risk in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) as follows: zero score is low risk; one is intermediate risk; and two is high risk. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of the CHA2DS2-VASc scoring system for stratifying ischemic stroke risk in the non-AF population.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library in June 2018 for relevant diagnostic studies. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using the QUADAS-2 criteria) were performed independently by two authors. Methodological variation across the selected studies precluded meta-analysis, so the results were synthesized narratively.
Seven prospective studies involving 50,652 patients (6,760 with ischemic stroke) were included. The treatment threshold ranged from two to four across the studies. Three studies reported diagnostic accuracy at a threshold of two, with a sensitivity above 0.8 and a specificity ranging from 0.32 to 0.68. The diagnostic odds ratio was greater than two (seven studies). The two studies using a treatment threshold of four reported a sensitivity of 0.59 to 0.76 and a specificity of 0.43 to 0.69. One study used a threshold of three, with a sensitivity of 0.79 and a specificity of 0.39.
The CHA2DS2-VASc score may be used to predict ischemic stroke in the non-atrial fibrillation population. Treatment thresholds greater than two provide more optimal diagnostic accuracy, although the predictive performance of the CHA2DS2-VASc score may be better in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but not AF.
Nano-sized TiN-reinforced Ti metal matrix composites were fabricated by powder metallurgical route, which includes high-energy ball milling pretreatment and subsequent hot-press sintering treatment. The phase composition and microstructure of the sintered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that N2 was absorbed and solubilized into TiH2 by milling pretreatment, and TiN was formed during sintering process and was fine to a grain size of 20–100 nm. The final phase composition of the composites was αTi, βTi, and TiN with solution N in matrix. Mechanical tests showed that with increasing milling time, the hardness of the composites increased by 31, 58, 93, and 101% compared with pure Ti. The compressive strength initially increased and later decreased to 2440 and 2120 MPa when milled for 1.5 and 2 h, respectively.
Treatment with a combination of four nutrients, i.e. R-α-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, nicotinamide and biotin, just as with pioglitazone, significantly improves glucose tolerance, insulin release, plasma NEFA, skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats. However, it is not known whether treatment with these nutrients can improve mitochondrial function and reduce oxidative stress in GK rats. The effects of a combination of these four nutrients on mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and apoptosis in GK rat liver were investigated. Livers of untreated GK rats showed (1) abnormal changes in the activities of mitochondrial complexes (decreases in I, III and IV and increases in II and V), (2) increases in protein oxidation, (3) decreases in antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, NADH-quinone oxidoreductase-1), (4) a decrease in total antioxidant capacity but increases in reduced glutathione level and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase expression and (5) significant increases in apoptosis biomarkers, including expression of p21 and p53. A 3-month treatment with the four nutrients significantly improved most of these abnormalities in GK rats, and the effects of the nutrient combination were greater than those of pioglitazone for most of these indices. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with nutrients that are thought to influence mitochondrial function may be an effective strategy for improving liver dysfunction in GK diabetic rats.
This work studied systemically the device characteristics when the OFETs' channels turn into hundreds of nm. Standard planar OFETs have been fabricated using electronic beam lithography. Copper phthalocyanine is used as the semiconductor materials. When reduce the L to about 300 nm will lead an abrupt degradation of device performance. The ratio of Ion/Ioff turns from several hundreds into couple of tens. And when change the L to about 100 nm, the mobility turns from 10−2 cm2/Vs into 10m5 cm2/Vs, and the threshold voltage turns from about 12 V into 36 V. These abrupt changes are due to the changes of interface between active layer and insulator layer caused by the reducing the L to close to the grain size.
The genus Phellodendron (Rutaceae) is revised. This work is based on herbarium collections and field observations in eastern Asia. Two species are recognized: Phellodendron amurense Rupr. and Phellodendron chinense C.K.Schneid. All other specific and infraspecific names published in the genus are reduced to synonymy or excluded from the genus. Detailed morphology, character variability, an identification key, a distribution map, line drawings, and taxonomic treatments and lists of specimens examined are provided.
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