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This study aims to understand the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the paediatric population during the outbreak of the Omicron variant in Shanghai. We retrospectively analysed the population-based epidemiological characteristics and clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection in children in Minhang District, Shanghai, based on the citywide surveillance system during the outbreak period in 2022 (March to May). During this time, a total of 63,969 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were notified in Minhang District, out of which 4,652 (7.3%) were children and adolescents <18 years. The incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children was 153 per 10,000. Of all paediatric cases, 50% reported to be clinically symptomatic within 1–3 days after PCR confirmation by parents or themselves, with 36.3% and 18.9% of paediatric cases reporting fever and cough. Also, 58.4% of paediatric cases had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and 52.1% had received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccination. Our findings are informative for the implementation of appropriate measures to protect children from the threat of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder that needs treatment based on extensive experience. Antipsychotic drugs have already become the cornerstone of the treatment for schizophrenia; however, the therapeutic effect is of significant variability among patients, and only around a third of patients with schizophrenia show good efficacy. Meanwhile, drug-induced metabolic syndrome and other side-effects significantly affect treatment adherence and prognosis. Therefore, strategies for drug selection are desperately needed. In this study, we will perform pharmacogenomics research and set up an individualised preferred treatment prediction model.
We aim to create a standard clinical cohort, with multidimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia.
This trial is designed as a randomised clinical trial comparing treatment with different kinds of antipsychotics. A total sample of 2000 patients with schizophrenia will be recruited from in-patient units from five clinical research centres. Using a computer-generated program, the participants will be randomly assigned to four treatment groups: aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone. The primary outcomes will be measured as changes in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of schizophrenia, which reflects the efficacy. Secondary outcomes include the measure of side-effects, such as metabolic syndromes. The efficacy evaluation and side-effects assessment will be performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 3 months.
This trial will assess the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotics and create a standard clinical cohort with a multi-dimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia patients.
This study aims to set up an individualized preferred treatment prediction model through the genetic analysis of patients using different kinds of antipsychotics.
Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
A series of Ni/C catalysts with different Ni content (15, 20, and 30 wt% Ni) were prepared by the wet incipient impregnation method. Their textural properties were studied by surface fractal dimension (Ds) and nonlocal density functional theory using nitrogen sorption data. Their structural properties were studied by x-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, radial distribution functions (RDFs), and electron density maps of Fourier. Surface areas of Ni/C catalysts decreases slightly from 614 to 533 m2/g as Ni content increases from 15 to 30 wt%; however, the Ni crystallite size (5.1–31.4 nm) increases as the nickel content increases. Many point defects were found by Rietveld refinement in nickel nanostructures of Ni/C catalysts with 20 and 30 wt% Ni. This was confirmed by RDFs and electronic density maps. On the other hand, the hydrogen production via the photodehydrogenation of ethanol is very sensitive to the nickel crystallite size and the number Ni atoms in nickel nanostructures. The maximum reaction rate (363.64 μmol/h) is achieved on Ni/C catalyst with 15 Wt% Ni content which has the smallest crystallite size (5.1 nm) and less point defects in its nickel nanostructures. Ab initio calculations were performed to propose a reaction mechanism in the photodehydrogenation of ethanol.
Let ℨ be a complete set of Sylow subgroups of a finite group G; that is to say for each prime p dividing the order of G, ℨ contains one and only one Sylow p-subgroup of G. A subgroup H of G is said to be ℨ-permutable in G if H permutes with every member of ℨ. In this paper we characterise the structure of finite groups G with the assumption that (1) all the subgroups of Gp ∈ ℨ are ℨ-permutable in G, for all prime p ∈ π(G), or (2) all the subgroups of Gp ∩ F*(G) are ℨ-permutable in G, for all Gp ∈ ℨ and p ∈ π(G), where F*(G) is the generalised Fitting subgroup of G.
A solder ball is the key material of the bump fabrication in the BGA and μBGA high integrated packaging. The nodulizer type is the main factor to affect the quality of the solder ball. In the paper the solder balls are fabricated by the fine wire cutting–remelting method. The influence of different nodulizers on the real sphericity and the surface appearance of the solder balls are investigated. Results show that, the real sphericity of the 63Sn37Pb solder balls is maximum and the surface quality of the solder balls is the best compared with the engine oil, heavy oil and silicon oil when the arachis oil is used as the nodulizer.
The properties of W UMa binary stars are studied based on the well-determined physical parameters of 132 W UMa systems. It is found that the energy transfer rate has a maximum value at q ~ 0.58. The relation between the energy transfer rate and the temperature deviation is also investigated, and the temperature of the secondary component is related to the energy transfer rate.
The thermal properties of the nanocrystalline metal Ag (n-Ag), with the average grain size of 10 run, synthesized by an inert gas condensation and in situ compacting technique under different pressures of 0.2 to 1.5 GPa were studied. The thermal stable temperature for asprepared state is 373K, above which the grain growth appears at different rates. An exothermal peak and an endothermal peak occur on the DSC curves of the n-Ag. The enthalpy of both peaks are dependent upon the compacting pressure. Tht enhancement of the specific heat in going from the polycrystalline to the nanocrystalline state varies between 5.4% and 3.6% in the temperature range of 380K to 540K. The thermal diffusivity at room temperature increases with grain growth, and approaches to the corresponding value of the polycrystalline Ag.
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