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Obeticholic acid (OCA), a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist, has been demonstrated to ameliorate the histopathological characteristics of liver damage. Nonetheless, the systemic safety profile of OCA with regard to reproduction and development remains poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted a dose–response experiment by administering OCA at doses of 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, or 20 mg/kg through tube feeding to investigate its effect on reproductive development and fertilization rate in both male and female mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the levels of protein and mitochondrial function in the placenta through western blot, qPCR, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg OCA doses significantly reduced the rate of placental implantation (P < 0.05). Also, OCA increased maternal body weight. In addition, OCA increased levels of FXR and TGR5 and produced changes in oxidative stress levels (P < 0.05). Mitochondrial activity result found that 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of OCA significantly reduced the mitophagy autosomes/nucleus compared with the normal control group (P < 0.05). What is more, there was no significant difference in sperm count after OCA intervention in either C57BL/10 mice or BALB/c mice. Overall, we demonstrated that OCA treatment protected against placental implantation by suppressing placental oxidative stress and mitochondrial activity.
To investigate natural enemies of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in northeastern China, we conducted field surveys of ash (Fraxinus Linnaeus (Oleaceae)) trees in semi-natural forests and plantations at variable EAB densities from 2008 to 2013. Our surveys revealed a complex of natural enemies including eight hymenopteran parasitoids and two apparently parasitic Coleoptera, woodpeckers, and several undetermined mortality factors. Parasitoid complex abundance and its contribution to EAB mortality varied with the time of year, type of ash stands, and geographic regions. The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and the larval parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were frequently observed in Jilin, Liaoning, and Heilongjiang provinces and in Beijing, but not in Tianjin. Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), however, was more prevalent near Beijing and further south in Tianjin. Larvae of two species of apparently parasitic beetle, Tenerus Laporte (Coleoptera: Cleridae) species and Xenoglena quadrisignata Mannerheim (Coleoptera: Trogossitidae), were also recovered attacking overwintering EAB in Liaoning Province, with Tenerus species being a dominant mortality agent (~13%). Our findings support the need to consider the geographic origin of insect natural enemies for EAB biocontrol, as well as an expanded foreign exploration for EAB natural enemies throughout its native range in Asia.
Eu(DBM)3phen-doped poly(methyl methacryate) (PMMA) with different doping concentration were prepared. The highest doping concentration sample (10000 ppm) was examined by near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) with a resolution of 50 nm; and the result showed that there were no aggregates larger than 50 nm in the doped polymer. This result was further confirmed by optical properties of the doping material. Concentration quenching was not detected by metastable-state lifetime measurements, indicating that no aggregates existed. According to the fluorescence spectra analysis, the relative intensity ratio (R) of 5D0→7F2 to 5D0→7F1 transition was not shown to be significantly changed with the increasing of Eu3+ content. The analysis reflected that the local structure and asymmetry in the vicinity of europium ions were not changed, and that the Eu3+ ions in PMMA were homogeneously dispersed.
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