To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The subduction model of the Neo-Tethys during the Early Cretaceous has always been a controversial topic, and the scarcity of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the southern part of the Gangdese batholith is the main cause of this debate. To address this issue, this article presents new zircon U–Pb chronology, zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope data for the Early Cretaceous quartz diorite dykes with adakite affinity in Liuqiong, Gongga. Zircon U–Pb dating of three samples yielded ages of c. 141–137 Ma, indicating that the Liuqiong quartz diorite was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. The whole-rock geochemical analysis shows that the Liuqiong quartz diorite is enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and is depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), which are related to slab subduction. Additionally, the Liuqiong quartz diorite has high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr contents, high Sr/Y ratios and low heavy rare-earth element (HREE) and Y contents, which are compatible with typical adakite signatures. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the Liuqiong adakite range from 0.705617 to 0.705853, and the whole-rock ϵNd(t) values vary between +5.78 and +6.24. The zircon ϵHf(t) values vary from +11.5 to +16.4. Our results show that the Liuqiong adakite magma was derived from partial melting of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate (mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) + sediment + fluid), with some degree of subsequent peridotite interaction within the overlying mantle wedge. Combining regional data, we favour the interpretation that the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust was subducted at a low angle beneath the Gangdese during the Early Cretaceous.
Cap-shaped skeletal fossils are the earliest undisputed body fossils of mollusks appearing in the basal Cambrian. A study on the morphometry of cap-shaped fossils from the Nanjiang area (North Sichuan, China) is undertaken to understand the origin and evolution of the early mollusks. The distribution of these fossil cap-shaped mollusks indicates a stepwise increase in their diversity during the early Cambrian. Maikhanella Zhegallo in Voronin et al., 1982 co-occuring with the spinose sclerites of siphogonuchitids, is regarded as the earliest scleritized mollusk. It is followed by other maikhanellids, e.g., Purella Missarzhevsky, 1974 and Yunnanopleura Yu, 1987, which co-occur with the earliest univalved helcionellids, e.g., Igorella Missarzhevsky in Rozanov et al., 1969. Cluster analysis of their morphometric characteristics shows that the Maikhanella group is similar to the Purella and Yunnanopleura groups, but is less comparable with univalved helcionellids. The maikhanellids are interpreted as representatives of the stem group Aculifera, although it remains uncertain if one or two larger cap-shaped shell plates were present on the elongate slug-like body, comparable to those of Halkieria Poulsen, 1967 or Orthrozanclus Conway Morris and Caron, 2007. Maikhanellids are characterized by the prominent protrusions or scales on the cap-shaped shell plates arranged in a concentric pattern around the shell apex. Evolutionarily, the protrusions or scales are reduced in younger strata, whereas subsequently a typically concentric ornament developed, the cap-shaped shell plates developed higher profiles, and the apical region became increasingly bare of scales. Meanwhile, the cap-shaped shell plates gradually evolved into a helcionellid-like appearance with an anteroposteriorly inclined apex. The morphological evolution of the earliest sclerotized mollusks reflects biotic evolution and environmental adaption among the stem-group mollusks during the early Cambrian.
Under global warming, many glaciers worldwide are receding. However, recent studies have suggested the extension of the Karakoram Anomaly, a region of anomalous glacier mass gain, into the western Kunlun and eastern Pamir mountains. However, the eastern limit of this anomaly in the Kunlun Mountains is unclear. This study, using changes in glacier area and surface elevation, estimates the eastern limit of the Kunlun-Pamir-Karakoram anomaly at ~85°E. Over the past 50 years, glaciers west of 85°E in the Kunlun Mountains decreased in area from 8401 to 7945 km2 at a rate of −0.12 ± 0.07% a−1, showed a reduction in the rate of retreat through time and have recently gained mass, with surface elevation changes of 0.15 ± 0.35 m a−1 over the period of 2000–2013. Glaciers east of 85°E have experienced greater rates of area change (−61 ± 12 km2 and −0.43 ± 0.13% a−1) over the past 50 years, accelerated area loss in recent years and elevation change rate of −0.51 ± 0.18 m a−1 between 2000 and 2013. These patterns of elevation and area change are consistent with regional increases in summer temperature in the eastern Kunlun Mountains and slight cooling in the western Kunlun Mountains.
Sporadic clusters of healthcare-associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred despite intense rostered routine surveillance and a highly vaccinated healthcare worker (HCW) population, during a community surge of the severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.617.2 δ (delta) variant. Genomic analysis facilitated timely cluster detection and uncovered additional linkages via HCWs moving between clinical areas and among HCWs sharing a common lunch area, enabling early intervention.
Demodex infestation and density changes remain one of the main challenges in some clinical settings. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors have been recommended as a first-line treatment for ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, there have been no studies investigating the impact of TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab on changes in the Demodex density in patients with AS. The aim of this study was to investigate Demodex density changes before and after adalimumab treatment and analyse the relationship between the Demodex density and clinical characteristics in AS. It was found that the Demodex density was positively correlated with age and C-reactive protein levels and the number of Demodex mites could increase after adalimumab treatment in AS.
The sedimentary characteristics and preservation potential of lacustrine carbonates provide fundamental information on climate change. The lacustrine carbonate deposition in the Eocene Dongying Depression was investigated using a combination of mineralogical, petrological and geochemical analyses. Micritic calcite/dolomite, granular calcite, columnar calcite, calcareous shell fragments and reworked detrital calcite were identified. Varying patterns of carbonates (VPC) including lithofacies, geochemical indicators and carbonate distribution were revealed in the Dongying Depression: (i) carbonates hardly precipitate in the nearshore area (average 12 wt %); (ii) carbonate content is high (average 53 wt %) in the shallow lake and (iii) gradually decreases to reach a minimum (average 24 wt %) in the deeper part of the lake. Comparison of VPC in four Holocene lakes (the Qinghai Lake and Barkol Lake in China, Oro Lake in Canada and Montcortès Lake in Spain) with the Dongying Depression suggests that four distinct lake stages were developed, namely the terrigenous clastic/gypsum-rich, carbonate-rich, carbonate-decreasing and carbonate-poor stages. A depositional model of lacustrine carbonates influenced by detrital influx, climate, palaeoproductivity and salinity is developed. This study contributes to the understanding of the genetic mechanisms of lacustrine carbonate deposition to reconstruct environmental changes.
The wheat aphid Sitobion miscanthi (CWA) is an important harmful pest in wheat fields. Insecticide application is the main method to effectively control wheat aphids. However, CWA has developed resistance to some insecticides due to its extensive application, and understanding resistance mechanisms is crucial for the management of CWA. In our study, a new P450 gene, CYP4CJ6, was identified from CWA and showed a positive response to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Transcription of CYP4CJ6 was significantly induced by both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and overexpression of CYP4CJ6 in the imidacloprid-resistant strain was also observed. The sensitivity of CWA to these two insecticides was increased after the knockdown of CYP4CJ6. These results indicated that CYP4CJ6 could be associated with CWA resistance to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Subsequently, the posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism was assessed, and miR-316 was confirmed to participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of CYP4CJ6. These results are crucial for clarifying the roles of P450 in the resistance of CWA to insecticides.
This review aimed to compare the clinical features and CT imaging features between patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer and patients with PTB alone. That would help to analyse the differences between the two and consequently providing a theoretical basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment for the patients. Relevant case-control studies focusing on the clinical and CT imaging characteristics between PTB with lung cancer and PTB alone were systematically searched from five electronic databases. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for comparison. As of 2021-07-06, a total of 1735 articles were retrieved. But only 15 articles were finally included for meta-analysis. The results showed a higher proportion of irritable cough, haemorrhagic pleural effusion and lower proportion of night sweating in PTB patients with lung cancer than in PTB patients, and the differences were statistically significant (irritable cough: OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.43–4.11; haemorrhagic pleural effusion: OR 5.73, 95% CI 1.63–20.12; night sweating: OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.36–0.87). In addition, there are many differences in the imaging characteristics of the two types of patients. In conclusion, this review summarises the similarities and differences in clinical symptoms and imaging features between patients with PTB and lung cancer and patients with PTB alone, suggesting that we should be alert to the occurrence of lung cancer in patients with obsolete PTB relapse.
Extensive magmatism in NE China, eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, has produced multi-stage granitic plutons and accompanying W mineralization. The Narenwula complex in the southwestern Great Xing’an Range provides important insights into the petrogenesis, geodynamic processes and relationship with W mineralization. The complex comprises granodiorites, monzogranites and granite porphyry. Mafic microgranular enclaves are common in the granodiorites, and have similar zircon U–Pb ages as their host rocks (258.5–253.9 Ma), whereas the W-bearing granitoids yield emplacement ages of 149.8–148.1 Ma. Permian granodiorites are I-type granites that are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements, and depleted in high field strength elements and heavy rare earth elements. Both the mafic microgranular enclaves and granodiorites have nearly identical zircon Hf isotopic compositions. The results suggest that the mafic microgranular enclaves and granodiorites formed by the mixing of mafic and felsic magmas. W-bearing granitoids are highly fractionated A-type granites, enriched in Rb, Th, U and Pb, and depleted in Ba, Sr, P, Ti and Eu. They have higher W concentrations and Rb/Sr ratios, and lower Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and K/Rb ratios than the W-barren granodiorites. These data and negative ϵHf(t) values (–6.0 to –2.1) suggest that they were derived from the partial melting of ancient lower crust and subsequently underwent extreme fractional crystallization. Based on the regional geology, we propose that the granodiorites were generated in a volcanic arc setting related to the subduction of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean, whereas the W-bearing granitoids and associated deposits formed in a post-orogenic extensional setting controlled by the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean and Palaeo-Pacific Ocean tectonic regimes.
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has shown tremendous potential in rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). In the current study, we performed WGS on drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from Shanghai (n = 137) and Russia (n = 78). We aimed to characterise the underlying and high-frequency novel drug-resistance-conferring mutations, and also create valuable combinations of resistance mutations with high predictive sensitivity to predict multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) phenotype using a bootstrap method. Most strains belonged to L2.2, L4.2, L4.4, L4.5 and L4.8 lineages. We found that WGS could predict 82.07% of phenotypically drug-resistant domestic strains. The prediction sensitivity for rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB), streptomycin (STR), ofloxacin (OFL), amikacin (AMK) and capreomycin (CAP) was 79.71%, 86.30%, 76.47%, 88.37%, 83.33%, 70.00% and 70.00%, respectively. The mutation combination with the highest sensitivity for MDR prediction was rpoB S450L + rpoB H445A/P + katG S315T + inhA I21T + inhA S94A, with a sensitivity of 92.17% (0.8615, 0.9646), and the mutation combination with highest sensitivity for XDR prediction was rpoB S450L + katG S315T + gyrA D94G + rrs A1401G, with a sensitivity of 92.86% (0.8158, 0.9796). The molecular information presented here will be of particular value for the rapid clinical detection of MDR- and XDR-TB isolates through laboratory diagnosis.
The unprecedented disruption brought about by the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had produced tremendous influence on the practice of pharmacy. Sufficient knowledge of pharmacists was needed to deal with the epidemic situation; however, outbreak also aggravated psychological distress among health-care professionals. Therefore, this study aimed to determine knowledge about the pandemic and related factors, prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress among hospital pharmacists of Xinjiang Province, China.
An anonymous online questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted by means of WeChat, a popular social media platform in China, February 23-27, 2020, during the COVID-19 outbreak. The survey questionnaire consisted of 4 parts, including informed consent section, demographic section, knowledge about COVID-19, and assessment of overall mental health through World Health Organization’s Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). A score of 8 or above on SRQ-20 was used as cutoff to classify the participant as in psychological distress. SRQ-20 score and related knowledge score were used as dependent variables, demographic characteristics (such as gender, age, monthly income, etc.) were used as independent variables, and univariate binary logistic regression was used to screen out the variables with P < 0.05. Then, the filtered variables were used as independent variables, and multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze associations with sufficient knowledge of COVID-19 and psychological distress.
A total of 365 pharmacists participated in the survey, fewer than half (35.1%; n = 128) of pharmacists attained a score of 6 or greater (out of 10) in overall disease knowledge, and most were able to select effective disinfectants and isolation or discharge criteria. In the multivariable model, age ages 31-40 (odds ratio [OR] = 3.25; P < 0.05), ages 41-50 (OR = 2.96; P < 0.05) versus >50 (referent); primary place of practice in hospitals: drug supply (OR = 4.00; P < 0.01), inpatient pharmacy (OR = 2.06, P < 0.01), clinical pharmacy (OR = 2.17, P < 0.05) versus outpatient pharmacy (referent); monthly income Renminbi (RMB, China’s legal currency) 5000-10,000 (OR = 1.77; P < 0.05) versus < 5000 (referent); contact with COVID-19 patients or suspected cases (OR = 2.27; P < 0.01); access to COVID-19 knowledge remote work+ on-site work (OR = 6.07; P < 0.05), single on-site work (OR = 6.90; P < 0.01) versus remote work (referent) were related to better knowledge of COVID-19. Research found that 18.4% of pharmacists surveyed met the SRQ-20 threshold for distress. Self-reported history of mental illness (OR = 3.56; P < 0.05) and working and living in hospital versus delay in work resumption (OR = 2.87; P < 0.01) were found to be risk factors of psychological distress.
Further training of COVID-19 knowledge was required for pharmacists. As specific pharmacist groups were prone to psychological distress, it was important for individual hospitals and government to consider and identify pharmacists’ needs and take steps to meet their needs with regard to pandemic and other work-related distress.
This study aimed to determine the risk factors for chronic diseases and to identify the potential influencing mechanisms from the perspectives of lifestyle and dietary factors. The findings could provide updated and innovative evidence for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.
A cross-sectional study.
1005 adults from Yangpu district of Shanghai participated in the study, and responded to questions on dietary habits, lifestyle and health status.
Residents suffering from chronic diseases accounted for about 34·99 % of the respondents. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, diet quality, amount of exercise and tea drinking were related to chronic diseases. Age > 60 and overeating (Diet Balance Index total score > 0) had negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease, while overexercise (Physical Activity Index > 17·1) and tea drinking had negative multiplicative interaction and negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease. Diet quality, physical activity and tea drinking were incomplete mediators of the relationship between types of medical insurance residents participating in and chronic diseases.
The residents in Yangpu District of Shanghai have a high prevalence of chronic diseases. Strengthening access of residents to health education and interventions to prevent chronic diseases and cultivating healthy eating and exercise habits of residents are crucial. The nutritional environment of the elderly population should be considered, and the reimbursement level of different types of medical insurance should be designed reasonably to improve the accessibility of medical and health services and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
To investigate the association between the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare the predictive value of the METS-VF for T2DM incidence with other obesity indices in Chinese people. A total of 12 237 non-T2DM participants aged over 18 years from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study of 2007–2008 were included at baseline and followed up during 2013–2014. The cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the association between baseline METS-VF and T2DM risk. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the association between METS-VF and T2DM risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict T2DM incidence. During a median follow-up of 6·01 (95 % CI 5·09, 6·06) years, 837 cases developed T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR for the highest v. lowest METS-VF quartile was 5·97 (95 % CI 4·28, 8·32), with a per 1-sd increase in METS-VF positively associated with T2DM risk. Positive associations were also found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses, respectively. A significant nonlinear dose–response association was observed between METS-VF and T2DM risk for all participants (Pnonlinearity = 0·0347). Finally, the AUC value of METS-VF for predicting T2DM was largest among six indices. The METS-VF may be a reliable and applicable predictor of T2DM incidence in Chinese people regardless of sex, age or BMI.
Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the aetiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) as well as 95 % CI for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8·96 years (interquartile range 8·29–9·53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that the regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0·80 (95 % CI, 0·75, 0·85; P < 0·001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HR for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0·84 (0·73, 0·96), 0·84 (0·77, 0·92) and 0·71 (0·62, 0·80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (Pfor interaction = 0·078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14 % to 84 % through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
The medium-sized Ergu Fe–Zn polymetallic skarn deposit is located in the central Lesser Xing’an Range, NE China. The ore bodies are mainly hosted in the contact zone between granodiorite intrusions and lower Cambrian dolomitic crystalline limestones or skarns. To reveal the magmatic influence on the mineralization, resource potential and metallogenic geodynamic process of this deposit, a systematic study of the geology, petrology, zircon U–Pb dating, element geochemistry, amphibole geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotopes of the Ergu deposit intrusives was conducted. The results show the following: (1) The major rock types in the mine area are medium-grained granodiorite and porphyritic granite, and the rock related to mineralization is medium-grained granodiorite. Zircon U–Pb dating suggests that the granodiorite and porphyritic granite formed at 181.9–183.8 Ma and 182.7 Ma, respectively. Thus, an Early Jurassic magmatic event led to the formation of the Ergu deposit. (2) The granodiorite and porphyritic granite are high-K calc-alkaline I-type granites that formed by comagmatic evolution with varying degrees of fractional crystallization and were likely derived from partial melting of the lower crust. The Ergu deposit occurred in an active continental-margin tectonic setting. (3) The high water content (5.69 wt % H2O), high oxygen fugacity (ΔFMQ = +1.75 to +1.82) and intermediate-plutonic emplacement (3.13 km) of the granodioritic magma are key factors in the formation of the Ergu deposit. The porphyry granite is characterized by high water content (>4 wt % H2O), reduced oxygen fugacity (ΔFMQ = −0.47) and shallow emplacement (<3 km).