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Acanthocephalans of the order Polymorphida mainly parasitic in birds and mammals, are of veterinary, medical and economic importance. However, the evolutionary relationships of its 3 families (Centrorhynchidae, Polymorphidae and Plagiorhynchidae) remain under debate. Additionally, some species of Polymorphida (i.e. Bolbosoma spp. and Corynosoma spp.) are recognized as zoonotic parasites, associated with human acanthocephaliasis, but the mitochondrial genomes for representatives of Bolbosoma and Corynosoma have not been reported so far. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genomes B. nipponicum and C. villosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) are reported for the first time, which are 14 296 and 14 241 bp in length, respectively, and both contain 36 genes [including 12 PCGs, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes] and 2 non-coding regions (NCR1 and NCR2). The gene arrangement of some tRNAs in the mitogenomes of B. nipponicum and C. villosum differs from that found in all other acanthocephalans, except Polymorphus minutus. Phylogenetic results based on concatenated amino acid (AA) sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) strongly supported that the family Polymorphidae is a sister to the Centrorhynchidae rather than the Plagiorhynchidae, and also confirmed the sister relationship of the genera Bolbosoma and Corynosoma in the Polymorphidae based on the mitogenomic data for the first time. Our present findings further clarified the phylogenetic relationships of the 3 families Plagiorhynchidae, Centrorhynchidae and Polymorphidae, enriched the mitogenome data of the phylum Acanthocephala (especially the order Polymorphida), and provided the resource of genetic data for diagnosing these 2 pathogenic parasites of human acanthocephaliasis.
Chronic total coronary occlusion is among the most complex coronary artery diseases. Elevated homocysteine is a risk factor for coronary artery diseases. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between homocysteine and chronic total coronary occlusion.
1295 individuals from Southwest China were enrolled in the study. Chronic total coronary occlusion was defined as complete occlusion of coronary artery for more than three months. Homocysteine was divided into quartiles according to its level. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models, receiver operating characteristic curves, and subgroup analysis were applied to assess the relationship between homocysteine and chronic total coronary occlusion.
Subjects in the higher homocysteine quartile had a higher rate of chronic total coronary occlusion (P < 0.001). After adjustment, the odds ratio for chronic total coronary occlusion in the highest quartile of homocysteine compared with the lowest was 1.918 (95% confidence interval 1.237–2.972). Homocysteine ≥ 15.2 μmol/L was considered an independent indicator of chronic total coronary occlusion (odds ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.23; P = 0.0265). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.659 (95% confidence interval, 0.618–0.701; P < 0.001). Stronger associations were observed in elderly and in those with hypertension and diabetes.
Elevated homocysteine is significantly associated with chronic total coronary occlusion, particularly in elderly and those with hypertension and diabetes.
Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is a globally distributed noxious weed that poses a significant challenge for control due to its fast and efficient propagation through the tuber, which is the primary reproductive organ. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has proven to be crucial for tuberization in tuberous plants. Therefore, understanding the relationship between GA3 and tuber development and propagation of C. rotundus will provide valuable information for controlling this weed. This study shows that the GA3 content decreases with tuber development, which corresponds to lower expression of bioactive GA3 synthesis genes (CrGA20ox, two CrGA3ox genes) and two upregulated GA3 catabolism genes (CrGA2ox genes), indicating that GA3 is involved in tuber development. Simultaneously, the expression of two CrDELLA genes and CrGID1 declines with tuber growth and decreased GA3, and yeast two-hybrid assays confirm that the GA3 signaling is DELLA-dependent. Furthermore, exogenous application of GA3 markedly reduces the number and the width of tubers and represses the growth of the tuber chain, further confirming the negative impact that GA3 has on tuber development and propagation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GA3 is involved in tuber development and regulated by the DELLA-dependent pathway in C. rotundus and plays a negative role in tuber development and propagation.
Obeticholic acid (OCA), a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist, has been demonstrated to ameliorate the histopathological characteristics of liver damage. Nonetheless, the systemic safety profile of OCA with regard to reproduction and development remains poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted a dose–response experiment by administering OCA at doses of 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, or 20 mg/kg through tube feeding to investigate its effect on reproductive development and fertilization rate in both male and female mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the levels of protein and mitochondrial function in the placenta through western blot, qPCR, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg OCA doses significantly reduced the rate of placental implantation (P < 0.05). Also, OCA increased maternal body weight. In addition, OCA increased levels of FXR and TGR5 and produced changes in oxidative stress levels (P < 0.05). Mitochondrial activity result found that 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of OCA significantly reduced the mitophagy autosomes/nucleus compared with the normal control group (P < 0.05). What is more, there was no significant difference in sperm count after OCA intervention in either C57BL/10 mice or BALB/c mice. Overall, we demonstrated that OCA treatment protected against placental implantation by suppressing placental oxidative stress and mitochondrial activity.
Nonlinear compression has become an obligatory technique along with the development of ultrafast lasers in generating ultrashort pulses with narrow pulse widths and high peak power. In particular, techniques of nonlinear compression have experienced a rapid progress as ytterbium (Yb)-doped lasers with pulse widths in the range from hundreds of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds have become mainstream laser tools for both scientific and industrial applications. Here, we report a simple and stable nonlinear pulse compression technique with high efficiency through cascaded filamentation in air followed by dispersion compensation. Pulses at a center wavelength of 1040 nm with millijoule pulse energy and 160 fs pulse width from a high-power Yb:CaAlGdO4 regenerative amplifier are compressed to 32 fs, with only 2.4% loss from the filamentation process. The compressed pulse has a stable output power with a root-mean-square variation of 0.2% over 1 hour.
Routine blood examination is an easy way to examine infectious diseases. This study is aimed to develop a model to diagnose serious bacterial infections (SBI) in ICU neonates based on routine blood parameters. This was a cross-sectional study, and data were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III). SBI was defined as suffering from one of the following: pyelonephritis, bacteraemia, bacterial meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, cellulitis, and osteomyelitis. Variables with statistical significance in the univariate logistic regression analysis and log systemic immune–inflammatory index (SII) were used to develop the model. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the performance of the model. A total of 1,880 participants were finally included for analysis. Weight, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, white blood cell, monocyte, premature delivery, and log SII were selected to develop the model. The developed model showed a good performance to diagnose SBI for ICU neonates, with an AUC of 0.812 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.737–0.888). A nomogram was developed to make this model visualise. In conclusion, our model based on routine blood parameters performed well in the diagnosis of neonatal SBI, which may be helpful for clinicians to improve treatment recommendations.
Placental trophoblastic cells play important roles in placental development and fetal health. However, the mechanism of trophoblastic cell fusion is still not entirely clear. The level of Tspan5 in the embryo culture medium was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fusion of BeWo cells was observed by immunofluorescence. Cell fusion-related factors and EMT-related factors were identified by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Notch protein repressor DAPT was used to verify the role of Tspan5 in BeWo cells. The expression of Tspan5 was significantly increased in embryo culture medium. The fusion of BeWo cells was observed after treatment with forskolin (FSK). Cell fusion-related factors (i.e. β-hCG and syncytin 1/2) and Tspan5 were significantly increased after FSK treatment. In addition, FSK treatment promoted EMT-related protein expression in BeWo cells. Knockdown of Tspan5 inhibited cell fusion and EMT-related protein levels. Notch-1 and Jagged-1 protein levels were significantly upregulated, and the EMT process was activated by overexpression of Tspan5 in FSK-treated BeWo cells. Interestingly, blocking the Notch pathway by the repressor DAPT had the opposite results. These results indicated that Tspan5 could promote the EMT process by activating the Notch pathway, thereby causing cell fusion. These findings contribute to a better understanding of trophoblast cell syncytialization and embryonic development. Tspan5 may be used as a therapeutic target for normal placental development.
Since globalization, using second languages (L2) to make decisions about future is more common than ever. In this study, we tested the merged effect of two language features, i.e., the future-time reference (FTR) and L2, on intertemporal decision and its indirect mediators, future orientation, and subjective future perception. As a pair of languages with different FTR, English (strong-FTR) has a clear grammatical separation between present and future, while Chinese (weak-FTR) does not. Here, Chinese first language (L1) speakers made intertemporal decisions using either Chinese (L1) or English (L2). Across three studies (N = 1022) and an internal meta-analysis, we found that using a strong-FTR L2 did not change participants’ intertemporal preference but did reduce their future orientation. These findings highlight a holistic perspective merging language features, outcome variables and measurement methods. These findings also imply a need for caution to use second language as nudge strategy in intertemporal decision-making.
Understanding user perceptions of interacting with the virtual world is one of the research focuses in recent years, given the rapid proliferation of virtual reality (VR) and driven to establish the metaverse. Users can generate a familiar connection between their bodies and the virtual world by being embodied in virtual hands, and hand representations can induce users’ embodiment in VR. The sense of embodiment represents the cognitive awareness of one's manifestation and includes three subcomponents: the sense of body ownership, agency and self-location. There is insufficient evidence in the literature about the effects of hand designs on the embodiment, especially based on studying its three subcomponents. This study investigates how virtual hand designs with five realism levels influence the three subcomponents of embodiment in VR. This research employs a self-report questionnaire commonly used in the literature to assess embodiment and evaluates agency and self-location by introducing implicit methods (intentional binding and proprioceptive measurement) derived from psychology. Besides, the objective data of eye tracking is used to explore the connection between embodiment and hand designs, and classifying participants’ eye tracking data to help analyze the link between embodiment and user attention. Overall, this research makes a major contribution through a systematic exploration of users’ embodied experience in VR and offers important evidence of the effects of virtual hand designs on body ownership, agency, and self-location, respectively. In addition, this study provides a valuable reference for further investigation of embodiment through implicit and objective methods, and practical design recommendations for virtual hand design in VR applications.
This study aimed to explore the mediation effects of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) related nutrients on the association between MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured in the serum of 1254 pregnant women. Linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the associations of OCM nutrients and MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose levels and GDM risk. Mediation analysis was applied to test the mediation effects of folate, vitamin B12 and Hcy on the association of MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose concentrations and GDM. Pregnant women with MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype had higher serum folate (10·75 v. 8·90 and 9·40 ng/ml) and lower serum Hcy (4·84 v. 4·93 and 5·20 μmol/l) than those with CT and TT genotypes. Folate concentrations were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 1-h plasma glucose (1-h PG), 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) and GDM risk. Vitamin B12 levels were negatively correlated with FPG and GDM. Although no direct association was found between MTHFR rs1801133 genotypes and GDM, there were significant indirect effects of MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype on FPG (β: 0·005; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·013), 1-h PG (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014), 2-h PG (β: 0·007; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·015) and GDM (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014) via folate. In conclusion, serum folate mediates the effect of MTHFR rs1801133 on blood glucose levels and GDM. Our findings potentially provide a feasible GDM prevention strategy via individualised folate supplementation according to the MTHFR genotypes.
As optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has been widely adopted for the generation of extreme intensity laser sources, nonlinear crystals of large aperture are demanded for high-energy amplifiers. Yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCa4O(BO3)3, YCOB) is capable of being grown with apertures exceeding 100 mm, which makes it possible for application in systems of petawatt scale. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge, an ultra-broadband non-collinear optical parametric amplifier with YCOB for petawatt-scale compressed pulse generation at 800 nm. Based on the SG-II 5 PW facility, amplified signal energy of approximately 40 J was achieved and pump-to-signal conversion efficiency was up to 42.3%. A gain bandwidth of 87 nm was realized and supported a compressed pulse duration of 22.3 fs. The near-field and wavefront aberration represented excellent characteristics, which were comparable with those achieved in lithium triborate-based amplifiers. These results verified the great potential for YCOB utilization in the future.
The associations of red/processed meat consumption and cancer-related health outcomes have been well discussed. The umbrella review aimed to summarise the associations of red/processed meat consumption and various non-cancer-related outcomes in humans. We systematically searched the systematic reviews and meta-analyses of associations between red/processed meat intake and health outcomes from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases. The umbrella review has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD 42021218568). A total of 40 meta-analyses were included. High consumption of red meat, particularly processed meat, was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality, CVD and metabolic outcomes. Dose–response analysis revealed that an additional 100 g/d red meat intake was positively associated with a 17 % increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 15 % increased risk of CHD, 14 % of hypertension and 12 % of stroke. The highest dose–response/50 g increase in processed meat consumption at 95 % confident levels was 1·37, 95 % CI (1·22, 1·55) for T2DM, 1·27, 95 % CI (1·09, 1·49) for CHD, 1·17, 95 % CI (1·02, 1·34) for stroke, 1·15, 95 % CI (1·11, 1·19) for all-cause mortality and 1·08, 95 % CI (1·02, 1·14) for heart failure. In addition, red/processed meat intake was associated with several other health-related outcomes. Red and processed meat consumption seems to be more harmful than beneficial to human health in this umbrella review. It is necessary to take the impacts of red/processed meat consumption on non-cancer-related outcomes into consideration when developing new dietary guidelines, which will be of great public health importance. However, more additional randomised controlled trials are warranted to clarify the causality.
Whether starchy and non-starchy vegetables have distinct impacts on health remains unknown. We prospectively investigated the intake of starchy and non-starchy vegetables in relation to mortality risk in a nationwide cohort. Diet was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. Deaths were identified via the record linkage to the National Death Index. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were calculated using Cox regression. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years, 4904 deaths were documented among 40 074 participants aged 18 years or older. Compared to those with no consumption, participants with daily consumption of ≥ 1 serving of non-starchy vegetables had a lower risk of mortality (HR = 0·76, 95 % CI 0·66, 0·88, Ptrend = 0·001). Dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables (HR = 0·79, 95 % CI 0·63, 0·99, Ptrend = 0·023) and other non-starchy vegetables (HR = 0·80, 95 % CI 0·70, 0·92, Ptrend = 0·004) showed similar results. Total starchy vegetable intake exhibited a marginally weak inverse association with mortality risk (HR = 0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 1·00, Ptrend = 0·048), while potatoes showed a null association (HR = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·82, 1·06, Ptrend = 0·186). Restricted cubic spline analysis suggested a linear dose–response relationship between vegetable intake and death risk, with a plateau at over 300 and 200 g/d for total and non-starchy vegetables, respectively. Compared with starchy vegetables, non-starchy vegetables might be more beneficial to health, although both showed a protective association with mortality risk. The risk reduction in mortality plateaued at approximately 200 g/d for non-starchy vegetables and 300 g/d for total vegetables.
To investigate the spiritual care needs and their attributes among Chinese elders hospitalized for severe chronic heart failure (CHF) based on the Kano model, in order to provide a reference for improving the quality and satisfaction of spiritual care.
An observational design was implemented, and the STROBE Checklist was used to ensure quality reporting of the study. The demographic characteristics questionnaire, the Nurse Spiritual Therapeutics Scale, and the Kano model–based Nurse Spiritual Therapeutics Attributes Scale were used. A convenience sample of 451 patients were selected from 2 hospitals. Descriptive statistics, and Kano model were used to analyze the data.
The total score of spiritual care needs was 29.95 ± 7.51. Among the 12 items, 3 items were attractive attributes, all of which were located in Reserving Zone IV; 5 items were one-dimensional attributes, of which 3 were located in Predominance Zone I and 2 were located in Improving Zone II; 2 items were must-be attributes, all of which were located in Improving Zone II; and 2 items were indifference attributes, all of which were located in Secondary Improving Zone III.
Significance of results
The spiritual care needs among Chinese elders hospitalized for severe CHF were moderate. The must-be and one-dimensional attributes mainly focus on “creating a good atmosphere” and “sharing self-perception” dimensions, while attractive attributes mainly focus on “sharing self-perception” and “helping thinking” dimensions. It is suggested that hospital authority should develop and innovate attractive attributes on the basis of maintaining and perfecting must-be and one-dimensional attributes, and objectively analyze and optimize indifference attributes.
In this work, an artificial neural network model is established to understand the relationship among the tensile properties of as-printed Ti6Al4V parts, annealing parameters, and the tensile properties of annealed Ti6Al4V parts. The database was established by collecting published reports on the annealing treatment of selective laser melting (SLM) Ti6Al4V, from 2006 to 2020. Using the established model, it is possible to prescribe annealing parameters and predict properties after annealing for SLM Ti-6Al-4V parts with high confidence. The model shows high accuracy in the prediction of yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). It is found that the YS and UTS are sensitive to the annealing parameters, including temperature and holding time. The YS and UTS are also sensitive to initial YS and UTS of as-printed parts. The model suggests that an annealing process of the holding time of fewer than 4 h and the holding temperature lower than 850°C is desirable for as-printed Ti6Al4V parts to reach the YS required by the ASTM standard. By studying the collected data of microstructure and tensile properties of annealed Ti6Al4V, a new Hall-Petch relationship is proposed to correlate grain size and YS for annealed SLM Ti6Al4V parts in this work. The prediction of strain to failure shows lower accuracy compared with the predictions of YS and UTS due to the large scattering of the experimental data collected from the published reports.
The subduction model of the Neo-Tethys during the Early Cretaceous has always been a controversial topic, and the scarcity of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the southern part of the Gangdese batholith is the main cause of this debate. To address this issue, this article presents new zircon U–Pb chronology, zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope data for the Early Cretaceous quartz diorite dykes with adakite affinity in Liuqiong, Gongga. Zircon U–Pb dating of three samples yielded ages of c. 141–137 Ma, indicating that the Liuqiong quartz diorite was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. The whole-rock geochemical analysis shows that the Liuqiong quartz diorite is enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and is depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), which are related to slab subduction. Additionally, the Liuqiong quartz diorite has high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr contents, high Sr/Y ratios and low heavy rare-earth element (HREE) and Y contents, which are compatible with typical adakite signatures. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the Liuqiong adakite range from 0.705617 to 0.705853, and the whole-rock ϵNd(t) values vary between +5.78 and +6.24. The zircon ϵHf(t) values vary from +11.5 to +16.4. Our results show that the Liuqiong adakite magma was derived from partial melting of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate (mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) + sediment + fluid), with some degree of subsequent peridotite interaction within the overlying mantle wedge. Combining regional data, we favour the interpretation that the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust was subducted at a low angle beneath the Gangdese during the Early Cretaceous.
Cap-shaped skeletal fossils are the earliest undisputed body fossils of mollusks appearing in the basal Cambrian. A study on the morphometry of cap-shaped fossils from the Nanjiang area (North Sichuan, China) is undertaken to understand the origin and evolution of the early mollusks. The distribution of these fossil cap-shaped mollusks indicates a stepwise increase in their diversity during the early Cambrian. Maikhanella Zhegallo in Voronin et al., 1982 co-occuring with the spinose sclerites of siphogonuchitids, is regarded as the earliest scleritized mollusk. It is followed by other maikhanellids, e.g., Purella Missarzhevsky, 1974 and Yunnanopleura Yu, 1987, which co-occur with the earliest univalved helcionellids, e.g., Igorella Missarzhevsky in Rozanov et al., 1969. Cluster analysis of their morphometric characteristics shows that the Maikhanella group is similar to the Purella and Yunnanopleura groups, but is less comparable with univalved helcionellids. The maikhanellids are interpreted as representatives of the stem group Aculifera, although it remains uncertain if one or two larger cap-shaped shell plates were present on the elongate slug-like body, comparable to those of Halkieria Poulsen, 1967 or Orthrozanclus Conway Morris and Caron, 2007. Maikhanellids are characterized by the prominent protrusions or scales on the cap-shaped shell plates arranged in a concentric pattern around the shell apex. Evolutionarily, the protrusions or scales are reduced in younger strata, whereas subsequently a typically concentric ornament developed, the cap-shaped shell plates developed higher profiles, and the apical region became increasingly bare of scales. Meanwhile, the cap-shaped shell plates gradually evolved into a helcionellid-like appearance with an anteroposteriorly inclined apex. The morphological evolution of the earliest sclerotized mollusks reflects biotic evolution and environmental adaption among the stem-group mollusks during the early Cambrian.