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Dietary antioxidant indices (DAI) may be potentially associated with relative telomere length (RTL) of leucocytes. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between DAI and RTL. A cross-sectional study involving 1656 participants was conducted. A generalised linear regression model and a restricted cubic spline model were used to assess the correlation of DAI and its components with RTL. Generalised linear regression analysis revealed that DAI (β = 0·005, P = 0·002) and the intake of its constituents vitamin C (β = 0·043, P = 0·027), vitamin E (β = 0·088, P < 0·001), Se (β = 0·075, P = 0·003), and Zn (β = 0·075, P = 0·023) were significantly and positively correlated with RTL. Sex-stratified analysis showed that DAI (β = 0·006, P = 0·005) and its constituents vitamin E (β = 0·083, P = 0·012), Se (β = 0·093, P = 0·006), and Zn (β = 0·092, P = 0·034) were significantly and positively correlated with RTL among females. Meanwhile, among males, only vitamin E intake (β = 0·089, P = 0·013) was significantly and positively associated with RTL. Restricted cubic spline analysis revealed linear positive associations between DAI and its constituents’ (vitamin E, Se and Zn) intake and RTL in the total population. Sex-stratified analysis revealed a linear positive correlation between DAI and its constituents’ (vitamin E, Se and Zn) intake and RTL in females. Our study found a significant positive correlation between DAI and RTL, with sex differences.
We numerically investigated the global linear instability and bifurcations in electro-thermo-convection (ETC) of a dielectric liquid confined in a two-dimensional (2-D) concentric annulus subjected to a strong unipolar injection. Seven kinds of solutions exist in this ETC system due to the complex bifurcations, i.e. saddle-node, subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations. These bifurcation routes constitute at most four solution branches. Global linear instability analysis and energy analysis were conducted to explain the instability mechanism and transition of different solutions and to predict the local instability regions. The linearized lattice Boltzmann method (LLBM) for global linear instability analysis, first proposed by Pérez et al. (Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., vol. 31, 2017, pp. 643–664) to analyse incompressible flows, was extended here to solve the whole set of coupled linear equations, including the linear Navier–Stokes equations, the linear energy equation, Poisson's equation and the linear charge conservation equation. A multiscale analysis was also performed to recover the macroscopic linearized Navier–Stokes equations from the four different discrete lattice Boltzmann equations (LBEs). The LLBM was validated by calculating the linear critical value of 2-D natural convection; it has an error of 1.39% compared with the spectral method. Instability with global travelling wave behaviour is a unique behaviour in the annulus configuration electrothermohydrodynamic system, which may be caused by the baroclinity. Finally, the chaotic behaviour was quantitatively analysed through calculation of the fractal dimension and Lyapunov exponent.
High-power femtosecond mid-infrared (MIR) lasers are of vast importance to both fundamental research and applications. We report a high-power femtosecond master oscillator power amplifier laser system consisting of a single-mode Er:ZBLAN fiber mode-locked oscillator and pre-amplifier followed by a large-mode-area Er:ZBLAN fiber main amplifier. The main amplifier is actively cooled and bidirectionally pumped at 976 nm, generating a slope efficiency of 26.9%. Pulses of 8.12 W, 148 fs at 2.8 μm with a repetition rate of 69.65 MHz are achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power ever achieved from a femtosecond MIR laser source. Such a compact ultrafast laser system is promising for a wide range of applications, such as medical surgery and material processing.
Shock-tube experiments are performed on the convergent Richtmyer–Meshkov (RM) instability of a multimode interface. The temporal growth of each Fourier mode perturbation is measured. The hydrodynamic instabilities, including the RM instability and the additional Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) effect, imposed by the convergent shock wave on the dual-mode interface, are investigated. The mode-coupling effect on the convergent RM instability coupled with the RT effect is quantified. It is evident that the amplitude growths of all first-order modes and second-order harmonics and their couplings depend on the variance of the interface radius, and are influenced by the mode-coupling from the very beginning. It is confirmed that the mode-coupling mechanism is closely related to the initial spectrum, including azimuthal wavenumbers, relative phases and initial amplitudes of the constituent modes. Different from the conclusion in previous studies on the convergent single-mode RM instability that the additional RT effect always suppresses the perturbation growth, the mode-coupling might result in the additional RT effect promoting the instability of the constituent Fourier mode. By considering the geometry convergence, the mode-coupling effect and other physical mechanisms, second-order nonlinear solutions are established to predict the RM instability and the additional RT effect in the cylindrical geometry, reasonably quantifying the amplitude growths of each mode, harmonic and coupling. The nonlinear solutions are further validated by simulations considering various initial spectra. Last, the temporal evolutions of the mixed mass and normalized mixed mass of a shocked multimode interface are calculated numerically to quantify the mixing of two fluids in the cylindrical geometry.
This study aimed to explore the mediation effects of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) related nutrients on the association between MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured in the serum of 1254 pregnant women. Linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the associations of OCM nutrients and MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose levels and GDM risk. Mediation analysis was applied to test the mediation effects of folate, vitamin B12 and Hcy on the association of MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose concentrations and GDM. Pregnant women with MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype had higher serum folate (10·75 v. 8·90 and 9·40 ng/ml) and lower serum Hcy (4·84 v. 4·93 and 5·20 μmol/l) than those with CT and TT genotypes. Folate concentrations were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 1-h plasma glucose (1-h PG), 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) and GDM risk. Vitamin B12 levels were negatively correlated with FPG and GDM. Although no direct association was found between MTHFR rs1801133 genotypes and GDM, there were significant indirect effects of MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype on FPG (β: 0·005; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·013), 1-h PG (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014), 2-h PG (β: 0·007; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·015) and GDM (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014) via folate. In conclusion, serum folate mediates the effect of MTHFR rs1801133 on blood glucose levels and GDM. Our findings potentially provide a feasible GDM prevention strategy via individualised folate supplementation according to the MTHFR genotypes.
Many studies suggest that both psychotherapy and drug therapy are effective in the treatment of bipolar disorders (BDs). However, the pathophysiology of both types of intervention has not been established definitively.
An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was performed to identify the distinct brain activity alterations between psychotherapy and drug therapy for the treatment of BDs. Articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Eligible studies on BDs were published up until 10 June 2021.
21 studies were included and we conducted a meta-analysis for different therapies and imaging tasks. After receiving psychotherapy, BD patients showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus. While after taking drug therapy, BD patients displayed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, IFG, and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex. The regions of brain activity changes caused by psychotherapy were mostly focused on the frontal areas, while drug therapy mainly impacted on the limbic areas. Different type of tasks also affected brain regions which were activated.
Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that these two treatments might have effect on BD in their own therapeutic modes. Psychotherapy might have a top-down effect, while drug therapy might have a bottom-up effect. This study may contribute to differential diagnosis of BDs and would be helpful to finding more accurate neuroimaging biomarkers for BD treatment.
Shock-induced instability developments of two successive interfaces have attracted much attention, but remain a difficult problem to solve. The feedthrough and reverberating waves between two successive interfaces significantly influence the hydrodynamic instabilities of the two interfaces. The evolutions of two successive slow/fast interfaces driven by a weak shock wave are examined experimentally and numerically. First, a general one-dimensional theory is established to describe the movements of the two interfaces by studying the rarefaction waves reflected between the two interfaces. Second, an analytical, linear model is established by considering the arbitrary wavenumber and phase combinations and compressibility to quantify the feedthrough effect on the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) of two successive slow/fast interfaces. The feedthrough significantly influences the RMI of the two interfaces, and even leads to abnormal RMI (i.e. phase reversal of a shocked slow/fast interface is inhibited) which is the first observational evidence of the abnormal RMI provided by the present study. Moreover, the stretching effect and short-time Rayleigh–Taylor instability or Rayleigh–Taylor stabilisation imposed by the rarefaction waves on the two interfaces are quantified considering the two interfaces’ phase reversal. The conditions and outcomes of the freeze-out and abnormal RMI caused by the feedthrough are summarised based on the theoretical model and numerical simulation. A specific requirement for the simultaneously freeze-out of the instability of the two interfaces is proposed, which can potentially be used in the applications to suppress the hydrodynamic instabilities.
This study aimed to analyse the temporal and spatial trends in the burden of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder related to bullying victimisation on global, regional and country scales.
Data were from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study. We assessed the global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, per 100 000 population) of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation by age, sex and geographical location. The percentage changes in age-standardised rates of DALYs were used to quantify temporal trends, and the annual rate changes across 204 countries and territories were used to present spatial trends. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between the sociodemographic index (SDI) and the burden of anxiety disorders as well as major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation and its spatial and temporal characteristics globally.
From 1990 to 2019, the global DALY rates of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation increased by 23.31 and 26.60%, respectively, with 27.27 and 29.07% for females and 18.88 and 23.84% for males. Across the 21 GBD regions, the highest age-standardised rates of bullying victimisation-related DALYs for anxiety disorders were in North Africa and the Middle East and for major depressive disorder in High-income North America. From 1990 to 2019, the region with the largest percentage increase in the rates of DALYs was High-income North America (54.66% for anxiety disorders and 105.88% for major depressive disorder), whereas the region with the slowest growth rate or largest percentage decline was East Asia (1.71% for anxiety disorders and −25.37% for major depressive disorder). In terms of SDI, this study found overall upward trends of bullying-related mental disorders in areas regardless of the SDI levels, although there were temporary downward trends in some stages of certain areas.
The number and rates of DALYs of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation increased from 1990 to 2019. Effective strategies to eliminate bullying victimisation in children and adolescents are needed to reduce the burden of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Considering the large variations in the burden by SDI and geographic location, future protective actions should be developed based on the specific cultural contexts, development status and regional characteristics of each country.
Shock-tube experiments on various two-bubble and two-spike interfaces are performed to examine the dependence of bubble competition and spike competition on the initial spectra and density ratio of the interface. The differences in the influences of bubble competition and spike competition on the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability are highlighted for the first time. The bubble-competition effect is mainly dependent on the initial spectra of the two-bubble configuration. In contrast, the spike-competition effect is determined by both the initial spectra and density ratio. The extended buoyancy–drag model is adopted to explain the variation of the drag force imposed on the long-wavelength and short-wavelength structures as the initial conditions change. Based on the spectrum analysis, it is found that the constituent modes of two-bubble and two-spike interfaces have different contributions to the long-wavelength and short-wavelength perturbation growths. A generalised, nonlinear, analytical model is then established to quantify the bubble-competition effect and spike-competition effect considering arbitrary initial spectra and density ratio. The bubble-competition effect is believed to be stronger than the spike-competition effect at a high density ratio because it suppresses the high-frequency perturbation growth more evidently.
Modal global linear stability analysis of thermal convection is performed with the linearized lattice Boltzmann method (LLBM). The onset of Rayleigh–Bénard convection in rectangular cavities with conducting and adiabatic sidewalls and the instability of two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) natural convection in cavities are studied. The method of linearizing the local equilibrium probability distribution function that was first proposed by Pérez et al. (Theor. Comp. Fluid Dyn., vol. 31, 2017, pp. 643–664) is extended to solve the coupled linear Navier–Stokes equations together with the linear energy equation in this work. A multiscale analysis is also performed to recover the macroscopic linear Navier–Stokes equations from the discrete lattice Boltzmann equations for both the single and multiple relaxation time models. The present LLBM is implemented in the framework of the Palabos library. It is validated by calculating the linear critical value of 2-D natural convection that the LLBM with the multiple relaxation time model has an error less than 1 % compared with the spectral method. The instability mechanism of the flow is explained by kinetic energy transfer analysis. It is shown that the buoyancy mechanism and inertial mechanism tend to stabilize the Hopf bifurcation of the 2-D natural convection at Pr < 0.08 and Pr > 1, respectively. For 3-D natural convection, subcritical bifurcation of the Hopf type is found for low-Prandtl-number fluids (Pr < 0.1).
This study aimed to investigate the organization, workload, and psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers from the domestic Medical Aid Teams (MATs) sent to Wuhan in China.
Leaders and members of MATs involved in the care for COVID-19 patients were invited to participate in a study by completing 2 separate self-report questionnaires from April 1 to 24, 2020.
A total of 9 MAT leaders were involved and 464 valid questionnaires were collected from 140 doctors and 324 nurses. Mean age of the doctors and nurses were 39.34 ± 6.70 (26∼58 years old) and 31.88 ± 5.29 (21∼52 years old), with 72 (15.5%) being males. Nurses were identified as an independent risk factor (HR 1.898; P = 0.001) for a day working time in the multivariate analysis. The proportions of psychological consulting received among nurses were higher than those among doctors (49.7 vs 30.0%, P < 0.001). More than 50% of the anesthetists and emergency doctors who have received psychological consulting thought that it was effective according to self-evaluation.
This study focused on healthcare workers’ situation during the early period of the pandemic. Nurses worked longer than doctors. The effectiveness of psychological consulting depends on the physicians’ specialties and the working conditions of the nurses and psychological consulting targeting different specialties need to be improved.
The shock-induced evolution of a gas layer with two fast/slow interfaces is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Specifically, the gas layer is located between a lighter gas and a heavier gas, forming a light/medium/heavy (LMH) configuration. Linear stability analysis is utilised to derive a new analytical model to quantify the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) on the two interfaces of such an A/B/C-type fluid layer. Three quasi-one-dimensional (1-D) LMH fluid layers with different initial layer thicknesses are generated to study the wave patterns and interface motions. A general 1-D theory is established to describe the motions of the shock/rarefaction waves reverberating inside the fluid layer and the displacements of the two interfaces. Six quasi-2-D LMH fluid layers with diverse initial layer-thickness and amplitude combinations are created to explore the hydrodynamic instabilities of the two interfaces. It is found that the interface coupling significantly influences the interface evolution, even resulting in an abnormal phase reversal of a shocked fast/slow interface if the two interfaces are anti-phase and the initial layer is very thin. The specific conditions for the abnormal phase reversal and the instability freeze out are deduced. Moreover, the additional RMI (or Rayleigh–Taylor stabilisation) imposed by the shock (or rarefaction waves) reverberating inside an LMH fluid layer on the first (or second) interface is quantified. It is proved that the reverberating waves inside an LMH fluid layer stabilise the two interfaces. Finally, a nonlinear model is obtained by incorporating the nonlinearity effect into the linear model, which well describes the perturbation growths of the two interfaces in a later regime.
T long-term effects of cognitive therapy and behavior therapy (CTBT) for menopausal symptoms are unknown, and whether the effects are different between natural menopause and treatment-induced menopause are currently unclear. Therefore, we sought to conduct an accurate estimate of the efficacy of CTBT for menopausal symptoms.
We conducted searches of Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases for studies from 1 January 1977 to 1 November 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intervention groups to control groups for menopausal symptoms were included. Hedge's g was used as the standardized between-group effect size with a random-effects model.
We included 14 RCTs comprising 1618 patients with a mean sample size of 116. CTBT significantly outperformed control groups in terms of reducing hot flushes [g = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23–0.55, I2 = 45], night sweats, depression (g = 0.50, 95% CI 0.34–0.66, I2 = 51), anxiety (g = 0.38, 95% CI 0.23–0.54, I2 = 49), fatigue, and quality of life. Egger's test indicated no publication bias.
CTBT is an effective psychological treatment for menopausal symptoms, with predominantly small to moderate effects. The efficacy is sustained long-term, although it declines somewhat over time. The efficacy was stronger for natural menopause symptoms, such as vasomotor symptoms, than for treatment-induced menopause symptoms. These findings provide support for treatment guidelines recommending CTBT as a treatment option for menopausal symptoms.
Shock-induced light-fluid-layer evolution is firstly investigated experimentally and theoretically. Specifically, three quasi-one-dimensional helium gas layers with different layer thicknesses are generated to study the wave patterns and interface motions. Six quasi-two-dimensional helium gas layers with diverse layer thicknesses and amplitude combinations are created to explore the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability of a light-fluid layer. Due to the multiple reflected shocks reverberating inside a light-fluid layer, the speeds of the two interfaces gradually converge, and the layer thickness saturates eventually. A general one-dimensional theory is adopted to describe the two interfaces’ motions and the layer thickness variations. It is found that, for the first interface, the end time of its phase reversal determines the influence of the reflected shocks on it. However, the reverberated shocks indeed lead to the second interface being more unstable. When the two interfaces are initially in phase, and the initial fluid layer is very thin, the two interfaces’ spike heads collide and stabilise the two interfaces. Linear and nonlinear models are successfully adopted by considering the interface-coupling effect and the reverberated shocks to predict the two interfaces’ perturbation growths in all regimes. The interfacial instability of a light-fluid layer is quantitatively compared with that of a heavy-fluid layer. It is concluded that the kind of waves reverberating inside a fluid layer significantly affects the fluid-layer evolution.
Shock-induced fluid-layer evolution has attracted much attention but remains a challenge mainly because the coupling between layers remains unknown. Linear solutions are first derived to quantify the layer-coupling effect on the shocked dual-layer evolution. Next, the motions of the waves and interfaces of a dual layer are examined based on the one-dimensional gas dynamics theory. Shock-tube experiments on the dual-layer, single-layer and single-mode interface are then performed to validate the linear solutions and investigate the reverberating waves inside the layers. It is proved that the layer-coupling effect destabilises the dual layer, especially when the initial layers are thin, and the reverberating waves impose additional instabilities on all interfaces. Our findings suggest that a slow/fast configuration with a large thickness in a dual layer can facilitate the suppression of hydrodynamic instabilities.
Shock-tube experiments on eight kinds of two-dimensional multi-mode air–SF$_6$ interface with controllable initial conditions are performed to examine the dependence of perturbation growth on initial spectra. We deduce and demonstrate experimentally that the amplitude development of each mode is influenced by the mode-competition effect from quasi-linear stages. It is confirmed that the mode-competition effect is closely related to initial spectra, including the wavenumber, the phase and the initial amplitude of constituent modes. By considering both the mode-competition effect and the high-order harmonics effect, a nonlinear model is established based on initial spectra to predict the amplitude growth of each individual mode. The nonlinear model is validated by the present experiments and data in the literature by considering diverse initial spectra, shock intensities and density ratios. Moreover, the nonlinear model is successfully extended based on the superposition principle to predict the growths of the total perturbation width and the bubble/spike width from quasi-linear to nonlinear stages.
To investigate the association between the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare the predictive value of the METS-VF for T2DM incidence with other obesity indices in Chinese people. A total of 12 237 non-T2DM participants aged over 18 years from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study of 2007–2008 were included at baseline and followed up during 2013–2014. The cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the association between baseline METS-VF and T2DM risk. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the association between METS-VF and T2DM risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict T2DM incidence. During a median follow-up of 6·01 (95 % CI 5·09, 6·06) years, 837 cases developed T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR for the highest v. lowest METS-VF quartile was 5·97 (95 % CI 4·28, 8·32), with a per 1-sd increase in METS-VF positively associated with T2DM risk. Positive associations were also found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses, respectively. A significant nonlinear dose–response association was observed between METS-VF and T2DM risk for all participants (Pnonlinearity = 0·0347). Finally, the AUC value of METS-VF for predicting T2DM was largest among six indices. The METS-VF may be a reliable and applicable predictor of T2DM incidence in Chinese people regardless of sex, age or BMI.