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Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the etiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) as well as 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8.96 years (interquartile range 8.29 to 9.53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85; P<0.001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HRs for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0.84 (0.73 to 0.96), 0.84 (0.77 to 0.92), and 0.71 (0.62 to 0.80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (P for interaction=0.078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14% to 84% through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation
Sarcopenic obesity is regarded as a risk factor for the progression and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Since male sex is a risk factor for NAFLD and skeletal muscle mass markedly varies between the sexes, we examined whether sex influences the association between appendicular skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SVR), that is, an index of skeletal muscle mass combined with abdominal obesity, and the histological severity of NAFLD. The SVR was measured by bioelectrical impedance in a cohort of 613 (M/F = 443/170) Chinese middle-aged individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Multivariable logistic regression and subgroup analyses were used to test the association between SVR and the severity of NAFLD (i.e. non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or NASH with the presence of any stage of liver fibrosis). NASH was identified by a NAFLD activity score ≥5, with a minimum score of 1 for each of its categories. The presence of fibrosis was classified as having a histological stage ≥1. The SVR was inversely associated with NASH in men (adjusted OR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·92, P = 0·017 for NASH, adjusted OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·99, P = 0·043 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis), but not in women (1·47 (95 % CI 0·76, 2·83), P = 0·25 for NASH, and 1·45 (95 % CI 0·74, 2·83), P = 0·28 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis). There was a significant interaction for sex and SVR (Pinteraction = 0·017 for NASH and Pinteraction = 0·033 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis). Our findings show that lower skeletal muscle mass combined with abdominal obesity is strongly associated with the presence of NASH only in men.
In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
The present study investigated the association between fibre degradation and the concentration of dissolved molecular hydrogen (H2) in the rumen. Napier grass (NG) silage and corn stover (CS) silage were compared as forages with contrasting structures and degradation patterns. In the first experiment, CS silage had greater 48-h DM, neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) and acid-detergent fibre degradation, and total gas and methane (CH4) volumes, and lower 48-h H2 volume than NG silage in 48-h in vitro incubations. In the second experiment, twenty-four growing beef bulls were fed diets including 55 % (DM basis) NG or CS silages. Bulls fed the CS diet had greater DM intake (DMI), average daily gain, total-tract digestibility of OM and NDF, ruminal dissolved methane (dCH4) concentration and gene copies of protozoa, methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens, and had lower ruminal dH2 concentration, and molar proportions of valerate and isovalerate, in comparison with those fed the NG diet. There was a negative correlation between dH2 concentration and NDF digestibility in bulls fed the CS diet, and a lack of relationship between dH2 concentration and NDF digestibility with the NG diet. In summary, the fibre of CS silage was more easily degraded by rumen microorganisms than that of NG silage. Increased dCH4 concentration with the CS diet presumably led to the decreased ruminal dH2 concentration, which may be helpful for fibre degradation and growth of fibrolytic micro-organisms in the rumen.
Metal-halide perovskites, in particular their nanocrystal forms, have emerged as a new generation of light-emitting materials with exceptional optical properties, including narrow emissions covering the whole visible region with high photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of up to near-unity. Remarkable progress has been achieved over the last few years in the areas of materials development and device integration. A variety of synthetic approaches have been established to precisely control the compositions and microstructures of metal-halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) with tunable bandgaps and emission colors. The use of metal-halide perovskite NCs as active materials for optoelectronic devices has been extensively explored. Here, we provide a brief overview of recent advances in the development and application of metal-halide perovskite NCs. From color tuning via ion exchange and manipulation of quantum size effects, to stability enhancement via surface passivation, new chemistry for materials development is discussed. In addition, processes in optoelectronic devices based on metal-halide perovskite NCs, in particular, light-emitting diodes and radiation detectors, will be introduced. Opportunities for future research in metal-halide perovskite NCs are provided as well.
A novel solid-clad-by-liquid method was developed to form a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite tape. Three deformation routes (cold rolling, cold rolling with intermediate annealing, and cold rolling combined with warm rolling) have been investigated in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate. To optimize the dynamic continuous annealing parameters for the long composite substrates, air-cooled and furnace-cooled annealing procedures were compared in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrates. Improved cube texture of 98.7% in a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate was achieved via warm rolling deformation at 550 °C and two-step dynamic continuous annealing (750 °C for 1 h followed by 1200 °C for 1 h). The yield strength, Curie temperature, and saturation magnetization of 176 MPa, 324 K, and 18 emu/g, respectively, were obtained.
Two mathematical models under so-called intensity and structure frameworks to pricing a double defaultable interest rate swap are established. The default could happen or jump to a high probability in both fixed and floating parties on the predetermined boundaries. The models lead to a new and interesting mathematical problem. As the intensity approaches infinity in designated regions, the solutions of the intensity models converge to a solution of a structure-type model which is an initial value problem of a partial differential equation coupled with two obstacles problem in their restricted regions. According to the value of the fixed rate, three cases are discussed. The free boundary that determines the swap rate and the free boundaries that determine the earlier termination of the contract (due to counterparty’s default) are analysed.
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens in Beijing, China, is rarely reported. In this study, 34 911 symptomatic outpatients with suspected genital infections who attended outpatient clinics in a tertiary care hospital were included to investigate the updated prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2016 in Beijing, China. Results indicated that a decrease trend (UU, CT, NG and HSV) in male and an increase trend (UU, CT and NG) in female were observed during the period. Patients aged 20–39 years old were mostly affected by these pathogens, while the prevalence in patients aged 20–29 years old was the highest, The prevalence of UU in male was significantly lower than in female (31.5% vs. 49.3%, P < 0.05), while the prevalence of NG in male was significantly higher than in female (2.5% vs. 0.8%, P < 0.05). In patients with co-infections, 60.6% of male and 71.4% of female were co-infected by UU + CT. In total, 11.9% and 88.1% of patients with HSV infections were confirmed to be infected by HSV-1 and HSV-2. This study could contribute to a better understanding of the current epidemiological features of UU, NG, CT and HSV among symptomatic patients attending an outpatient clinic in Beijing, China, and thus facilitate to develop more effective intervention, prevention and treatment of STI.
Based on multivariate morphometric analysis, Halysites catenularius is identified from the Rumba Formation (Telychian) and Jaagarahu Formation (Sheinwoodian) of Estonia; H. priscus is confirmed as a junior synonym. Halysites catenularius, H. junior, and H. senior are shown to be closely related; H. catenularius is morphologically intermediate. Cyclomorphism in H. catenularius, recorded by fluctuations of corallite tabularial area, indicates an average annual growth rate of 6.0 mm, which is typical for halysitids. Tubules in H. catenularius, generated from small intramural openings between adjacent corallites, were involved in two types of interstitial increase. The intramural openings, three types of lateral increase, temporary agglutinated patches of corallites, and axial increase documented in H. catenularius resemble features in some species of Catenipora. These similarities are consistent with the interpretation that Halysites evolved from Catenipora. Evaluation of the possibility that both genera are polyphyletic will require further detailed analysis of additional species.
Dilated Cardiomyopathy is a serious heart disorder that may induce sudden cardiac death and heart failure. Significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of dilated cardiomyopathy. In previous studies, mutations in more than fifty genes have been identified in dilated cardiomyopathy patients. The purpose of this study was to detect the genetic lesion in a family from the central south of China affected by severe dilated cardiomyopathy.
Whole-exome sequencing combined with cardiomyopathy-related genes list were used to analyse the mutations of the proband. Co-segregation analysis was performed by Sanger sequencing.
Results and conclusions
Two novel heterozygous mutations – Myosin Binding Protein C: p.L1014RfsX6 and Titin: p.R9793X – were identified in the proband. The deletion mutation c.3041delT/p.L1014RfsX6 caused a premature stop codon at position 1020 in exon 28 of the Myosin Binding Protein C. The nonsense mutation, c.29377 C>T/ p. R9793X, of Titin was located in the highly evolutionarily conserved domain, resulting in truncation of the Titin protein as well. Co-segregation analysis further revealed that the Myosin Binding Protein C mutation came from his mother and the Titin mutation came from his father. Both mutations are reported in dilated cardiomyopathy patients for the first time. Our study not only provides a unique example of the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in dilated cardiomyopathy but also expands the spectrum of Myosin Binding Protein C and Titin mutations and contributes to the genetic diagnosis and counselling of dilated cardiomyopathy patients.
Nanotechnology has been considered as a promising strategy for diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. However, the stability and circulation times of the conventional nano-carriers, such as liposomes and micelles, are still unsatisfied. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are biologic inert synthetic materials, which are highly hydrophobic and have a tendency to self-aggregation. Additionally, PFCs themselves can act as 19F magnetic resonance imaging agents and oxygen carriers. Thus, the construction of the fluorinated carriers will not only improve the stability of the carriers, but also endow them with additional functions. Here we review the recent advances of PFC-based nanosystems for diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Vessel behaviour analysis plays an important role in maritime situational awareness. However, available technology still provides only limited approaches to vessel behaviour analysis. In this paper, we propose a visual analytics framework to interactively explore the characteristics of vessel behaviour by means of integrating visualisation with data mining and a human-computer interaction controlling model, which combines human insight with the enormous storage and processing capacities of computers to gain insight into vessel behaviour. In addition, we provide multiple views for visually analysing vessel trajectories, densities and speeds. Case studies with 15 days' AIS data collected from the middle Hankou channel to Yangluo channel in the Yangtze River demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
SCN5A encodes sodium-channel α-subunit Nav1.5. The mutations of SCN5A can lead to hereditary cardiac arrhythmias such as the long-QT syndrome type 3 and Brugada syndrome. Here we sought to identify novel mutations in a family with arrhythmia.
Genomic DNA was isolated from blood of the proband, who was diagnosed with atrial flutter. Illumina Hiseq 2000 whole-exome sequencing was performed and an arrhythmia-related gene-filtering strategy was used to analyse the pathogenic genes. Sanger sequencing was applied to verify the mutation co-segregated in the family.
Results and conclusions
A novel missense mutation in SCN5A (C335R) was identified, and this mutation co-segregated within the affected family members. This missense mutation was predicted to result in amplitude reduction in peak Na+ current, further leading to channel protein dysfunction. Our study expands the spectrum of SCN5A mutations and contributes to genetic counselling of families with arrhythmia.
The high-cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior is significantly affected by surface roughness, especially for high strength metal FV520B-I. However, with surface roughness effect, neither the fatigue property, nor the high-cycle fatigue life model about FV520B-I with surface roughness has been reported. In this paper, designed fatigue experiment using the specimen with different surface roughness is presented to study the effectiveness of the roughness to the fatigue. The observations of the fatigue crack initiation sites and the crack propagation. Then the high cycle fatigue behavior of FV520B-I affected by surface roughness is analyzed. The existing very-high-cycle fatigue life model is not well-fit for high-cycle fatigue model of FV520B-I. A NEW high-cycle fatigue life prediction model of FV520B-I, taking surface roughness as a main effective variable is proposed. The model is built up by a comprehensive use of experimental data and the traditional fatigue modeling theory. The new finding between the fatigue strength coefficient and stress amplitude, with surface roughness, is adopted, leading to a NEW modified life prediction model. Study on fatigue model of FV520B-I with surface roughness is a very beneficial effort in fatigue theory and fatigue engineering development.
Knotless barbed sutures can eliminate knot tying when patients are undergoing cosmetic surgery (CS). Although benefits reported on clinical outcomes are obvious, many studies have failed to demonstrate the potential for barbed sutures to mitigate adverse events. Thus, this study aimed to determine the safety of knotless barbed suture in CS.
PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Clinical Studies, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing barbed sutures with conventional sutures in CS (until 30 June 2016). Quality assessment was conducted using Cochrane recommendations. Review Manager was applied to analyze the data, and we sequentially omitted each study to perform sensitivity analyses.
A total of five RCTs (low to moderate risk of bias) and six cohort studies (low to moderate risk of bias), proved eligible (3,481 patients). The CS included body contouring operations, breast reconstruction, lipoabdominoplasty, abdominoplasty and wound closure of cesarean delivery. Comparing to conventional sutures, pooling data showed that general adverse events of barbed sutures were not significantly different (Odds Ratio, OR = .6, 95 percent Confidence Interval, CI .24 to 1.52, P = .28), while the subgroup analysis showed that fewer adverse events occurred in cohort studies, though with high heterogeneity (I2 = 87 percent). Specifically, no significant differences were shown between barbed and traditional sutures in wound dehiscence (OR = .55, 95 percent CI .29 to 1.03, P = .06), incisional infection (OR = .56, 95 percent CI .22 to 1.48, P = .25), seroma (OR = .87, 95 percent CI .42 to 1.79, P = .70) and hematoma (OR = 1.52, 95 percent CI .29 to 7.99, P = .62).
No differences were found between knotless barbed sutures and conventional sutures generally, but the cohort studies suggested barbed sutures resulted in fewer adverse events with longer follow-up. Thus barbed sutures are considered a safe surgical technique in CS. More evidence with larger sample sizes and longer follow up are needed to confirm the advantages of this technique in the future.
Knotless barbed sutures can eliminate knot tying during the bariatric surgery (BS) (1). Since effects reported by patients and surgeons are ambiguous, the aim of this study was to establish the safety and efficacy of barbed sutures for intestinal sutures to close the gastrojejunal anastomosis in obese patients undergoing BS.
PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Clinical Studies, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing barbed sutures with conventional sutures in BS (until 30 June 2016). Quality assessment was conducted using to Cochrane recommendations. Review Manager was applied to analyze the data, and we sequentially omitted each study to perform sensitivity analyses.
A total of five cohort studies (low to moderate risk of bias) (n = 859), and no RCTs provided eligible patients. BS includes laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Comparing to conventional sutures, pooling data showed that suture time (Mean Difference, MD = -5.73, 95 percent Confidence Interval, CI -6.25 to -5.21, P < .01) and operative time (MD = - 7.67, 95 percent CI -10.49 to -4.85, P < .01) decreased significantly in the barbed group. Although the postoperative complications did not suggest significant changes (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.56, 95 percent CI .79 to 3.07, P = .2), the pooling results of hospital stay suggested that a significantly longer duration happened in the barbed groups, despite the fact that there may be only 0.18 day longer. (MD =0.18, 95 percent CI .06 to .29, P = .003).
The barbed suture is an effective and safe surgical technique in BS. More evidence with randomized design, larger sample sizes and longer follow up need to compel validations of this state-of-the-art product in the future (2,3).
In this paper, we proposed a simple approach to analyse the efficiency and propulsive characteristics of the high-altitude propeller in accordance to the Vortex Lattice Lifting line Method (VLM) theory, which is commonly used in preliminary design and parametric studies of propeller propulsion. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was used to obtain aerofoil aerodynamic data. The optimal pitch angle and propeller blade chord length (along the radial direction) can be calculated using the information from the database. The propeller wake model sees helical slipstreams applied to both lightly and moderately loaded propellers. The proposed method is capable of identifying the optimal efficiency through varying the number of propeller blades, radius and the rotational speed. The relationship between the optimal efficiency and design parameters is then established. This method was verified using CFD calculations.
The metamorphic responses of mussel (Mytilus coruscus) larvae to pharmacological agents affecting G proteins and the adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP (AC/cAMP) pathway were examined in the laboratory. The G protein activators guanosine 5′-[β,γ-imido]triphosphate trisodium salt hydrate and guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate tetralithium salt only induced larval metamorphosis in continuous exposure assays, and the G protein inhibitor guanosine 5′-[β-thio]diphosphate trilithium salt did not exhibit inducing activity. The non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor theophylline and the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor 4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)imidazolidin-2-one exhibited inducing activity, while the non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine only showed inducing activity at 10−4 M in continuous exposure assays. The cyclic nucleotide analogue N6,2′-O-Dibutyryladenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt did not exhibit significant inducing activity. Both the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and the adenylate cyclase inhibitor nitroimidazole exhibited inducing activity at 10−4 to 10−3 M concentrations in continuous exposure assays. Among these tested agents, the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (±)-miconazole nitrate salt showed the most promising inducing effect. The present results indicate that G protein-coupled receptors and signal transduction by AC/cAMP pathway could mediate metamorphosis of larvae in this species.