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Seasonal climate variability is an important component of Earth's climate system, and has a significant impact on ecosystems and social systems. However, the temporal resolution of most proxy-based paleoclimate records is limiting to fully understand the past seasonal changes. Here, we used high-precision monthly resolution Sr/Ca records of three Tridacna squamosa specimens from the northern South China Sea (SCS) to reconstruct the sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality during three time periods from the middle Holocene. The results suggested that SST seasonality in the northern SCS during the middle Holocene (3.21 ± 0.98°C) was smaller than that for recent decades (AD 1994–2004, 4.32 ± 0.59°C). Analysis of modern instrumental data showed that the SST seasonality in the northern SCS was dominated by the winter SST, which was deeply influenced by the intensity of East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). A strong EAWM usually resulted in cooler winter SST and a larger SST seasonality in the northern SCS. The reconstructed Holocene EAWM records showed that the EAWM strengthened from the middle to late Holocene, which was seen in our reconstruction of less SST seasonality changes during the middle Holocene in the northern SCS. This study highlighted that the Sr/Ca ratios from Tridacna shells can be used as a potential high-resolution indicator of past seasonal climate changes.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) holds vast potential in agriculture. However, its applications are still limited by its low efficiency. Histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) was identified as an epigenetic barrier for this. Histone demethylase KDM4D could regulate the level of H3K9me3. However, its effects on buffalo SCNT embryos are still unclear. Thus, we performed this study to explore the effects and underlying mechanism of KDM4D on buffalo SCNT embryos. The results revealed that compared with the IVF embryos, the expression level of KDM4D in SCNT embryos was significantly lower at 8- and 16-cell stage, while the level of H3K9me3 in SCNT embryos was significantly higher at 2-cell, 8-cell, and blastocyst stage. Microinjection of KDM4D mRNA could promote the developmental ability of buffalo SCNT embryos. Furthermore, the expression level of ZGA-related genes such as ZSCAN5B, SNAI1, eIF-3a, and TRC at the 8-cell stage was significantly increased. Meanwhile, the pluripotency-related genes like POU5F1, SOX2, and NANOG were also significantly promoted at the blastocyst stage. The results were reversed after KDM4D was inhibited. Altogether, these results revealed that KDM4D could correct the H3K9me3 level, increase the expression level of ZGA and pluripotency-related genes, and finally, promote the developmental competence of buffalo SCNT embryos.
Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is an abundant and important presynaptic vesicle protein that binds Ca2+ for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Our previous study reported its localization and function on spindle assembly in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. The present study was designed to investigate the function of Syt1 during mouse oocyte activation and subsequent cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) using confocal microscopy, morpholinol-based knockdown and time-lapse live cell imaging. By employing live cell imaging, we first studied the dynamic process of CGE and calculated the time interval between [Ca2+]i rise and CGE after oocyte activation. We further showed that Syt1 was co-localized to cortical granules (CGs) at the oocyte cortex. After oocyte activation with SrCl2, the Syt1 distribution pattern was altered significantly, similar to the changes seen for the CGs. Knockdown of Syt1 inhibited [Ca2+]i oscillations, disrupted the F-actin distribution pattern and delayed the time of cortical reaction. In summary, as a synaptic vesicle protein and calcium sensor for exocytosis, Syt1 acts as an essential regulator in mouse oocyte activation events including the generation of Ca2+ signals and CGE.
Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
A genuine finite volume method based on the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) for nearly incompressible flows is developed. The proposed finite volume lattice Boltzmann method (FV-LBM) is grid-transparent, i.e., it requires no knowledge of cell topology, thus it can be implemented on arbitrary unstructured meshes for effective and efficient treatment of complex geometries. Due to the linear advection term in the LBE, it is easy to construct multi-dimensional schemes. In addition, inviscid and viscous fluxes are computed in one step in the LBE, as opposed to in two separate steps for the traditional finite-volume discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations. Because of its conservation constraints, the collision term of the kinetic equation can be treated implicitly without linearization or any other approximation, thus the computational efficiency is enhanced. The collision with multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) model is used in the LBE. The developed FV-LBM is of second-order convergence. The proposed FV-LBM is validated with three test cases in two-dimensions: (a) the Poiseuille flow driven by a constant body force; (b) the Blasius boundary layer; and (c) the steady flow past a cylinder at the Reynolds numbers Re=10, 20, and 40. The results verify the designed accuracy and efficacy of the proposed FV-LBM.
The NASA Kepler satellite has provided unprecedented high duty-cycle, high-precision light curves for a large number of stars by continuously monitoring a field of view in Cygnus-Lyra region, leading to great progress in both discovering exoplanets and characterizing planet-hosting stars by means of asteroseismic methods. The asteroseismic survey allows the investigation of stars covering the whole H-R diagram. However, the low precision of effective temperatures and surface gravities in the KIC catalogue and the lack of information on chemical composition, metallicity and rotation rate prevent asteroseismic modeling, requiring spectroscopic observations for thousands of asteroseismic targets in the Kepler field in a homogeneous way.
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is known as a crucial enzyme of cellular de novo fatty acid synthesis in mammary gland which has been proved as the main source of short and medium-chain fatty acids of milk. However, the regulatory role of FASN in goat-specific milk fatty acids composition remains unclear. We cloned and analyzed the full-length of FASN gene from the mammary gland of Capra hircus (Xinong Saanen dairy goat) (DQ 915966). Comparative gene expression analysis suggested that FASN is predominantly expressed in fat, small intestine and mammary gland tissues, and expresses higher level at lactation period. Inhibition of FASN activity by different concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25 and 35 μM) of orlistat, a natural inhibitor of FASN, resulted in decreased expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACCα), lipoprotein lipase and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in a concentration-dependent manner in goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMEC). Similar results were also obtained by silencing of FASN. Additionally, reduction of FASN expression also led to apparent decline of the relative content of decanoic acid (C10:0) and lauric acid (C12:0) in GMEC. Our study provides a direct evidence for inhibition of FASN reduces cellular medium-chain fatty acids synthesis in GMEC.
Low-dose clarithromycin has been recommended for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. However, it is uncertain whether a high dose of clarithromycin is more effective than a low dose.
Forty-three chronic rhinosinusitis patients were randomised to low-dose or high-dose clarithromycin groups, and clinical efficacy was evaluated. Pre- and post-treatment measures included: nasal symptom assessment, endoscopic inspection (Lund–Kennedy system), a quality of life questionnaire (the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20) and examination of cytokine levels (interleukin-5 and -8) in nasal secretions.
The high dose of clarithromycin was significantly better in terms of clinical efficacy than the low dose for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (p < 0.025). Significant differences in nasal cytokine levels (interleukin-5 and -8) were also observed between the low-dose and high-dose groups after short-term clarithromycin treatment (p < 0.025).
Short-term, high-dose clarithromycin appears to be more effective for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis than low-dose clarithromycin.
Recent evidence shows that excess nicotinamide can cause epigenetic changes in developing rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal nicotinamide supplementation on the fetus. Female rats were randomised into four groups fed a standard chow diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1 g/kg of nicotinamide (low-dose group), 4 g/kg of nicotinamide (high-dose group) or 4 g/kg of nicotinamide plus 2 g/kg of betaine (betaine group) for 14–16 d before mating and throughout the study. Fetal tissue samples were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy. Compared with the control group, the high-dose group had a higher fetal death rate, and the average fetal body weight was higher in the low-dose group but lower in the high-dose group. Nicotinamide supplementation led to a decrease in placental and fetal hepatic genomic DNA methylation and genomic uracil contents (a factor modifying DNA for diversity) in the placenta and fetal liver and brain, which could be completely or partially prevented by betaine. Moreover, nicotinamide supplementation induced tissue-specific alterations in the mRNA expression of the genes encoding nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, DNA methyltransferase 1, catalase and tumour protein p53 in the placenta and fetal liver. High-dose nicotinamide supplementation increased fetal hepatic α-fetoprotein mRNA level, which was prevented by betaine supplementation. It is concluded that maternal nicotinamide supplementation can induce changes in fetal epigenetic modification and DNA base composition. The present study raises the concern that maternal nicotinamide supplementation may play a role in the development of epigenetic-related diseases in the offspring.
To track the dynamics of income distribution in China, the Chinese Household Income Project (CHIP) has conducted four waves of household surveys, in 1988, 1995, 2002, and lastly 2007. These surveys were carried out as part of a collaborative research project on incomes and inequality in China organized by Chinese and international researchers, with assistance from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The CHIP project participants and other researchers have analyzed the data from the first three waves and published a wide range of articles, reports, and books. Descriptions of the CHIP surveys and key findings can be found in Griffin and Zhao (1993); Riskin, Zhao, and Li (2001); and Gustafsson, Li, and Sicular (2008). This volume not only contains analyses based on the data from the fourth wave, 2007 but also uses data from the earlier waves to understand trends over time.
Eichen and Zhang (1993) describe the 1988 survey, and Li et al. (2008) describe the 1995 and 2002 surveys. This Appendix provides basic information about the 2007 survey. The CHIP surveys are closely related to the NBS household survey. Li et al. (2008) discuss how the NBS household survey samples were selected. Additional details about the NBS household surveys can be found in recent NBS statistical reports and publications.
It has been more than three decades since China started to transform its economy institutionally and structurally. The economic transformation has stimulated rapid economic growth in both GDP and personal incomes. From 1978 to 2007 the annual growth of GDP averaged close to 10 percent and that of household per capita income more than 7 percent. The rate of economic growth was even more impressive in later years, including the period under study in this chapter. From 2002 to 2007, annual growth of GDP was 11.6 percent and of rural and urban household per capita income 6.8 and 9.6 percent, respectively.
Although the reforms were successful in promoting GDP growth, by the early 2000s, concerns about rising disparities and sustainability prompted the government to announce a new development strategy emphasizing sustainable, harmonious growth. A new policy program, referred to as the “scientific outlook on development” (kexue fazhanguan), or the “Hu-Wen New Policies” (Hu-Wen xin zheng), aimed to promote development in urban and rural areas, reduce regional disparities, narrow income inequalities, and establish a social protection network with broad coverage over most of the population. As discussed in Chapters 1 and 5, the new policy program contained a series of pro-rural measures. These included the elimination of agricultural taxes, which had been in place for almost sixty years, and the adoption of new farm subsidies, for example, for grain production, purchase of agricultural inputs, and farm insurance (Lin and Wong 2012). By the end of 2007, Chinese rural households were no longer paying agricultural taxes, and total agricultural production subsidies from the central government exceeded 50 billion yuan (Lin and Wong 2012; Ministry of Agriculture 2007).
To evaluate the relationship between dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive views and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese women.
A cross-sectional study to explore the potential risk factors of GMD through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, an FFQ and a self-designed structured questionnaire, respectively.
Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.
Chinese pregnant women (n 571) who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at their 24th to 28th gestational week.
Thirteen per cent of the investigated women were identified as having GDM, and an increased intake of local featured foods and lower physical activity were observed in the GDM-positive group v. the GDM-negative group. Women who regarded early-pregnancy morning sickness as relevant to fetal abnormalities and those with unlimited dietary intake after the ending of morning sickness both had an increased risk for GDM (P = 0·018 and P = 0·038, respectively). After multiple logistic regression analysis, cognitive views for unlimited food intake subsequent to morning sickness, increased consumption of energy-dense snack foods and high-glycaemic-index fruits were strongly associated with the risk of GDM (OR = 1·911, P = 0·032; OR = 1·050, P = 0·001; and OR = 1·002, P = 0·017, respectively).
Local featured foods and incorrect cognitive views on pregnancy-related health were closely related to the risk of GDM in Chinese women. Intensive health education about pregnancy physiology and reasonable dietary and physical exercise behaviours should be strengthened for the control of GDM.
Ecological evidence suggests that niacin (nicotinamide and nicotinic acid) fortification may be involved in the increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, both of which are associated with insulin resistance and epigenetic changes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate nicotinamide-induced metabolic changes and their relationship with possible epigenetic changes. Male rats (5 weeks old) were fed with a basal diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1 or 4 g/kg of nicotinamide for 8 weeks. Low-dose nicotinamide exposure increased weight gain, but high-dose one did not. The nicotinamide-treated rats had higher hepatic and renal levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, a marker of DNA damage, and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when compared with the control rats. Nicotinamide supplementation increased the plasma levels of nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide and choline and decreased the levels of betaine, which is associated with a decrease in global hepatic DNA methylation and uracil content in DNA. Nicotinamide had gene-specific effects on the methylation of CpG sites within the promoters and the expression of hepatic genes tested that are responsible for methyl transfer reactions (nicotinamide N-methyltransferase and DNA methyltransferase 1), for homocysteine metabolism (betaine–homocysteine S-methyltransferase, methionine synthase and cystathionine β-synthase) and for oxidative defence (catalase and tumour protein p53). It is concluded that nicotinamide-induced oxidative tissue injury, insulin resistance and disturbed methyl metabolism can lead to epigenetic changes. The present study suggests that long-term high nicotinamide intake (e.g. induced by niacin fortification) may be a risk factor for methylation- and insulin resistance-related metabolic abnormalities.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of Mn source on Mn transport and the expression of a Mn transporter, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), in the small intestine of broilers. In Expt 1, in situ ligated duodenal loops from Mn-deficient chicks (29-d-old) were perfused with solutions containing 0–8·74 mmol Mn/l from either MnSO4, or one of two organic chelates of Mn and amino acids with moderate (OM) or strong (OS) chelation strength (Qf) up to 30 min. In Expt 2, Mn-deficient intact broilers (14-d-old) were fed a control diet (12·45 mg Mn/kg) or the control diet supplemented with 100 mg Mn/kg as one of all Mn sources for 14 d. The uptake kinetics of Mn from different Mn sources in the ligated duodenal loops followed a saturable process as determined by regression analysis of concentration-dependent uptake rates. The maximum transport rate (Jmax) and Km values, and DMT1 mRNA levels in the ligated duodenal loops were higher (P < 0·01) for OM and OS than for MnSO4. DMT1 mRNA levels were much higher (P < 0·01) in the duodenum than in the jejunum and ileum. Both DMT1 mRNA levels in the duodenum and plasma Mn contents from the hepatic portal vein of intact chicks on day 14 post-feeding increased (P < 0·05) in the following order: control < MnSO4 < OM < OS. These results indicated that organic Mn sources with stronger Qf showed higher Mn transport and absorption, and DMT1 might be involved in the regulation of organic Mn transport in the proximal small intestine of broilers.
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China?
Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview.
Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD.
Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
We numerically study a vortex ring impacting a flat wall with an angle of incidence θ ≥ 0°) in three dimensions by using the lattice Boltzmann equation. The hydrodynamic behaviour of the ring–wall interacting flow is investigated by systematically varying the angle of incidence θ in the range of 0° ≤ θ ≤ 40° and the Reynolds number in the range of 100 ≤ Re ≤ 1000, where the Reynolds number Re is based on the translational speed and initial diameter of the vortex ring. We quantify the effects of θ and Re on the evolution of the vortex structure in three dimensions and other flow fields in two dimensions. We observe three distinctive flow regions in the θ–Re parameter space. First, in the low-Reynolds-number region, the ring–wall interaction dissipates the ring without generating any secondary rings. Second, with a moderate Reynolds number Re and a small angle of incidence θ, the ring–wall interaction generates a complete secondary vortex ring, and even a tertiary ring at higher Reynolds numbers. The secondary vortex ring is convected to the centre region of the primary ring and develops azimuthal instabilities, which eventually lead to the development of hairpin-like small vortices through ring–ring interaction. And finally, with a moderate Reynolds number and a sufficiently large angle of incidence θ, only a secondary vortex ring is generated. The secondary vortex wraps around the primary ring and propagates from the near end of the primary ring, which touches the wall first, to the far end, which touches the wall last. The rings develop a helical structure. Our results from the present study confirm some existing experimental observations made in the previous studies.
Li Shi, Professor of economics School of Economics and Business, Beijing Normal University,
Luo Chuliang, Associate Professor Institute of Economics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, China,
Wei Zhong, Professor Institute of Economics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, China,
Yue Ximing, Professor School of Finance, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China
Following the successful completion of the first two Chinese household income (CHIP) surveys for 1988 and 1995, a new survey project team, composed of researchers from the Institute of Economics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) together with associated Chinese and international scholars, and with the assistance of the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), conducted a third survey in the spring of 2003 for the reference year 2002. The aim of the third survey was to examine the dynamic changes in income distribution in China that had taken place since 1988 and 1995.
Project teams from the 1988 and 1995 surveys published their analyses and research results in two volumes, Griffin and Zhao (1993) and Riskin, Zhao, and Li (2001). The first of these volumes contains an appendix describing the sampling method and data description for the 1988 survey, but the second volume lacks such an appendix for the 1995 survey. In view of this, and since most of the chapters in this volume use data from both the 1995 and 2002 surveys, this appendix describes both the 1995 and 2002 samples.
The CHIP surveys are closely related to the NBS household surveys, so we first give a brief explanation of how the NBS household survey samples were selected. We then describe the sampling method and data for the 1995 and 2002 surveys.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been grown by catalytical chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) with a thin iron layer as the catalyst. High surface tension metal, tantalum (Ta), and low surface tension, SiO2, have been deposited as the supporting layers before depositing the catalysts. SEM, TEM, STEM and EELS have been used to examine the morphology, structure, and chemical profile of iron nanoparticles and CNTs. The results have shown that the catalyst nanoparticle morphologies were distinctly different on two supports. In particular, Fe nanoparticles on SiO2 were found to follow a Vollmer-Weber (VW) growth mode and a Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode on Ta. It was also found that CNT growth varied significantly on two supports in terms of morphology, growth rate and growth mode. Dense CNTs were grown on Ta with fast growth rates (> 1µm/min) and vertical alignment for the iron thicknesses of 1.5-9 nm. In contrast, CNTs grown on SiO2 exhibited a slow growth rate (< 100 nm/min) with all deposited iron thicknesses, indicating a severe catalyst poisoning. The results suggested that the catalyst morphology in combination with the presence of an iron wetting layer contributed to the enhanced CCVD growth of CNTs on Ta.