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Despite escalating geopolitical rivalry, the US and China continue to be economically intertwined. Numerous Chinese companies have made substantial investments in the US and are reluctant exit this strategically important market. While the global expansion of Chinese companies has ignited intense policy and academic debates, their interactions with complex host-state legal systems have largely escaped systematic examination. To fill this knowledge gap, Negotiating Legality introduces a dual institutional framework and applies it to analyzing extensive interviews and multi-year survey data, thereby shedding light on how Chinese companies develop in-house legal capacities, engage with US legal professionals, and navigate litigation in US courts. As the first comprehensive investigation of these crucial topics, this book is indispensable for anyone interested in China's rise, its global impacts-especially on legal systems of developed nations like the US-and the intricate dynamics of US-China relations.
Despite its 3,000 kilometre coastline, few people see Vietnam as a maritime country. Here Li Tana presents a powerful new argument about Vietnamese history: that key political changes resulted from the impact, economic and otherwise, of the sea. This is a finely layered account covering the two millennia before colonisation that radically restructures how we understand the role of the maritime and trans-regional in Vietnam's early history. Drawing on exhaustive research of Chinese, Vietnamese and Japanese sources, Li reveals that it is only when viewed against the background of the sea that Vietnam's past can be properly understood. In contrast to traditional perceptions of an inward-looking society dominated by Chinese cultural influence, Vietnam was shaped by dynamic littoral economic and cultural contact.
Intelligent electromagnetic (EM) sensing is a powerful contactless examination tool in science, engineering and military, enabling us to 'see' and 'understand' visually invisible targets. Using intelligence, the sensor can organize by itself the task-oriented sensing pipeline (data acquisition plus processing) without human intervention. Intelligent metasurface sensors, synergizing ultrathin artificial materials (AMs) for flexible wave manipulation and artificial intelligences (AIs) for powerful data manipulation, emerge in response to the proper time and conditions, and have attracted growing interest over the past years. The authors expect that the results in this Element could be utilized to achieve the goal that conventional sensors cannot achieve, and that the developed strategies can be extended over the entire EM spectra and beyond, which will produce important impacts on the society of the robot-human alliance.
In this chapter, we argue that a distinct concept of “aesthetic hope” emerges from the way Kierkegaard’s Aesthete treats hope [Haab] and its relationship to recollection [Erindring] in “The Unhappiest One” and “Rotation of Crops.” We first show that aesthetic hope is distinct from the two other kinds of hope discussed by Kierkegaard: temporal hope and eternal hope. We then consider the suggestion that aesthetic hope is also an expression of despair – an inverse hope against hope, which seeks to avoid disappointment by hoping for things that are in some sense certain. The aesthete’s recommendation that we hope in such a way illuminates Kierkegaard’s view of the “dialectic” of temporal hope and eternal hope. Finally, we explore the treatment of hope in Either/Or as essentially involving a controlled, attentional element that anticipates some contemporary trends in the philosophy of hope.
This study presents novel findings on stochastic electron heating via a random electron cyclotron wave (ECW) in a spherical tokamak. Hard x ray measurements demonstrate the time evolution of hard x ray counts at different energy bands, consistent with predictions from the stochastic heating model. The ECW heating rate shows a positive correlation with applied power, confirming the effectiveness of stochastic heating. Remarkably, the ECW-driven plasma current remains insensitive to ECW incidence angle, consistent with model predictions. The observed stochastic heating of electrons offers potential for exploring innovative non-inductive current drive modes in spherical tokamaks. This research contributes to the understanding of plasma behaviour and motivates the development of new models for non-inductive current drive in fusion devices.
In recent years, the genus Bryoria (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes) has been the subject of considerable phylogenetic scrutiny. Here we used information on six gene regions, three nuclear protein-coding markers (Mcm7, GAPDH and Tsr1), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and IGS) and a partial mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU), to examine infrageneric relationships in the genus and to assess species delimitation in the Bryoria bicolor/B. tenuis group in section Divaricatae. For this purpose, phylogenetic analyses and several of the available algorithms for species delimitation (ASAP, GMYC single, GMYC multiple and bPTP) were employed. We also estimated divergence times for the genus using *BEAST. Our phylogenetic analyses based on the combined data set of six gene loci support the monophyly of sections Americanae, Divaricatae and Implexae, while section Bryoria is polyphyletic and groups in two clades. Species from Bryoria clade 1 are placed in an emended section Americanae. Our study reveals that section Divaricatae is young (c. 5 My) and is undergoing diversification, especially in South-East Asia and western North America. Separate phylogenetic analyses of section Divaricatae using ITS produced a topology congruent with the current species concepts. However, the remaining gene regions produced poorly resolved phylogenetic trees and the different species delimitation methods also generated highly inconsistent results, congruent with other studies that highlight the difficulty of species delimitation in groups with recent and rapid radiation. Based on our results, we describe the new species B. ahtiana sp. nov., characterized by its bicolorous, caespitose, widely divergent thallus, conspicuously thickening main stems, well-developed secondary branches, and rather sparse third-order branchlets. Another new lineage, referred to here as B. tenuis s. lat., is restricted to western North America and may represent a new species recently diverged from B. tenuis s. str., though further work is needed.
Disasters or mass-casualty incidents are uncommon events. The use of simulation is an ideal training modality in full-scale exercises as it immerses the participants in a replication of the actual environment where they can respond to simulated casualties in accordance with existing protocols.
The objective of this scoping review is to answer the research question: “How effective is simulation, as assessed in full-scale exercises, for response to disasters and mass-casualty incidents world-wide?” Studies on full-scale exercises, as defined in World Health Organization (WHO) simulation exercise toolbox, that were published in peer-reviewed journals using the English language from 2001 through 2021 were included. Twenty studies were included from searching PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Simulated casualties were the most common simulation modality. Using Kirkpatrick’s levels of evaluation to synthesize the data, simulation was reported to be generally effective and mostly demonstrated at the levels of learning of individuals and/or systems, as well as reaction of individuals. Evaluations at levels of behavior and results were limited due to the uncommon nature of disasters and mass-casualty incidents. However, evaluation outcomes across the full-scale exercises were varied, leading to the inability to consolidate effectiveness of simulation into a single measure. It is recommended for best evidence-based practices for simulation to be adhered to in full-scale exercises so that the trainings could translate into better outcomes for casualties during an actual disaster or mass-casualty incident. In addition, the reporting of simulation use in full-scale exercises should be standardized using a framework, and the evaluation process should be rigorous so that effectiveness could be determined and compared across full-scale exercises.
The silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a lepidopteran model insect of great economic importance. The parasitoid Exorista sorbillans (Diptera, Tachinidae) is the major pest of B. mori and also a promising candidate for biological control. However, the molecular interactions between hosts and dipteran parasitoids have only partially been studied. Gene expression analysis by reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is indispensable to characterise their interactions. Accurate normalisation of RT-qPCR-based gene expression requires the use of reference genes that are constantly expressed irrespective of experimental conditions. In this study, the expression stability of 13 traditionally used reference genes was estimated by five statistical algorithms (ΔCt, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder) to determine the best reference genes for gene expression studies in different tissues of B. mori under E. sorbillans parasitism. Specifically, TATA-box-binding protein was the best reference gene in epidermis and testis, while elongation factor 1α was the most stable gene in prothoracic gland and midgut. Elongation factor 1γ, ribosomal protein L3, actin A1, ribosomal protein L40, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A were the most suitable genes in head, silk gland, fat body, haemolymph, Malpighian tubule and ovary, respectively. Our study offers a set of suitable reference genes for gene expression normalisation in B. mori under the parasitic stress of E. sorbillans, which will benefit the in-depth exploration of host-dipteran parasitoid interactions, and also provide insights for further improvements of B. mori resistance against parasitoids and biocontrol efficacy of dipteran parasitoids.
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has been proposed to replace the term non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 2020. The association between micronutrients and MAFLD has not been reported. Therefore, this study aims to explore the association between micronutrients intake and MAFLD. This was a cross-section study based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The dietary intake of copper, zinc, iron, and selenium was evaluated using the 24-h dietary recall interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between micronutrients and MAFLD, and the results were shown as odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 5976 participants were finally included for analysis, with 3437 participants in the MAFLD group. After adjusting potential confounders, copper intake at quartile Q3 (OR = 0⋅68, 95 % CI 0⋅50, 0⋅93) and Q4 (OR = 0⋅60, 95 % CI 0⋅45, 0⋅80) was found to be associated with lower odds of MAFLD. Iron intake at Q2 (OR = 0⋅64, 95 % CI 0⋅45, 0⋅92) and Q3 (OR = 0⋅61, 95 % CI 0⋅41, 0⋅91) was associated with the lower odds of MAFLD. Our findings found that high intake of copper and adequate intake of iron were associated with MAFLD, which may provide guidance for the management of MAFLD.
Vitrification has been widely used for oocyte cryopreservation, but there is still a need for optimization to improve clinical outcomes. In this study, we compared the routine droplet merge protocol with modified multi-gradient equilibration vitrification for cryopreservation of mouse oocytes at metaphase II. Subsequently, the oocytes were thawed and subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Oocyte survival and spindle status were evaluated by morphology and immunofluorescence staining. Moreover, the fertilization rates and blastocyst development were examined in vitro. The results showed that multi-gradient equilibration vitrification outperformed droplet merge vitrification in terms of oocyte survival, spindle morphology, blastocyst formation, and embryo quality. In contrast, droplet merge vitrification exhibited decreasing survival rates, a reduced proportion of oocytes with normal spindle morphology, and lower blastocyst rates as the number of loaded oocytes increased. Notably, when more than six oocytes were loaded, reduced oocyte survival rates, abnormal oocyte spindle morphology, and poor embryo quality were observed. These findings highlight that the vitrification of mouse metaphase II oocytes by the modified multi-gradient equilibration vitrification has the advantage of maintaining oocyte survival, spindle morphology, and subsequent embryonic development.
Reward processing dysfunctions are considered a candidate mechanism underlying anhedonia and apathy in depression. Neuroimaging studies have documented that neurofunctional alterations in mesocorticolimbic circuits may neurally mediate these dysfunctions. However, common and distinct neurofunctional alterations during motivational and hedonic evaluation of monetary and natural rewards in depression have not been systematically examined. Here, we capitalized on pre-registered neuroimaging meta-analyses to (1) establish general reward-related neural alterations in depression, (2) determine common and distinct alterations during the receipt and anticipation of monetary v. natural rewards, and, (3) characterize the differences on the behavioral, network, and molecular level. The pre-registered meta-analysis (https://osf.io/ay3r9) included 633 depressed patients and 644 healthy controls and revealed generally decreased subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and striatal reactivity toward rewards in depression. Subsequent comparative analyses indicated that monetary rewards led to decreased hedonic reactivity in the right ventral caudate while natural rewards led to decreased reactivity in the bilateral putamen in depressed individuals. These regions exhibited distinguishable profiles on the behavioral, network, and molecular level. Further analyses demonstrated that the right thalamus and left putamen showed decreased activation during the anticipation of monetary reward. The present results indicate that distinguishable neurofunctional alterations may neurally mediate reward-processing alterations in depression, in particular, with respect to monetary and natural rewards. Given that natural rewards prevail in everyday life, our findings suggest that reward-type specific interventions are warranted and challenge the generalizability of experimental tasks employing monetary incentives to capture reward dysregulations in everyday life.
COVID-19 lockdowns increased the risk of mental health problems, especially for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, despite its importance, little is known about the protective factors for ASD children during the lockdowns.
Based on the Shanghai Autism Early Developmental Cohort, 188 ASD children with two visits before and after the strict Omicron lockdown were included; 85 children were lockdown-free, while 52 and 51 children were under the longer and the shorter durations of strict lockdown, respectively. We tested the association of the lockdown group with the clinical improvement and also the modulation effects of parent/family-related factors on this association by linear regression/mixed-effect models. Within the social brain structures, we examined the voxel-wise interaction between the grey matter volume and the identified modulation effects.
Compared with the lockdown-free group, the ASD children experienced the longer duration of strict lockdown had less clinical improvement (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.19–0.79], p = 0.001) and this difference was greatest for social cognition (2.62 [0.94–4.30], p = 0.002). We found that this association was modulated by parental agreeableness in a protective way (−0.11 [−0.17 to −0.05], p = 0.002). This protective effect was enhanced in the ASD children with larger grey matter volumes in the brain's mentalizing network, including the temporal pole, the medial superior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus.
This longitudinal neuroimaging cohort study identified that the parental agreeableness interacting with the ASD children's social brain development reduced the negative impact on clinical symptoms during the strict lockdown.
The gold standard for hand hygiene (HH) while wearing gloves requires removing gloves, performing HH, and donning new gloves between WHO moments. The novel strategy of applying alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) directly to gloved hands might be effective and efficient.
A mixed-method, multicenter, 3-arm, randomized trial.
Adult and pediatric medical-surgical, intermediate, and intensive care units at 4 hospitals.
Healthcare personnel (HCP).
HCP were randomized to 3 groups: ABHR applied directly to gloved hands, the current standard, or usual care.
Gloved hands were sampled via direct imprint. Gold-standard and usual-care arms were compared with the ABHR intervention.
Bacteria were identified on gloved hands after 432 (67.4%) of 641 observations in the gold-standard arm versus 548 (82.8%) of 662 observations in the intervention arm (P < .01). HH required a mean of 14 seconds in the intervention and a mean of 28.7 seconds in the gold-standard arm (P < .01). Bacteria were identified on gloved hands after 133 (98.5%) of 135 observations in the usual-care arm versus 173 (76.6%) of 226 observations in the intervention arm (P < .01). Of 331 gloves tested 6 (1.8%) were found to have microperforations; all were identified in the intervention arm [6 (2.9%) of 205].
Compared with usual care, contamination of gloved hands was significantly reduced by applying ABHR directly to gloved hands but statistically higher than the gold standard. Given time savings and microbiological benefit over usual care and lack of feasibility of adhering to the gold standard, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization should consider advising HCP to decontaminate gloved hands with ABHR when HH moments arise during single-patient encounters.
This paper studies the relationship between slack and research and development (R&D) investment by addressing the role of the founder as the ‘microfoundation’ among Chinese newly listed firms. We propose a contingent approach to understanding the slack-R&D investment relationship by examining the influence of the founder’s human capital and social ties, which is distinguished into political and managerial ties. Our results show that the founder’s human capital, measured by its educational level, strengthens the relationship between absorbed and unabsorbed slack resources and R&D investment. We also find that the founder’s managerial ties strengthen the relationship between resource slack and R&D intensity, whereas political ties weaken that link. Our results demonstrate the founder’s crucial role in underpinning resource utilization in newly listed firms and emphasise the importance of social ties in driving firms’ R&D activities in emerging economies.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is thought to arise from dysconnectivity among interlinked brain regions resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Cortical gyrification, a key morphological feature of human cerebral cortex, has been considered associated with developmental connectivity in early life. Monitoring cortical gyrification alterations may provide new insights into the developmental pathogenesis of OCD.
Sixty-two medication-naive patients with OCD and 59 healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study. Local gyrification index (LGI) was extracted from T1-weighted MRI data to identify the gyrification changes in OCD. Total distortion (splay, bend, or twist of fibers) was calculated using diffusion-weighted MRI data to examine the changes in white matter microstructure in patients with OCD.
Compared with HCs, patients with OCD showed significantly increased LGI in bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right precuneus, where the mean LGI was positively correlated with anxiety score. Patients with OCD also showed significantly decreased total distortion in the body, genu, and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC), where the average distortion was negatively correlated with anxiety scores. Intriguingly, the mean LGI of the affected cortical regions was significantly correlated with the mean distortion of the affected white matter tracts in patients with OCD.
We demonstrated associations among increased LGI, aberrant white matter geometry, and higher anxiety in patients with OCD. Our findings indicate that developmental dysconnectivity-driven alterations in cortical folding are one of the neural substrates underlying the clinical manifestations of OCD.
Censorship is one of the main forms of political coercion deployed by modern states to control and regulate public expression. In this article, we examine the political censorship of China’s intellectual public space, which has long been underexplored. We apply unsupervised machine learning to examine the database of a leading intellectual portal website, which serves as an archive of both published and censored intellectual writings between 2000 and 2020 and includes over 740 million Chinese characters. We identify a strategic censorship mechanism that consists of thematic and persona censorship elements. Thematic censorship involves the state filtering out writing that competes with the official policy narrative, historiography, and values. Persona censorship involves the complete muting of individual intellectuals who have previously made derogatory attacks on the supreme leaders of the Communist Party, which represents a symbolic act of open defiance.
Shock-tube experiments on Richtmyer–Meshkov (RM) instability at a perturbed SF$_6$ layer surrounded by air, induced by a cylindrical divergent shock, are reported. To explore the effects of reverberating waves and interface coupling on instability growth, gas layers with various shapes are created: unperturbed inner interface and sinusoidal outer interface (case US); sinusoidal inner and outer interfaces that have identical phase (case IP); sinusoidal inner and outer interfaces that have opposite phase (case AP). For each case, three thicknesses are considered. Results show that reverberating waves inside the layer dominate the early-stage instability growth, while interface coupling dominates the late-stage growth. The influences of waves on divergent RM instability are more pronounced than the planar and convergent counterparts, which are estimated accurately based on gas dynamics theory. Both the wave influence and interface coupling depend heavily on the layer shape, leading to diverse growth rates: the quickest growth for case AP, medium growth for case US, the slowest growth for case IP. In particular, for the IP case, there exists a critical thickness below which the instability growth is suppressed by both the reverberating waves and interface coupling. This provides an efficient way to modulate the growth of divergent RM instability. It is found that divergent RM instability involves weak nonlinearity and strong interface coupling such that the linear theory of Mikaelian (Phys. Fluids, vol. 17, 2005, 094105) can well reproduce the instability growth at late stages for all cases. This constitutes the first experimental confirmation of the Mikaelian theory.
With the rapid development of the maritime industry and the emergence of unmanned ships, it is necessary to continuously review the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972, COLREGs). This paper provides an overview of the developing history of the COLREGs and summarises the interpretations made by the International Maritime Organization official and academic scholars. Additionally, the paper discusses the application of the COLREGs in collision avoidance geometry and autonomous collision avoidance systems. Furthermore, the necessity and key points of revisions to adapt to industry advancements are discussed, along with an analysis of the main challenges faced. Finally, in light of the continuous progress and implementation of the outcome of the Regulatory Scoping Exercise for the Use of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS), the paper points out that achieving consistency between manned and unmanned vessels, as well as developing COLREGs-based autonomous collision avoidance systems for more complex scenarios, is expected to be a significant trend in the future.