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This study aimed to investigate the optimal frozen embryo transfer (FET) strategy for recurrent implantation failure (RIF) patients with three consecutive failed cleaved embryo implantations and no blastocyst preservation. This retrospective analysis was divided into three groups based on the FET strategy: thawed day 3 embryo transfer (D3 FET group); and extended culture of frozen–thawed day 3 embryos to day 5 blastocysts transfer (D3–D5 FET group); thawed blastocyst transfer (D5 FET group). Transplant cycle data were compared between the three groups. In total, 43.8% of vitrified–thawed cleavage embryos developed into blastocysts. Analysis of the three transplantation strategies showed that, compared with the D3 FET group, D3–D5 had a significantly better hCG-positivity rate and live-birth rate (P < 0.05). Pregnancy outcomes in the D3–D5 FET group and D5 FET group were similar regarding hCG-positivity rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and live-birth rate. Our findings propose two potentially valuable transfer strategies for patients experiencing repeated implantation failures. The D3–D5 FET approach presents a greater potential for selecting promising embryos in cases without blastocyst preservation; however, this strategy does entail the risk of cycle cancellation. Conversely, in instances where blastocyst preservation is an option, prioritizing consideration of the D5 FET strategy is recommended.
A blunted hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis response to acute stress is associated with psychiatric symptoms. Although the prefrontal cortex and limbic areas are important regulators of the HPA axis, whether the neural habituation of these regions during stress signals both blunted HPA axis responses and psychiatric symptoms remains unclear. In this study, neural habituation during acute stress and its associations with the stress cortisol response, resilience, and depression were evaluated.
Seventy-seven participants (17–22 years old, 37 women) were recruited for a ScanSTRESS brain imaging study, and the activation changes between the first and last stress blocks were used as the neural habituation index. Meanwhile, participants' salivary cortisol during test was collected. Individual-level resilience and depression were measured using questionnaires. Correlation and moderation analyses were conducted to investigate the association between neural habituation and endocrine data and mental symptoms. Validated analyses were conducted using a Montreal Image Stress Test dataset in another independent sample (48 participants; 17–22 years old, 24 women).
Neural habituation of the prefrontal cortex and limbic area was negatively correlated with cortisol responses in both datasets. In the ScanSTRESS paradigm, neural habituation was both positively correlated with depression and negatively correlated with resilience. Moreover, resilience moderated the relationship between neural habituation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and cortisol response.
This study suggested that neural habituation of the prefrontal cortex and limbic area could reflect motivation dysregulation during repeated failures and negative feedback, which might further lead to maladaptive mental states.
High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) contribute to dough elasticity and bread baking quality in wheat. In this study, wheat varieties were classified based on their HMW-GS composition into three groups: 1Dx5 (5 + 10, Gaoyou 8901, Xinmai 28, Xinmai 19, Xinmai 26 and Jinbaoyin), 1Dx2 (2 + 12, Zhoumai 24, Xinmai 9 and Yumai) and 1Dx4 (4 + 12, Aikang 58). Sequence analysis showed that 1Dx-GY8901, 1Dx-XM28, 1Dx-XM19 and 1Dx-XM26 were similar to the 1Dx5 gene and clustered on the same branch, while 1Dx-AK58, 1Dx-ZM24, 1Dx-JBY, 1Dx-YM, 1Dx-XM9 and 1Dx-JBY were more similar to the 1Dx2 gene and clustered on the same branch with 1Dx.2.2. There was a mutation of Ser to Cys at position S2, for an extra Cys in the repeat regions of 1Dx-XM19, 1Dx-XM26, 1Dx-XM28 and 1Dx-GY8901. The wheat HMW-GS genes exhibited similar percentages of α-helix, extended strand, β-turn and random coil structure, with ranges of 13.33–13.59, 4.77–5.78, 7.08–9.18 and 72.3–73.94%, respectively. Sequence conservation and the composition of HMW-GS subunits were also analysed for a series of strong gluten wheat varieties, Xinmai 9 (1, 7 + 8, 2 + 12), Xinmai 19 (1, 7 + 9, 5 + 10), Xinmai 26 (1, 7 + 8, 5 + 10) and Xinmai 28 (1, 7 + 9, 5 + 10). The results of this work should facilitate future breeding efforts and provide the theoretical basis for wheat quality improvement.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
Most skarns are found near the pluton or in lithologies containing at least some limestone. However, recent research has shown that neither a pluton nor limestone is necessarily required to form a skarn deposit. The newly discovered Bagenheigeqier Pb–Zn skarn deposit is located in NE China. The skarn and Pb–Zn orebodies occur in volcanic lithologies of the Baiyin’gaolao Formation and are controlled by NE–SW-trending faults. The nearest pluton is a granite porphyry, at a distance of 20–250 m from the orebodies. Five paragenetic stages at Bagenheigeqier are recognized: (I) skarn; (II) oxide; (III) early sulphide; (IV) late sulphide; and (V) late quartz–calcite. The fluid inclusions from stages II to V homogenized at temperatures of 402–452, 360–408, 274–319 and 167–212°C, respectively. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions (δ18OH2O, –12.4‰ to +9.3‰; δDH2O, –156.5‰ to –99.1‰) indicate that the ore-fluids were primarily of magmatic origin, with the proportion of meteoric water increasing during the progression of ore formation. Sulphur isotope values (δ34SVCDT, 1.4–5.5‰), lead isotope values (206Pb/204Pb, 18.184–18.717; 207Pb/204Pb, 15.520–15.875; 208Pb/204Pb, 37.991–38.379) and the initial 187Os/188Os ratios of the pyrite (0.307 ± 0.06) suggest that the ore metals were derived from the granite porphyry and Baiyin’gaolao Formation. Re–Os dating of pyrite intergrown with galena and sphalerite yielded a well-constrained isochron age of 151.2 ± 4.7 Ma, which is coeval with the laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry zircon U–Pb age of 154 ± 1 Ma for the granite porphyry. The deposit was therefore formed during Late Jurassic time.
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of n-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA, at an EPA:DHA ratio of 150:500) and phytosterol esters (PS) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-six NAFLD subjects were randomly assigned to the following groups: the PS group (receiving 3·3 g/d PS); the FO group (receiving 450 mg EPA + 1500 mg DHA/d); the PS + FO combination group (receiving 3·3 g/d PS and 450 mg EPA + 1500 mg DHA/d) and the PO group (a placebo group). The baseline clinical characteristics of the four groups were similar. The primary outcome was liver:spleen attenuation ratio (L:S ratio). The percentage increase in liver–spleen attenuation (≤1) in the PS + FO group was 36 % (P = 0·083), higher than those in the other three groups (PS group, 11 %, P = 0·519; FO group, 18 %, P = 0·071; PO group, 15 %, P = 0·436). Compared with baseline, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was significantly decreased in the three study groups at the end of the trial (PS, P = 0·000; FO, P = 0·002; PS + FO, P = 0·001) and TNF-α was significantly decreased in the FO group (P = 0·036), PS + FO group (P = 0·005) and PO group (P = 0·032) at the end of the intervention. Notably, TGF-β was reduced significantly more in the PS + FO group than in the PO group (P = 0·032). The TAG and total cholesterol levels of the PS + FO group were reduced by 11·57 and 9·55 %, respectively. In conclusion, co-supplementation of PS and EPA + DHA could increase the effectiveness of treatment for hepatic steatosis.
The lichen family Ophioparmaceae contains three genera: Boreoplaca, Hypocenomyce and Ophioparma. The genus Hypocenomyce is reported here for the first time for China, being represented by the species Hypocenomyce scalaris which is distributed in south-western China. For the genus Ophioparma, one new species is described in this paper, namely Ophioparma pruinosa Li S. Wang & Y. Y. Zhang sp. nov., which is characterized by a pruinose thallus and the presence of usnic acid. Ophioparma araucariae is also reported as new for the Chinese lichen biota. Previous reports of O. lapponica in China are recognized as misidentifications of O. ventosa. Descriptions, keys and phylograms are provided for these species.
This study aimed to determine the effects of supplementing the diet of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with phosphatidylcholine (PC) on growth performance, body composition, fatty acid composition and gene expression. Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia fish with an initial body weight of 83·1 (sd 2·9) g were divided into six groups. Each group was hand-fed a semi-purified diet containing 1·7 (control diet), 4·0, 6·5, 11·5, 21·3 or 41·0 g PC/kg diet for 68 d. Supplemental PC improved the feed efficiency rate, which was highest in the 11·5 g PC/kg diet. Weight gain and specific growth rate were unaffected. Dietary PC increased PC content in the liver and decreased crude fat content in the liver, viscera and body. SFA and MUFA increased and PUFA decreased in muscle with increasing dietary PC. Cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 and secreted phospholipase A2 mRNA expression were up-regulated in the brain and heart in PC-supplemented fish. PC reduced fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in the liver and visceral tissue but increased expression in muscle. Hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase expression increased in the liver with increasing dietary PC. Growth hormone mRNA expression was reduced in the brain and insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA expression in liver reduced with PC above 6·5 g/kg. Our results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with PC improves feed efficiency and reduces liver fat in adult Nile tilapia, without increasing weight gain, representing a novel dietary approach to reduce feed requirements and improve the health of Nile tilapia.
A seawater salinity sensor based on microring resonator with weak temperature dependence is proposed, which is coated by MgF2 film with positive thermo-optic coefficient. Temperature dependences of the sensor on fiber diameter, probing wavelength and coating thickness are theoretically investigated and ranges of microfiber diameters for weak temperature dependence are obtained. Under the temperature insensitive condition, sensitivity and detection limit of salinity sensing are studied. By optimizing the parameters of the sensing system, salinity sensitivity and detection limit can reach 0.03 nm/‰ and 0.13‰, respectively. The model presented here may be helpful for developing weak temperature dependence sensors for salinity sensing with high sensitivity, low detection limit and miniaturized sizes.
Seed protein content is one of the most important traits controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in soybean. In this study, a Glycine soja accession (ZYD2738) was crossed with two elite cultivars Jidou 12 and Jidou 9 separately and subsequently the resulting F2:3 populations were used to identify QTLs associated with seed protein content. Protein contents in either population appeared to have a normal distribution with transgressive segregation. A total of five QTLs associated with high protein content were identified and mapped to chromosomes 2, 6, 13, 18 and 20, respectively. Of these QTLs, three (qPRO_2_1, qPRO_13_1 and qPRO_20_1) were identified in the same region in both the populations, whereas the other two (qPRO_6_1 and qPRO_18_1) were mapped in two different regions. qPRO_2_1 appears to be a novel protein QTL. qPRO_6_1, qPRO_18_1 and qPRO_20_1 had additive effects on seed protein content, while qPRO_13_1 had an over-dominant effect on seed protein content. These QTLs and their linked markers could serve as effective tools for marker-assisted selection to increase seed protein content.
Previous studies have reported that the first polar body (PB1) morphology reflects embryo development competence, but the effects of PB1 on porcine embryo development remain unknown. This study aims to determine whether the ability of porcine embryo development is related to oocytes’ PB1 in vitro. The distribution of type II cortical granules (CGs) of porcine matured oocytes in grade B PB1 is significantly greater compared with those in grades A and C PB1 (71.43% versus 52.46% and 50%; P < 0.05). The ratio of porcine parthenogenetic blastocysts and the mean cell number in each blastocyst in the group with grade B PB1 is significantly greater than that with grades A and C PB1 (30.81% vs. 19.02% and 15.15%; P < 0.05) and (36.67 versus 24.67, 28.67; P < 0.05), and no significant differences are found in the embryo cleavage for all groups (79.75%, 84.30%, and 78.18% in grades A, B, and C PB1; P > 0.05). The acetylation level of porcine embryos in the group with grade B PB1 is significantly greater compared with those in the other groups (P < 0.05), and is almost 2.5 times higher than that in grade A. Therefore, porcine oocytes with PB1 in grade B are more competitive in cytoplasmic maturation and further embryo development in vitro.
New organic/inorganic mesoporous luminescent hybrid materials containing lanthanide (Eu, Tb) complexes chemically bonded to mesoporous SBA-15 [a kind of mesoporous silica with two-dimensional hexagonal (P6mm) structure] have been successfully synthesized by co-condensation of the modified hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFAASi) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of Pluronic P123 surfactant as a template. The luminescent properties of these resulting mesoporous hybrid materials [denoted as Ln(HFAASi-SBA-15)3phen, Ln = Eu, Tb; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline] were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, small-angle powder x-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption measurements, transmission electron microscope, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection absorption spectra, and photoluminescent spectra, and the results exhibit that they all have uniformity in mesostructure and high surface area. Moreover, the mesoporous hybrid materials Eu(HFAASi-SBA-15)3phen and Tb(HFAASi-SBA-15)3phen exhibit the characteristic luminescence of Eu3+ and Tb3+, respectively, indicating that the effective intramolecular energy transfer between HFAASi and the lanthanide ions has been achieved.
Three decades of economic reform have brought tremendous changes in every sector of the Chinese economy. The labor market is no exception, and it was particularly affected by important policy and institutional changes at the turn of the century. On the one hand, the state-sector reform was accelerated after the Chinese Communist Party's Fifteenth National Congress (September 1997), which encouraged both the corporatization of large state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and the restructuring of small SOEs. On the other hand, the Congress also recognized private enterprises as an important component of the economy and placed an emphasis on rule of law. As a direct consequence, the urban labor market was reshaped due to the unprecedented growth in unemployment and the reallocation of labor from the public to the private sector. At the same time, competition among workers in the urban labor market increased sharply due to the massive rural labor-force exodus, which led to an estimated 140 million rural workers in the cities by 2008.
In the context of a transitional economy, these dramatic changes raise a number of issues about the direction of the urban labor market. A key aspect to be explored is whether the labor market has become market oriented and whether enterprises with different ownerships operate competitively. Academic research using data collected from the mid-1990s to the early twenty-first century highlights the incompleteness of the reforms and the “unfinished economic revolution” (Lardy 1998), as well as the remaining rigidities in a segmented labor market with distinct rules for wage determination and limited labor mobility between segments (e.g., Chen, Démurger, and Fournier 2005; Démurger et al. 2006; Dong and Bowles 2002; Knight and Song 2003; Wang 2005).
The expression of the YUCAA1 gene and the amount of endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA) in rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica) plants and rice suspension cells infected by Rice stripe virus (RSV) were investigated by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The results showed that the expression of the YUCAA1 gene and the amount of endogenous IAA increased at various times (16, 32, 48 and 64 h) after infection of rice suspension cells by RSV. In rice plants infected with RSV, the expression of the YUCAA1 gene and the amount of endogenous IAA increased, in comparison with healthy rice plants, at 4–8 days after infection, and decreased at 12 and 16 days. These results indicated that RSV infection could regulate auxin biosynthesis in rice. Additionally, the expression of the RSV gene CP increased 2.9 times in rice plants after they were treated with a KPSC buffer to deplete the endogenous auxins, and decreased 45% after treatment with 30 μmol/l IAA. All of these results suggest that auxin may play a role in RSV replication in rice plants.
Successful production of cloned animals derived from somatic cells has been achieved in sheep, cattle, goats, mice, pigs, rabbits, etc. But the efficiency of nuclear transfer is very low in all species. The present study was conducted to examine somatic nucleus remodelling and developmental ability in vitro of rabbit embryos by transferring somatic cells into enucleated germinal vesicle (GV), metaphase I (MI) or metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Microtubules were organized around condensed chromosomes after the nucleus had been transferred into any of the three types of cytoplasm. A bipolar spindle was formed in enucleated MII cytoplasm. Most of the nuclei failed to form a normal spindle within GV and MI cytoplasm. Some chromosomes scattered throughout the cytoplasm and some formed a monopolar spindle. Pseudopronucleus formation was observed in all three types of cytoplasm. Reconstructed embryos with MI and MII cytoplasm could develop to blastcysts. Nuclei in GV cytoplasm could develop only to the 4-cell stage. These results suggest that (1) GV material is important for nucleus remodelling after nuclear transfer, and (2) oocyte cytoplasm has the capacity to dedifferentiate somatic cells during oocyte maturation.
The influence of the density of gap states and the band gap width of the intrinsic a-Si:H active layer on the characteristics of a-Si PIN/OLED coupling pair was analyzed by a-Si:H PIN/OLED CAD simulation model. The CAD simulation model was carried out based on a-Si PIN Hack & Shur model and OLED TCL transport model. At the same band gap width, for the intrinsic a-Si:H active layer with the higher density of gap states, the reverse current of a-Si PIN trended to be saturated at the higher reverse bias voltage. As a result, I-V curve of a-Si PIN/OLED around the turn point Vt became smoother with the increase of the density of gap states. At the same state density, the light induced current of a-Si PIN increased against the band gap width, assuming the input light had the same spectrum as AM1.5 solar light. Thus the luminance emitted from OLED increased with the decrease of the band gap width because OLED belongs to the light-emitting device controlled by current. The simulation results also showed that the influence of the state density intensified with the increase of the band gap of a-Si:H.
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