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Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
Few studies have estimated care burden in large, representative, multi-ethnic Asian population-based informal caregivers of older adults with care needs. This study describes informal caregivers’ care participation for a population-based sample of older adults with care needs in Singapore, investigates differences by dementia status, and examines correlates of caregivers’ burden.
Data collected from 693 pairs of older adults, aged 60 to 100 years, having any care needs, and their informal caregivers, who were aged 21 to 88 years, closely involved in their care and “knew the older resident best,” and were interviewed during a cross-sectional national survey, were used. Clinical characteristics of older adults, including behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and dementia diagnosis, care needs, and socio-demographic characteristics of participants were obtained. Care burden was assessed with the Zarit Burden Interview.
Informal caregivers’ participation was highest in activities related to communication (35.1%), feeding (32%), and bathing (21.1%). Among the older adults with any care need, 356 (51.4%) had dementia. Care burden was significantly associated with married caregivers (odds ratio (OR) 2.4 vs. never married), when their relative belonged to a younger cohort (OR 2.5 vs. >84 years), needed care much of the time (OR 2.5 vs. no care needed), exhibited BPSD (OR 3.5 vs. no BPSD), and had dementia (OR 2.52 vs. no dementia).
Factors related to older adults – more care needs, presence of BPSD, and dementia – were significant contributors to informal caregivers’ burden, and these should be considered while planning interventions to alleviate care burden.
GaAs-based micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) are emerging technologies, which will lead to integration of new sensing and actuating devices with microwave and millimeter-wave electronics. However, developing the capability of selective deep etching of GaAs is a critical issue to be solved. This paper presents a study of a highly anisotropic deep GaAs etching. Two different plasma etching methods were studied for GaAs etching with chlorine-based chemistries: reactive ion etching (RIE) with Cl2/BCl3/SiCl4mixtures and high-density inductive coupled plasma (HDICP) etching with Cl2/BCl3 mixtures. A negative acting photoresist, SU-8, which allows high resolution, high aspect ratio patterning with strong resistance to etchants, was selected as the etching mask for this work. Process parameters were varied for best results, and the effects of the process parameters are presented. Issues such as etch selectivity of SU-8 and GaAs, reflow of SU-8, and loading effects were also investigated. An optimized etching process was developed to achieve a deep etch in excess of 300μm of GaAs with a single layer of SU-8 photoresist.
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