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To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for residents of northeast China.
A total of 131 participants completed two FFQs (FFQ1 and FFQ2) within a 3-month period, 125 participants completed 8-day weighed diet records (WDRs), and 112 participants completed blood biomarker testing. Reproducibility was measured by comparing nutrient and food intake between FFQ1 and FFQ2. The validity of the FFQ was assessed by WDRs and the triad method.
The Spearman correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for reproducibility ranged from 0.41 to 0.69 (median = 0.53) and from 0.18 to 0.68 (median = 0.53) for energy and nutrients and from 0.37 to 0.73 (median = 0.59) and from 0.33 to 0.86 (median = 0.60) for food groups, respectively. The classifications of same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 73.64% to 93.80% for both FFQs. The crude Spearman correlation coefficients between the FFQ and WDRs ranged from 0.27 to 0.55 (median = 0.46) for the energy and nutrients and from 0.26 to 0.70 (median = 0.52) for food groups, and classifications of the same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 65.32% to 86.29%. The triad method indicated that validation coefficients for the FFQ were above 0.3 for most nutrients, which indicated a moderate or high level of validity.
The FFQ that was developed for residents of northeast China for the Northeast Cohort Study of China is reliable and valid for assessing the intake of most foods and nutrients.
The high-altitude landscape of western Tibet is one of the most extreme environments in which humans have managed to introduce crop cultivation. To date, only sparse palaeoeconomic data have been reported from this region. The authors present archaeobotanical evidence from five sites (dating from the late first millennium BC and the early first millennium AD) located in the cold-arid landscape of western Tibet. The data indicate that barley was widely grown in this region by c. 400 BC but probably fulfilled differing roles within local ecological constraints on cultivation. Additionally, larger sites are characterised by more diverse crop assemblages than smaller sites, suggesting a role for social diversity in the development of high-altitude agriculture.
Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important determinant of infant birth weight, and having adequate total GWG has been widely recommended. However, the association of timing of GWG with birth weight remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate this association, especially among women with adequate total GWG. In a prospective cohort study, pregnant women’s weight was routinely measured during pregnancy, and their GWG was calculated for the ten intervals: the first 13, 14–18, 19–23, 24–28, 29–30, 31–32, 33–34, 35–36, 37–38 and 39–40 weeks. Birth weight was measured, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age were assessed. Generalized linear and Poisson models were used to evaluate the associations of GWG with birth weight and its outcomes after multivariate adjustment, respectively. Of the 5049 women, increased GWG in the first 30 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for male infants, and increased GWG in the first 28 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for females. Among 1713 women with adequate total GWG, increased GWG percent between 14 and 23 weeks was associated with increased birth weight. Moreover, inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks, compared with the adequate GWG, was associated with an increased risk of SGA (43 (13·7 %) v. 42 (7·2 %); relative risk 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·76). Timing of GWG may influence infant birth weight differentially, and women with inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks may be at higher risk of delivering SGA infants, despite having adequate total GWG.
Time-differenced carrier phase (TDCP) is a commonly used method of precise velocimetry, but when the receiver is in a dynamic or complex observation environment, the estimation accuracy is reduced. Doppler velocimetry aims at estimating instantaneous velocity, and the accuracy is restricted by the accuracy of measurement. However, in such unfavourable cases, the Doppler measurement is more reliable than the carrier phase measurement. This paper derives the relationship between Doppler observation and TDCP observation, then proposes a Doppler enhanced TDCP algorithm, for the purpose of improving the velocity estimation accuracy in dynamic and complex observation environments. In addition, considering the error caused by the constant speed state update model in the robust Kalman filter (RKF), this paper designs a terrain adaptive and robust Kalman filter (TARKF). After three experimental tests, the improved TDCP algorithm can significantly increase the speed measurement accuracy to sub-metre per second, and the accuracy can be further improved after using TARKF.
A class of balanced dual-band bandpass filters (BPFs) with planar transversal-signal-interference coupled-line sections is reported. In their building balanced dual-band BPF stage under differential-mode excitation, a second-order quasi-elliptic-type dual-band bandpass filtering transfer function is obtained. Specifically, from the transversal interaction among their two open-ended and virtually-short-ended half-wavelength coupled-line paths, sharp-rejection differential-mode dual passbands with several out-of-band transmission zeros at both sides are realized. To attain high common-mode suppression levels within the differential-mode passbands, two open-ended line segments are connected at the symmetry plane of the devised balanced dual-band BPF stage. Moreover, higher-order schemes based on in-series-cascaded multi-stage designs to further increase differential-mode selectivity and in-band common-mode rejection are illustrated. The operational principles and parametric-analysis design rules of the engineered transversal-coupled-line-based balanced dual-band BPF approach are detailed. Additionally, for a rigorous interpretation of their zero/pole characteristics, a digital-modeling framework is applied to them to connect RF balanced filters with their discrete-time versions. For practical-validation purposes, a microstrip prototype of two-stage/fourth-order balanced dual-band BPF is built and tested. It exhibits measured differential-mode dual passbands with center frequencies of 1.464 GHz and 2.294 GHz, 3-dB fractional bandwidths of 8.74% and 9.68%, and in-band common-mode rejection levels above 23.16 dB and 31.36 dB, respectively.
The selection of high-quality sperms is critical to intracytoplasmic sperm injection, which accounts for 70–80% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. So far, sperm screening is usually performed manually by clinicians. However, the performance of manual screening is limited in its objectivity, consistency, and efficiency. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a fast and noninvasive three-stage method to characterize morphology of freely swimming human sperms in bright-field microscopy images using deep learning models. Specifically, we use an object detection model to identify sperm heads, a classification model to select in-focus images, and a segmentation model to extract geometry of sperm heads and vacuoles. The models achieve an F1-score of 0.951 in sperm head detection, a z-position estimation error within ±1.5 μm in in-focus image selection, and a Dice score of 0.948 in sperm head segmentation, respectively. Customized lightweight architectures are used for the models to achieve real-time analysis of 200 frames per second. Comprehensive morphological parameters are calculated from sperm head geometry extracted by image segmentation. Overall, our method provides a reliable and efficient tool to assist clinicians in selecting high-quality sperms for successful IVF. It also demonstrates the effectiveness of deep learning in real-time analysis of live bright-field microscopy images.
Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are the most common sexually transmitted pathogens, which can cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammation and infertility in female. In the present study, we collected the basic information, clinical results of leucorrhoea and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of patients, who were involved in both MG and CT RNA detection in West China Second Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2019 to April 2021, ranging from 18 to 50 years old. The results showed that the infection frequencies of MG and CT were 2.6% and 6.5%, respectively. The infection rate of CT in gynaecological patients was significantly higher than that of MG (P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with CT infection often had symptoms of gynaecological diseases, while patients with MG infection remain often asymptomatic. By exploring the connection between MG or CT infection and vaginal secretions, we found that the infection of MG or CT promoted to the increase of vaginal leukocytes, and CT infection exacerbated the decrease of the number of Lactobacillus in the vagina. Further analysis suggested that independent infection and co-infection of MG or CT resulted in abnormal vaginal secretion, affecting the stability of vaginal environment, which may induce vaginal diseases. Unexpectedly, our study found no association between MG or CT infection and high-risk HPV infection. In conclusion, our study explored the infection of MG and CT among women in Southwest China for the first time, and revealed that the infection of MG or CT would affect the homeostasis of vaginal environment, which laid a foundation for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of MG and CT infection.
Depression is a debilitating mental disorder that often coexists with anxiety. The genetic mechanisms of depression and anxiety have considerable overlap, and studying depression in non-anxiety samples could help to discover novel gene. We assess the genetic variation of depression in non-anxiety samples, using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC).
The GWAS of depression score and self-reported depression were conducted using the UK Biobank samples, comprising 99,178 non-anxiety participants with anxiety score <5 and 86,503 non-anxiety participants without self-reported anxiety, respectively. Replication analysis was then performed using two large-scale GWAS summary data of depression from Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). LDSC was finally used to evaluate genetic correlations with 855 health-related traits based on the primary GWAS.
Two genome-wide significant loci for non-anxiety depression were identified: rs139702470 (p = 1.54 × 10−8, OR = 0.29) locate in PIEZO2, and rs6046722 (p = 2.52 × 10−8, OR = 1.09) locate in CFAP61. These associated genes were replicated in two GWAS of depression from PGC, such as rs1040582 (preplication GWAS1 = 0.02, preplication GWAS2 = 2.71 × 10−3) in CFAP61, and rs11661122 (preplication GWAS1 = 8.16 × 10−3, preplication GWAS2 = 8.08 × 10−3) in PIEZO2. LDSC identified 19 traits genetically associated with non-anxiety depression (p < 0.001), such as marital separation/divorce (rg = 0.45, SE = 0.15).
Our findings provide novel clues for understanding of the complex genetic architecture of depression.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) possesses a strong capability to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Our study aimed to clarify the involvement of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in the beneficial effects of NAC on HFD-induced NAFLD. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal-fat diet (10 % fat), a HFD (45 % fat) or a HFD plus NAC (2 g/l). After 14-week of intervention, NAC rescued the deleterious alterations induced by HFD, including the changes in body and liver weights, hepatic TAG, plasma alanine aminotransferase, plasma aspartate transaminase and liver histomorphology (haematoxylin and eosin and Oil red O staining). Through whole-transcriptome sequencing, 52 167 (50 758 known and 1409 novel) hepatic lncRNA were detected. Our cross-comparison data revealed the expression of 175 lncRNA was changed by HFD but reversed by NAC. Five of those lncRNA, lncRNA-NONMMUT148902·1 (NO_902·1), lncRNA-XR_001781798·1 (XR_798·1), lncRNA-NONMMUT141720·1 (NO_720·1), lncRNA-XR_869907·1 (XR_907·1), and lncRNA-ENSMUST00000132181 (EN_181), were selected based on an absolute log2 fold change value of greater than 4, P-value < 0·01 and P-adjusted value < 0·01. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed the levels of lncRNA-NO_902·1, lncRNA-XR_798·1, and lncRNA-EN_181 were decreased by HFD but restored by NAC, consistent with the RNA sequencing. Finally, we constructed a ceRNA network containing lncRNA-EN_181, 3 miRNA, and 13 mRNA, which was associated with the NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. Overall, lncRNA-EN_181 might be a potential target in NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. This finding enhanced our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of NAC.
The fish-eye star sensor with a field of view (FOV) of 180° is an important piece of equipment for attitude determination, which improves the visibility of stars significantly. However, it also brings the star identification (star-ID) difficulties because of imprecise calibrations. Thus, a fish-eye star-ID algorithm supported by the integration of the precise point positioning/inertial navigation system (PPP/INS) is proposed. At first, a reference star map is generated in combination with the distortion model of the fish-eye camera based on the position and attitude information from the PPP/INS. Then the star points are extracted in a specific neighbourhood of the reference star points. Subsequently, the extracted star points are individually tested and identified according to angular distance error. Finally, the real-time precise attitude is determined based on the star-ID results. Experimental results show that, 270–310 stars can be identified in a fish-eye star map with an average time of 0.03 s if the initial attitude error is smaller than 1.5° and an attitude determination accuracy better than 10″ can be achieved by support from PPP/INS.
Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) is a transmembrane protein and the precursor of irisin, which serves as a systemic exerkine/myokine with multiple origins. Since its discovery in 2012, this hormone-like polypeptide has rapidly evolved to a component significantly involved in a gamut of metabolic dysregulations and various liver diseases. After a decade of extensive investigation on FNDC5/irisin, we are still surrounded by lots of open questions regarding its diagnostic and therapeutic values. In this review, we first concentrated on the structure–function relationship of FNDC5/irisin. Next, we comprehensively summarised the current knowledge and research findings regarding pathogenic roles/therapeutic applications of FNDC5/irisin in the context of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, fibrosis, liver injury due to multiple detrimental insults, hepatic malignancy and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Moreover, the prominent molecules involved in the underlying mechanisms and signalling pathways were highlighted. As a result, emerging evidence reveals FNDC5/irisin may act as a proxy for diagnosing liver disease pathology, a sensitive biomarker for assessing damage severity, a predisposing factor for surveilling illness progression and a treatment option with protective/preventive impact, all of which are highly dependent on disease grading and contextually pathological features.
In the design of the filter antenna, the filter unit with the same structure as the radiation patch not only improves the selectivity of the band edge, but also helps to improve the in-band impedance. In this design, a compact circular monopole filtering antenna with improved sideband selectivity and in-band impedance using a circular-stub-load resonator is proposed. To obtain better sideband selection characteristics and in-band impedance characteristics, and reduce the mismatch problem caused by the introduction of the filter, a branch-loaded filter with the same resonance mode as the antenna radiation patch is designed. In addition, different shape branch loading structures of the bandpass filter are also studied. The experimental results show that when the loading unit of the filter and the radiation structure of the antenna have the same structure, both good in-band impedance characteristics and sideband selectivity characteristics can be obtained from the filter antenna. The antenna reflection coefficient bandwidth is from 3 to 11 GHz (114%), and the maximum reflection coefficient is only −15 dB, showing good in-band impedance characteristics and sideband selection characteristics. The filter antenna realizes the integration of antenna filtering without increasing the size, and the final size of the antenna is 30 × 25 mm2.
The subduction model of the Neo-Tethys during the Early Cretaceous has always been a controversial topic, and the scarcity of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the southern part of the Gangdese batholith is the main cause of this debate. To address this issue, this article presents new zircon U–Pb chronology, zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope data for the Early Cretaceous quartz diorite dykes with adakite affinity in Liuqiong, Gongga. Zircon U–Pb dating of three samples yielded ages of c. 141–137 Ma, indicating that the Liuqiong quartz diorite was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. The whole-rock geochemical analysis shows that the Liuqiong quartz diorite is enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and is depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), which are related to slab subduction. Additionally, the Liuqiong quartz diorite has high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr contents, high Sr/Y ratios and low heavy rare-earth element (HREE) and Y contents, which are compatible with typical adakite signatures. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the Liuqiong adakite range from 0.705617 to 0.705853, and the whole-rock ϵNd(t) values vary between +5.78 and +6.24. The zircon ϵHf(t) values vary from +11.5 to +16.4. Our results show that the Liuqiong adakite magma was derived from partial melting of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate (mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) + sediment + fluid), with some degree of subsequent peridotite interaction within the overlying mantle wedge. Combining regional data, we favour the interpretation that the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust was subducted at a low angle beneath the Gangdese during the Early Cretaceous.