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The proliferation of English as an international language has had significant ramifications for the teaching and learning of languages in various educational contexts (Yu & Liu, 2022). Within the realm of higher education, the adoption of English-medium instruction (EMI) has been a particularly contentious issue, with debates raging over its potential benefits and drawbacks (Bolton et al., 2022; Bolton, Botha & Lin, 2023). One potential approach to addressing the challenges posed by EMI is the adoption of translanguaging practices, which involve the utilization of multiple languages or language varieties in communication and learning. While the concept of translanguaging has gained increasing traction in recent years, there remains a paucity of empirical research on its implementation and impact within Sino-US educational institutions where translanguaging and EMI are facing enviable pedagogical dueling.
Numerous Late Carboniferous – Early Permian dykes are found in West Junggar and represent an important part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. In this contribution, we use these dykes to assess the tectonic regime and stress state in the Late Carboniferous – Early Permian. The West Junggar dykes are mainly diorite/dioritic porphyrite with minor diabase and were formed in 324–310 Ma. They have been divided into two groups based on their orientation, petrology and geochronology. Group 1 dykes mostly comprise WNW-striking dioritic porphyrite and NE-striking diorite with minor diabase and resemble the Karamay-Baogutu sanukitoid. They were probably formed from depleted mantle at a relatively high temperature and pressure with the addition of 1–2% sediment/sedimental partial melt and 0–5% trapped oceanic crust-derived melts. Group 2 dykes are ENE-striking and are similar to sanukite in the Setouchi Volcanic Belt. These dykes were also derived from depleted mantle at a shallow depth but high temperature with the addition of 2–3.5% sediment/sedimental partial melt. Magma banding and injection folds in dykes and host granitoids indicate magma flow. Paleostress analysis reveals that both groups of dykes were formed in a tensile stress field. Their emplacement is favoured by presence of pre-existing joints or fractures in the host granitoids and strata. We conclude that large-scale asthenosphere mantle upwelling induced by trapped oceanic slab-off can explain the magmatism and significant continental crustal growth of West Junggar during Late Carboniferous to Early Permian.
Aging plays a crucial role in the mechanisms of the impacts of genetic and environmental factors on blood pressure and serum lipids. However, to our knowledge, how the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the correlation between blood pressure and serum lipids changes with age remains to be determined. In this study, data from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR) were used. Resting blood pressure, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and fasting serum lipids, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs) were measured in 2378 participants (1189 twin pairs). Univariate and bivariate structural equation models examined the genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and serum lipids among three age groups. All phenotypes showed moderate to high heritability (0.37–0.59) and moderate unique environmental variance (0.30–0.44). The heritability of all phenotypes showed a decreasing trend with age. Among all phenotypes, SBP and DBP showed a significant monotonic decreasing trend. For phenotype-phenotype pairs, the phenotypic correlation (Rph) of each pair ranged from −0.04 to 0.23, and the additive genetic correlation (Ra) ranged from 0.00 to 0.36. For TC&SBP, TC&DBP, TG&SBP and TGs&DBP, both the Rph and Ra declined with age, and the Ra difference between the young group and the older adult group is statistically significant (p < .05). The unique environmental correlation (Re) of each pair did not follow any pattern with age and remained relatively stable with age. In summary, we observed that the heritability of blood pressure was affected by age. Moreover, blood pressure and serum lipids shared common genetic backgrounds, and age had an impact on the phenotypic correlation and genetic correlations.
Nonlinear compression has become an obligatory technique along with the development of ultrafast lasers in generating ultrashort pulses with narrow pulse widths and high peak power. In particular, techniques of nonlinear compression have experienced a rapid progress as ytterbium (Yb)-doped lasers with pulse widths in the range from hundreds of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds have become mainstream laser tools for both scientific and industrial applications. Here, we report a simple and stable nonlinear pulse compression technique with high efficiency through cascaded filamentation in air followed by dispersion compensation. Pulses at a center wavelength of 1040 nm with millijoule pulse energy and 160 fs pulse width from a high-power Yb:CaAlGdO4 regenerative amplifier are compressed to 32 fs, with only 2.4% loss from the filamentation process. The compressed pulse has a stable output power with a root-mean-square variation of 0.2% over 1 hour.
A high-power all polarization-maintaining (PM) chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system operating in the 2.0 μm range is experimentally demonstrated. Large mode area (LMA) thulium-doped fiber (TDF) with a core/cladding diameter of 25/400 μm is employed to construct the main amplifier. Through dedicated coiling and cooling of the LMA-TDF to manage the loss of the higher order mode and thermal effect, a maximum average power of 314 W with a slope efficiency of 52% and polarization extinction ratio of 20 dB is realized. The pulse duration is compressed to 283 fs with a grating pair, corresponding to a calculated peak power of 10.8 MW, considering the compression efficiency of 88% and the estimated Strehl ratio of 89%. Moreover, through characterizing the noise properties of the laser, an integrated relative intensity noise of 0.11% at 100 Hz−1 MHz is obtained at the maximum output power, whereas the laser timing jitter is degraded by the final amplifier from 318 to 410 fs at an integration frequency of 5 kHz to 1 MHz, owing to the self-phase modulation effect-induced spectrum broadening. The root-mean-square of long-term power fluctuation is tested to be 0.6%, verifying the good stability of the laser operation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power of an ultrafast laser realized from an all-PM-fiber TDF-CPA system ever reported.
The advent of time-domain sky surveys has generated a vast amount of light variation data, enabling astronomers to investigate variable stars with large-scale samples. However, this also poses new opportunities and challenges for the time-domain research. In this paper, we focus on the classification of variable stars from the Catalina Surveys Data Release 2 and propose an imbalanced learning classifier based on Self-paced Ensemble (SPE) method. Compared with the work of Hosenie et al. (2020), our approach significantly enhances the classification Recall of Blazhko RR Lyrae stars from 12% to 85%, mixed-mode RR Lyrae variables from 29% to 64%, detached binaries from 68% to 97%, and LPV from 87% to 99%. SPE demonstrates a rather good performance on most of the variable classes except RRab, RRc, and contact and semi-detached binary. Moreover, the results suggest that SPE tends to target the minority classes of objects, while Random Forest is more effective in finding the majority classes. To balance the overall classification accuracy, we construct a Voting Classifier that combines the strengths of SPE and Random Forest. The results show that the Voting Classifier can achieve a balanced performance across all classes with minimal loss of accuracy. In summary, the SPE algorithm and Voting Classifier are superior to traditional machine learning methods and can be well applied to classify the periodic variable stars. This paper contributes to the current research on imbalanced learning in astronomy and can also be extended to the time-domain data of other larger sky survey projects (LSST, etc.).
Prostrate water primrose is a troublesome weed in rice paddy fields. A study was conducted to determine the influence of environmental and agronomic factors on its emergence. The efficacy of herbicides on this species was also examined. The germination percentage of mature seeds remained above 90% within 180 d after harvest, indicating a low primary dormancy of this species. Light stimulated seed germination. Seeds buried deeper than 0.5 cm did not form seedlings. These results suggest that stale seedbed practices and deep tillage operations can mitigate the occurrence of this species in paddy fields. The optimum temperature for germination varied from 25/15 C to 35/25 C. The osmotic potential and salt concentration needed to inhibit 50% of maximum germination were −0.4 MPa and 197 mM, respectively. Seeds were tolerant to flooding and did not germinate at pH 8 to 10. The preemergence herbicides oxadiazon, oxadiargyl, and butachlor had excellent control efficacy on prostrate water primrose, with a 95.4% to 100% reduction in seedling number and a 99.2% to 100% reduction in biomass, respectively. The postemergence herbicides MCPA-Na + bentazone, bentazone, MCPA-Na, and fluroxypyr applied at the 2- to 3-leaf stage of prostrate water primrose provided a 90.6% to 100% reduction in seedling number and a 99.3% to 100% reduction in biomass. The results of this study can help in developing sustainable and effective integrated weed management strategies for controlling prostrate water primrose in paddy fields.
The concentration of suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) and its carbon isotopic composition (δ13CPOC) were analysed in this study with the aim of exploring the sources and factors influencing levels of POC in the surface water around the Antarctic Peninsula. The scanning electron microscopy results suggest that diatom particles formed the main component of suspended particulate matter, indicating that POC was mainly from in situ primary production. The high concentrations of chlorophyll a and POC in sea water mainly occurred in nearshore and sea-ice edge regions, which might be controlled by nutrient and reactive iron inputs stemming from sea-ice melting. The δ13CPOC in the study area is significantly lower than that in low-latitude waters, with a range of -31.8‰ to -22.8‰ (mean -28.9‰), which was controlled by the high CO2 concentration in the Southern Ocean and might be influenced by phytoplankton growth rates and assemblages. This study helps us to understand material cycling in the Antarctic region under the conditions of global climate change.
People around the world are affected by traumatic experiences, ranging from collective events like natural disasters, mass violence, war, terrorism and to personal, even "everyday life" traumas such as road traffic accidents and the sudden football attack. The mTBI caused by traumatic events is a significant public health international matter. There is a greater demand for mTBI research from all cultures and societies. This paper attempts to explore the research status, focus and challenges by using a bibliometric analysis on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).
Publications on mTBI were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection by the title advanced search strategy from January 1, 2000, to October 31, 2022. Articles and reviews were included, and no language restrictions were applied. Microsoft Excel, RStudio, VOSviewer, and CiteSpace were used to extract, integrate and visualize the bibliometric information.
A total of 3,464 documents were retrieved from 2000-2022, with a general upward trend despite slight fluctuations in annual publications. The USA had an overwhelmingly dominant position in terms of both the number of publications (n = 2 028) and citations (n = 63 287). The Department of Veterans Affairs (n = 380) and Veterans Health Administration (n = 370) were the most productive institutions. Collaborations in cross-national, cross-institutional and different authors were weak. Iverson GL was the leading scholar and the Journal of Neurotrauma and Brain Injury were the most influential journals. Based on keyword co-occurrence analysis, the research focus could be divided into four clusters: epidemiology and prevention, characterization of mTBI, outcome assessment and prognosis.
The mTBI research has drawn increasing attention over the years. However, the research on mTBI is still relatively limited and challenging, and collaborations that cross national, institutional, disciplinary, and sector boundaries are important to the advancement of improving mTBI worldwide.
To identify risk genes whose expression are regulated by the reported risk variants and to explore the potential regulatory mechanism in schizophrenia (SCZ).
We systematically integrated three independent brain expression quantitative traits (eQTLs) (CommonMind, GTEx, and BrainSeq Phase 2, a total of 1039 individuals) and GWAS data (56 418 cases and 78 818 controls), with the use of transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS). Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was utilized to quantify the integrity of white matter bundles and determine whether polygenic risk of novel genes linked to brain structure was present in patients with first-episode antipsychotic SCZ.
TWAS showed that eight risk genes (CORO7, DDAH2, DDHD2, ELAC2, GLT8D1, PCDHA8, THOC7, and TYW5) reached transcriptome-wide significance (TWS) level. These findings were confirmed by an independent integrative approach (i.e. Sherlock). We further conducted conditional analyses and identified the potential risk genes that driven the TWAS association signal in each locus. Gene expression analysis showed that several TWS genes (including CORO7, DDAH2, DDHD2, ELAC2, GLT8D1, THOC7 and TYW5) were dysregulated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of SCZ cases compared with controls. TWS genes were mainly expressed on the surface of glutamatergic neurons, GABAergic neurons, and microglia. Finally, SCZ cases had a substantially greater TWS genes-based polygenic risk (PRS) compared to controls, and we showed that fractional anisotropy of the cingulum-hippocampus mediates the influence of TWS genes PRS on SCZ.
Our findings identified novel SCZ risk genes and highlighted the importance of the TWS genes in frontal-limbic dysfunctions in SCZ, indicating possible therapeutic targets.
The relationships between childhood weight self-misperception and obesity-related factors particularly health markers have not been extensively discussed. This study aims to examine the associations between weight self-misperception and obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, lifestyles and cardio-metabolic markers among Chinese paediatric population.
Data sourced from a national survey in Chinese seven provinces in 2013.
Children and adolescents aged 5–19 years.
Of the total 14 079 participants, there were 14·5 % and 2·2 % participants over-estimated and under-perceived their weight, respectively. Multi-variable logistic regression was applied to calculate OR and 95 % CI (95 % Cl) of obesity-related behaviours and cardio-metabolic markers by actual and perceived weight status. Individuals who perceived themselves as overweight/obese were more likely to have prolonged screen time, insufficient dairy intake and over sugar-sweetened beverages consumption (all P < 0·05), regardless of their weight. Furthermore, actual overweight/obese individuals had higher odds of abnormal cardio-metabolic markers, but a smaller magnitude of association was found among weight under-estimators. Among non-overweight/obese individuals, weight over-estimation was positively associated with abdominal obesity (OR: 10·49, 95 % CI: 7·45, 14·76), elevated blood pressure (OR: 1·30, 95 % CI: 1·12, 1·51) and dyslipidemia (OR: 1·43, 95 % CI: 1·29, 1·58).
Weight over-perception was more prevalent than under-estimation, particularly in girls. Weight over-estimators tended to master better knowledge but behave more unhealthily; both weight over-perception and actual overweight/obesity status were associated with poorer cardio-metabolic markers. Future obesity intervention programmes should additionally pay attention to the population with inaccurate estimation of weight who were easily overlooked.
Using the idea of local entropy theory, we characterize the sequence entropy tuple via mean forms of the sensitive tuple in both topological and measure-theoretical senses. For the measure-theoretical sense, we show that for an ergodic measure-preserving system, the $\mu $-sequence entropy tuple, the $\mu $-mean sensitive tuple, and the $\mu $-sensitive in the mean tuple coincide, and give an example to show that the ergodicity condition is necessary. For the topological sense, we show that for a certain class of minimal systems, the mean sensitive tuple is the sequence entropy tuple.
An all-fiber high-power linearly polarized chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system is experimentally demonstrated. Through stretching the pulse duration to a full width of approximately 2 ns with two cascaded chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs), a maximum average output power of 612 W is achieved from a high-gain Yb-doped fiber that has a core diameter of 20 μm with a slope efficiency of approximately 68% at the repetition rate of 80 MHz. At the maximum output power, the polarization degree is 92.5% and the M2 factor of the output beam quality is approximately 1.29; the slight performance degradations are attributed to the thermal effects in the main amplifier. By optimizing the B-integral of the amplifier and finely adjusting the higher-order dispersion of one of the CFBGs, the pulse width is compressed to 863 fs at the highest power with a compression efficiency of 72%, corresponding to a maximum compressed average power of 440.6 W, single pulse energy of 5.5 μJ and peak power of about 4.67 MW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power of a femtosecond laser directly generated from an all-fiber linearly polarized CPA system.
Many studies suggest that both psychotherapy and drug therapy are effective in the treatment of bipolar disorders (BDs). However, the pathophysiology of both types of intervention has not been established definitively.
An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was performed to identify the distinct brain activity alterations between psychotherapy and drug therapy for the treatment of BDs. Articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Eligible studies on BDs were published up until 10 June 2021.
21 studies were included and we conducted a meta-analysis for different therapies and imaging tasks. After receiving psychotherapy, BD patients showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus. While after taking drug therapy, BD patients displayed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, IFG, and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex. The regions of brain activity changes caused by psychotherapy were mostly focused on the frontal areas, while drug therapy mainly impacted on the limbic areas. Different type of tasks also affected brain regions which were activated.
Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that these two treatments might have effect on BD in their own therapeutic modes. Psychotherapy might have a top-down effect, while drug therapy might have a bottom-up effect. This study may contribute to differential diagnosis of BDs and would be helpful to finding more accurate neuroimaging biomarkers for BD treatment.
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal female reproductive system tumour. Despite the great advances in surgery and systemic chemotherapy over the past two decades, almost all patients in stages III and IV relapse and develop resistance to chemotherapy after first-line treatment. Ovarian cancer has an extraordinarily complex immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment in which immune checkpoints negatively regulate T cells activation and weaken antitumour immune responses by delivering immunosuppressive signals. Therefore, inhibition of immune checkpoints can break down the state of immunosuppression. Indeed, Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionised the therapeutic landscape of many solid tumours. However, ICIs have yielded modest benefits in ovarian cancer. Therefore, a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanistic basis of the immune checkpoints is needed to improve the efficacy of ICIs in ovarian cancer. In this review, we systematically introduce the mechanisms and expression of immune checkpoints in ovarian cancer. Moreover, this review summarises recent updates regarding ICI monotherapy or combined with other small-molecule-targeted agents in ovarian cancer.
It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanisms and biological pathways underlying the relationship between obesity and serum lipid levels. Structural equation models (SEMs) were constructed to calculate heritability for body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the genetic connections between BMI and the four classes of lipids using 1197 pairs of twins from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Bivariate genomewide association studies (GWAS) were performed to identify genetic variants associated with BMI and lipids using the records of 457 individuals, and the results were further validated in 289 individuals. The genetic background affecting BMI may differ by gender, and the heritability of males and females was 71% (95% CI [.66, .75]) and 39% (95% CI [.15, .71]) respectively. BMI was positively correlated with TC, TG and LDL-C in phenotypic and genetic correlation, while negatively correlated with HDL-C. There were gender differences in the correlation between BMI and lipids. Bivariate GWAS analysis and validation stage found 7 genes (LOC105378740, LINC02506, CSMD1, MELK, FAM81A, ERAL1 and MIR144) that were possibly related to BMI and lipid levels. The significant biological pathways were the regulation of cholesterol reverse transport and the regulation of high-density lipoprotein particle clearance (p < .001). BMI and blood lipid levels were affected by genetic factors, and they were genetically correlated. There might be gender differences in their genetic correlation. Bivariate GWAS analysis found MIR144 gene and its related biological pathways may influence obesity and lipid levels.
According to the positive time-discounting assumption of intertemporal decision-making, people prefer to undergo negative events in the future rather than in the present. However, negative discounting has been identified in the intertemporal choice and loss domains, which refers to people’s preference to experience negative events earlier rather than later. Studies have validated and supported the "anticipated dread" as an explanation for negative discounting. This study again explored the effect of anticipated dread on intertemporal choice using content analysis; that is, having participants identify anticipated dread among reasons for negative discounting. This study also validated the effect of anticipated dread on negative discounting by manipulating anticipated dread. This study adds empirical and direct evidence for the role of anticipated dread in negative discounting.