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Sound wave propagation in rarefied flows of molecular gases confined in micro-channels is investigated numerically. We first validate the employed kinetic model against the experimental results and then systematically study the gas damping and surface force on the transducer as well as the resonance/anti-resonance in confined space. To quantify the impact of the finite relaxation rates of the translational and internal energies on wave propagation, we examine the roles of bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity in depth over a wide range of rarefactions and oscillation frequencies. It is found that the bulk viscosity only exerts influence on the pressure amplitude and its resonance frequency in the slip regime in high oscillations. In addition, the internal degree of freedom is frozen when the bulk viscosity of a molecular gas is large, resulting in the pressure amplitude of sound waves in the molecular gas being the same as in a monatomic gas. Meanwhile, the thermal conductivity has a limited influence on the pressure amplitude in all the simulated flows. In the case of the thermoacoustic wave, we prove that the Onsager–Casimir reciprocal relation also holds for molecular gases, i.e. the pressure deviation induced by the temperature variation is equal to the heat flux induced by the plate oscillation. Our findings enable an enhanced understanding of sound wave propagation in molecular gases, which may facilitate the design of nano-/micro-scale devices.
Social media and other technologies are reshaping communication and health.
This review addresses the relationship between social media use, behavioural health conditions and psychological well-being for youth aged <25 years.
A scoping review of 11 literature databases from 2000 to 2020 explored research studies in youth in five areas: clinical depression and anxiety, quantitative use, social media mode, engagement and qualitative dimensions and health and well-being.
Out of 2820 potential literature references, 140 met the inclusion criteria. The foci were clinical depression and anxiety disorders (n = 78), clinical challenges (e.g. suicidal ideation, cyberbullying) (n = 34) and psychological well-being (n = 28). Most studies focused on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. Few studies are longitudinal in design (n = 26), had comparison groups (n = 27), were randomised controlled trials (n = 3) or used structured assessments (n = 4). Few focused on different youth and sociodemographic populations, particularly for low-income, equity-seeking and deserving populations. Studies examined association (n = 120; 85.7%), mediating (n = 16; 11.4%) and causal (n = 4; 2.9%) relationships. Prospective, longitudinal studies of depression and anxiety appear to indicate that shorter use (≤3 h/day) and purposeful engagement is associated with better mood and psychological well-being. Depression may predict social media use and reduce perception of support. Findings provide families, teachers and providers ways to engage youth.
Research opportunities include clinical outcomes from functional perspective on a health continuum, diverse youth and sociodemographic populations, methodology, intervention and privacy issues. More longitudinal studies, comparison designs and effectiveness approaches are also needed. Health systems face clinical, training and professional development challenges.
Previous cross-sectional and case–control studies have proposed that decreased vitamin D levels are positively correlated with the risk of suicidality in adults. However, limited studies have examined the association between vitamin D and suicidality in adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D and suicidality risk among early adolescents.
Data were obtained from a Chinese early adolescent cohort. In this cohort, seventh-grade students from a middle school in Anhui Province were invited to voluntarily participate in the baseline assessments and provide peripheral blood samples (in September 2019). The participants were followed up annually (in September 2020 and September 2021). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and vitamin D–related single-nucleotide polymorphisms at baseline were measured in November 2021. Traditional observational and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D at baseline and the risk of baseline and incident suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation [SI], plans and attempts).
Traditional observational analysis did not reveal a significant linear or non-linear association of serum 25(OH)D concentration with the risks of baseline and 2-year incident suicidality in the total sample (P > .05 for all). Sex-stratified analysis revealed a non-linear association between the 25(OH)D concentration and the risk of baseline SI in women (Poverall = .002; Pnon-linear = .001). Moreover, the risk of baseline SI in the 25(OH) insufficiency group was lower than that in the 25(OH) deficiency group in the total sample (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51–0.92, P = .012). This difference remained significant in women (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.40–0.87, P = .008) but not in men (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.53–1.15, P = .205). Additionally, both linear and non-linear MR analyses did not support the causal effect of serum 25(OH)D concentration on the risk of baseline, 1-year and 2-year incident suicidality (P > .05 for all).
This study could not confirm the causal effect of vitamin D on suicidality risk among Chinese early adolescents. Future studies must confirm these findings with a large sample size.
Anti-Asian speech during the COVID-19 pandemic has been a serious problem with severe consequences. A hate speech wave swept social media platforms. The timely detection of Anti-Asian COVID-19-related hate speech is of utmost importance, not only to allow the application of preventive mechanisms but also to anticipate and possibly prevent other similar discriminatory situations. In this paper, we address the problem of detecting Anti-Asian COVID-19-related hate speech from social media data. Previous approaches that tackled this problem used a transformer-based model, BERT/RoBERTa, trained on the homologous annotated dataset and achieved good performance on this task. However, this requires extensive and annotated datasets with a strong connection to the topic. Both goals are difficult to meet without employing reliable, vast, and costly resources. In this paper, we propose a robust semi-supervised model, SSL-GAN-RoBERTa, that learns from a limited heterogeneous dataset and whose performance is further enhanced by using vast amounts of unlabeled data from another related domain. Compared with the RoBERTa baseline model, the experimental results show that the model has substantial performance gains in terms of Accuracy and Macro-F1 score in different scenarios that use data from different domains. Our proposed model achieves state-of-the-art performance results while efficiently using unlabeled data, showing promising applicability to other complex classification tasks where large amounts of labeled examples are difficult to obtain.
Universal admission screening and follow-up symptom-based testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may play critical roles in controlling nosocomial transmission. We describe the performance of test strategies for inpatients and their companions during various disease incidences in Taiwan.
Retrospective population-based cohort study.
The study was conducted across 476 hospitals in Taiwan.
The data for both testing strategies by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 in newly admitted patients and their companions during May 2021—June 2022 were extracted and analyzed.
The positivity rate of universal admission screening was 0.76% (14,640 of 1,928,676) for patients and 0.37% (5,372 of 1,438,944) for companions. The weekly community incidences of period 1 (May 2021–June 2021), period 2 (July 2021–March 2022), and period 3 (April 2022–June 2022) were 6.57, 0.27, and 1,261, respectively, per 100,000 population. The positivity rates of universal admission screening for patients and companions (4.39% and 2.18%) in period 3 were higher than those in periods 1 (0.29% and 0.04%) and 2 (0.03% and 0.003%) (all P < .01). Among the 22,201 confirmed cases, 9.86% were identified by symptom-based testing. The costs and potential savings of universal admission screening for patients and companions achieved a breakeven point when the test strategy was implemented in a period with weekly community incidences of 27 and 358 per 100,000 population, respectively.
Universal admission screening and follow-up symptom-based testing is important for reducing nosocomial transmission. Implementing universal admission screening at an appropriate time would balance the benefits with costs and potential unintended harms.
The International Design Engineering Annual (IDEA) Challenge is a virtually hosted hackathon for Engineering Design researchers with aims of: i) generating open access datasets; ii) fostering community between researchers; and, iii) applying great design minds to develop solutions to real design problems. This paper presents the 2022 IDEA challenge and elements of the captured dataset with the aim of providing insights into prototyping behaviours at virtually hosted hackathons, comparing it with the 2021 challenge dataset and providing reflections and learnings from two years of running the challenge. The dataset is shown to provide valuable insights into how designers spend their time at hackathon events and how, why and when prototypes are used during their design processes. The dataset also corroborates the findings from the 2021 dataset, demonstrating the complementarity of physical and sketch prototypes. With this paper, we also invite the wider community to contribute to the IDEA Challenge in future years, either as participants or in using the platform to run their own design studies.
To assess the associations among several anthropometric measures, as well as BMI trajectories and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in older women.
Prospective cohort study.
Forty clinical centres in the USA.
Totally, 79 034 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study.
During an average of 15·8 years of follow-up, 1514 CRC cases were ascertained. Five BMI trajectories over 18–50 years of age were identified using growth mixture model. Compared with women who had a normal BMI at age 18, women with obesity at age 18 had a higher risk of CRC (HR 1·58, 95 % CI 1·02, 2·44). Compared with women who kept relatively low normal body size during adulthood, women who progressed from normal to obesity (HR 1·29, 95 % CI 1·09, 1·53) and women who progressed from overweight to obesity (HR 1·37, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·68) had higher CRC risks. A weight gain > 15 kg from age 18 to 50 (HR 1·20, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·40) and baseline waist circumference > 88 cm (HR 1·33, 95 % CI 1·19, 1·49) were associated with higher CRC risks, compared with stable weight and waist circumference ≤ 88 cm, respectively.
Women who have a normal weight in early adult life and gain substantial weight later, as well as those who are persistently heavy over adulthood, demonstrated a higher risk of developing CRC. Our study highlights the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight over the life course for reducing the risk of developing CRC in women.
This study aims to understand the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the paediatric population during the outbreak of the Omicron variant in Shanghai. We retrospectively analysed the population-based epidemiological characteristics and clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection in children in Minhang District, Shanghai, based on the citywide surveillance system during the outbreak period in 2022 (March to May). During this time, a total of 63,969 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were notified in Minhang District, out of which 4,652 (7.3%) were children and adolescents <18 years. The incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children was 153 per 10,000. Of all paediatric cases, 50% reported to be clinically symptomatic within 1–3 days after PCR confirmation by parents or themselves, with 36.3% and 18.9% of paediatric cases reporting fever and cough. Also, 58.4% of paediatric cases had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and 52.1% had received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccination. Our findings are informative for the implementation of appropriate measures to protect children from the threat of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Little has been done to comprehensively study the relationships between multiple well-being constructs at a time. Even less is known about whether child maltreatment and major depressive disorder (MDD) impact different well-being constructs. This study aims to examine whether maltreated or depressed individuals have specific impacts on well-being structures.
Data analyzed were from the Montreal South-West Longitudinal Catchment Area Study (N = 1380). The potential confounding of age and sex was controlled by propensity score matching. We used network analysis to assess the impact of maltreatment and MDD on well-being. The centrality of nodes was estimated with the ‘strength’ index and a case-dropping bootstrap procedure was used to test network stability. Differences in the structure and connectivity of networks between different studied groups were also examined.
Autonomy and daily life and social relations were the most central nodes for the MDD and maltreated groups [MDD group: strength coefficient (SC)autonomy = 1.50; SCdaily life and social relations = 1.34; maltreated group: SCautonomy = 1.69; SCdaily life and social relations = 1.55]. Both maltreatment and MDD groups had statistical differences in terms of the global strength of interconnectivity in their networks. Network invariance differed between with and without MDD groups indicating different structures of their networks. The non-maltreatment and MDD group had the highest level of overall connectivity.
We discovered distinct connectivity patterns of well-being outcomes in maltreatment and MDD groups. The identified core constructs could serve as potential targets to maximize the effectiveness of clinical management of MDD and also advance prevention to minimize the sequelae of maltreatment.
Osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee joint is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients. Symptoms include pain, swelling, snapping, stiffness, and joint effusion. At present, there are many ways to treat osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee joint, and most people adopt conservative treatment. However, for patients with more serious conditions, conservative treatment cannot achieve obvious results, but surgical treatment is required. However, surgical treatment often causes psychological stress on patients, especially elderly patients. Therefore, the study focused on the occurrence and prevention of psychological diseases in patients with lateral knee osteoarthritis after postoperative care programs including psychological treatment.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 110 patients with osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee admitted to a hospital from July 2020 to January 2022 were selected as the research objects. The enrolled patients were randomly divided into two groups, the control group and the observation group, with 55 cases in each group. In the control group, there were 29 males and 26 females, aged 37-79 years, with an average of (60.22 ± 14.15) years old. In the observation group, there were 32 males and 23 females, aged from 35 to 80 years old, with an average of (60.83 ± 14.34) years old. There was no significant difference in general data between the two groups (P > 0.05), which were comparable. The control group was given routine postoperative care, and the observation group was given experimental nursing program including psychotherapy.
From the perspective of coping style, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the scores of positive and negative coping styles between the two groups before nursing. After nursing, the positive coping style of the observation group was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the score of negative coping style was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). In terms of anxiety and depression scores, there was no significant difference in SAS (Self-Rating Anxiety Scale) and SDS (Self-Rating Depression Scale) scores between the two groups (P > 0.05). After nursing, the SAS and SDS scores of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05), as shown in Table 1.Table 1.
Comparison of SAS and SDS scores before and after group care
Observation group (n = 55)
Control group (n = 55)
The coping style and psychological state of patients with osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee have a greater impact on postoperative recovery, and individualized nursing including psychotherapy can help improve their coping style and psychological state.
The research is supported by: The Eighth Batch of Gansu Science and Technology Program Funding Projects (Key R&D Program) in 2020+Clinical research and application of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the treatment of middle-aged and elderly patients with unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis in Hexi Corridor+20YF8FG066; The Fifth Batch of Gansu Science and Technology Program Funding Projects (Basic Research Program-Natural Science Foundation) in 2022+ To investigate the molecular mechanism of LncRNA PVT1 regulating osteosarcoma ferroptosis through miRNA-106a-5p/MDM4 pathway +22JR5RG570; 2022 Innovation Fund Project of Gansu Provincial Department of Education+ To study the clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma combined with arthroscopic surgery in the treatment of early and middle stage knee osteoarthritis+2022B-189.
Evidence has suggested that emotional dysregulation is a transdiagnostic feature in schizophrenia and major affective disorders. However, the relationship between emotional dysregulation and appetite hormone disturbance remains unknown in nonobese adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
In total, 22 adolescents with schizophrenia; 31 with bipolar disorder; 33 with major depressive disorder; and 41 healthy age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)/BMI percentile-matched controls were enrolled for assessing levels of appetite hormones, namely leptin, ghrelin, insulin, and adiponectin. Emotional regulation symptoms were measured using the parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist―Dysregulation Profile.
Adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder exhibited greater emotional dysregulation symptoms than the control group (P = .037). Adolescents with bipolar disorder demonstrated higher log-transformed levels of insulin (P = .029) and lower log-transformed levels of leptin (P = .018) compared with the control group. BMI (P < .05) and log-transformed ghrelin levels (P = .028) were positively correlated with emotional dysregulation symptoms.
Emotional dysregulation and appetite hormone disturbance may occur in the early stage of severe mental disorders. Further studies are required to clarify the unidirectional or bidirectional association of emotional dysregulation with BMI/BMI percentile and appetite hormones among patients with severe mental disorder.
Glacial quarrying stems from the fracturing of subglacial bedrock. Much evidence shows that subcritical crack propagation of bedrock is closely related to subglacial water pressure fluctuations. Here we employ a model that assesses the impact of subglacial water pressure fluctuation on cavity length and subcritical crack propagation, while analyzing the effect of a pre-existing crack location using a phase-field model (PFM). Our results indicate that the cavity length is reduced during diurnal fluctuations in water pressure. There are two patterns of subcritical crack propagation on the corner of the step. The first stems from a rapid drop in water pressure. The second occurs after the water pressure recovers from the fluctuation to the initial steady state. This pattern is a consequence of enhanced stress concentration on the step since the modeled cavity length exceeds its steady value and has higher efficiency in promoting subcritical crack propagation. Additionally, based on the PFM results, we speculate that the subcritical crack initiation and propagation happen on a broader scale, including the ice-bed contact region and its adjacent region. Our findings imply that the duration of subcritical crack propagation is short and typically ceases once the cavity length adjusts to reduced water pressure levels.
The endowment effect is a well-documented decision phenomenon, referring to a tendency that people price a commodity higher when selling it than when buying it. This phenomenon can be interpreted as a sort of inertia, an unwillingness to make a change, or in other words an attachment to the status-quo. People with autism dislike social interaction, and are thus probably less willing to buy and sell items and more attached to the status quo. Previous research revealed that T-carriers of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene, rs1611115 (C-1021T), are associated with autism and difficulty in social interaction. Therefore, rs1611115 may modulate the endowment effect. In the current study, the subjects sold and bought lotteries with various probabilities of winning money and provided saliva for genotyping. We found that T-carriers (people of CT genotype in this study) exhibited greater endowment effects compared to people of CC genotype. We discuss another two possible explanations of our results: empathy and loss aversion. This is the first attempt to research the endowment effect from the perspective of genes. The result indicates that an SNP of genes (an innate factor) can exert an observable effect on human market activities.
In this paper, a compact four-element quasi-self-complementary (QSC) ultra-wideband (UWB) multiple-input multiple-output antenna with triple band-notched characteristics is proposed. Coplanar waveguides fed QSC structure is designed as radiation element to achieve wideband and small size. Besides, regular hexagonal split-ring resonators with single negative properties are designed and added on the back of the substrate to obtain high isolation in the whole operating band. Moreover, a double-fork-shaped slit is etched in each radiating element to generate three notched bands covering 3.63–4.24, 5.15–5.98, and 7.17–8 GHz. The experiment results indicate that the isolation of the proposed antenna is higher than 22 dB and the peak gain varies from 2.5 to 6.7 dB in the entire band of 3–18 GHz, which demonstrates that it is suitable for UWB applications.
Increased access to defensible material wealth is hypothesised to escalate inequality. Market integration, which creates novel opportunities in cash economies, provides a means of testing this hypothesis. Using demographic data collected from 505 households among the matrilineal and patrilineal Mosuo in 2017, we test whether market integration is associated with increased material wealth, whether increased material wealth is associated with wealth inequality, and whether being in a matrilineal vs. patrilineal kinship system alters the relationship between wealth and inequality. We find evidence that market integration, measured as distance to the nearest source of tourism and primary source of household income, is associated with increased household income and ‘modern’ asset value. Both village-level market integration and mean asset value were associated negatively, rather than positively, with inequality, contrary to predictions. Finally, income, modern wealth and inequality were higher in matrilineal communities that were located closer to the centre of tourism and where tourism has long provided a relatively stable source of income. However, we also observed exacerbated inequality with increasing farm animal value in patriliny. We conclude that the forces affecting wealth and inequality depend on local context and that the importance of local institutions is obscured by aggregate statistics drawn from modern nation states.
This study aimed to examine the independent roles of various childhood maltreatment (CM) subtypes in the development of depression; quantify the joint mediation effect of social support and mastery in the association between subtypes of CM and depression and examine the additional contribution of mastery beyond the effect that is operating through social support to this relationship.
Data analysed were from the Zone d’Épidémiologie Psychiatrique du Sud-Ouest de Montréal, an ongoing longitudinal population-based study. In total, 1351 participants with complete information on the studied variables were included. The propensity score matching and inverse-probability weighted regression adjustment estimation methods were used to minimise the potential confounding in the relationship between CM and major depression. We then used inverse odds ratio-weighted estimation to estimate the direct effects of maltreatment and indirect effects of social support and mastery.
We found that exposures to all maltreatment subtypes increased the risk of subsequent depression. The joint mediating effect of social support and mastery explained 37.63–46.97% of the association between different maltreatment subtypes and depression. The contribution of these two mediators differed by maltreatment subtypes, with social support being the major contributor to the mediating effect.
The findings of the study not only provide scientific evidence on the importance of psychosocial attributes in the development of major depression but also suggest that prevention and invention strategies should focus on these psychosocial attributes to effectively break the vicious cycle of CM on major depression.
To explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between vitamin D and depressive symptoms across early adolescence.
This longitudinal study included 1607 early adolescents [mean (s.d.) age, 12.49 years; 972 (60.5%) males] from the Chinese Early Adolescents Cohort, recruited from a middle school in Anhui Province and followed up annually (2019–2021). Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured in both 2019 and 2021. Self-reports on depression were assessed at each of three time points from 2019 to 2021.
In the whole sample, higher baseline serum 25(OH)D levels were linked with a lower risk of cumulative incident depression within two-year follow-ups (adjusted RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.94–0.99) and the increasing trajectory of depression symptoms across the three waves (adjusted RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95–0.99). Baseline vitamin D deficiency (VDD) (adjusted RR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.10–2.05) were associated with an increased risk for the increasing trajectory of depression symptoms across the three waves. Remitted VDD was positively related to one dichotomous depression symptoms across three waves (adjusted OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.15–4.01). The above-mentioned significant association was also found in males. Additionally, baseline VDD (adjusted OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.04–2.44) and persistent VDD (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.02–2.60) were linked to an increased risk of having two dichotomous depression symptoms only in males.
Our results highlight a prospective association between baseline vitamin D and depression risk in early adolescents. Additionally, a male-specific association between vitamin D and depression risk was observed. Our findings support a potential beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing depression risk in early adolescents.
Whether assisted hatching (AH) is associated with a higher incidence of monozygotic twinning (MZT) in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology remains controversial; the aim of the study was to demonstrate the relationship between AH and MZT. A total of 8900 clinical pregnancies were selected among embryo transfer cycles from January 2011 to October 2019. Women receiving day (D) 3 embryos were divided into groups A–C: group A (n = 1651) and group B (n = 1045) included women aged ≤37 or ≥38 years, respectively, with zona pellucida (ZP) thinning; group C (n = 3865) included women aged ≤37 years without AH. Women aged ≤37 years who underwent blastocyst transfer and/or blastocyst ZP breaching were included in group D (n = 2339). The incidence of MZT was compared among groups A, B and C, and between groups C and D. The incidence of MZT in group B (2.2%) was significantly higher than in group A (1.0%), especially following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), while the incidence of MZT in group A (1.0%) was significantly lower than in group C (2.2%). The MZT rate with in vitro fertilization was higher in group D (2.8%) than in group C (2.2%), but the MZT rate following ICSI was not significantly different between the two groups. ZP thinning of D3 embryos may increase the risk of MZT in older women (≥38 years), but decrease it in younger women (≤37 years). ZP breaching may be useful to reduce the incidence of MZT in ICSI-generated blastocysts.