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The aim was to explore the implications of follicular output rate (FORT), ovarian sensitivity index (OSI), ovarian response prediction index (ORPI), and follicle-to-oocyte index (FOI) in low-prognosis patients defined by POSEIDON criteria. In total, 4030 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles from January 2013 to October 2021 were included in this retrospective cohort analysis and were categorized into four groups based on the POSEIDON criteria. The FORT between Groups 1 and 2 (0.61 ± 0.34 vs. 0.65 ± 0.35, P = 0.081) and Groups 3 and 4 (1.08 ± 0.82 vs. 1.09 ± 0.94, P = 0.899) were similar. The OSI in the order from the highest to the lowest were 3.01 ± 1.46 in Group 1, 2.28 ± 1.09 in Group 2, 1.54 ± 1.04 in Group 3, and 1.34 ± 0.96 in Group 4 (P < 0.001). The trend in the ORPI values was consistent with that in the OSI. FORT, OSI, ORPI, and FOI complemented each other and offered excellent effectiveness in reflecting ovarian reserve and response, but they were not good predictors of clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) from IVF.
Aging plays a crucial role in the mechanisms of the impacts of genetic and environmental factors on blood pressure and serum lipids. However, to our knowledge, how the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the correlation between blood pressure and serum lipids changes with age remains to be determined. In this study, data from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR) were used. Resting blood pressure, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and fasting serum lipids, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs) were measured in 2378 participants (1189 twin pairs). Univariate and bivariate structural equation models examined the genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and serum lipids among three age groups. All phenotypes showed moderate to high heritability (0.37–0.59) and moderate unique environmental variance (0.30–0.44). The heritability of all phenotypes showed a decreasing trend with age. Among all phenotypes, SBP and DBP showed a significant monotonic decreasing trend. For phenotype-phenotype pairs, the phenotypic correlation (Rph) of each pair ranged from −0.04 to 0.23, and the additive genetic correlation (Ra) ranged from 0.00 to 0.36. For TC&SBP, TC&DBP, TG&SBP and TGs&DBP, both the Rph and Ra declined with age, and the Ra difference between the young group and the older adult group is statistically significant (p < .05). The unique environmental correlation (Re) of each pair did not follow any pattern with age and remained relatively stable with age. In summary, we observed that the heritability of blood pressure was affected by age. Moreover, blood pressure and serum lipids shared common genetic backgrounds, and age had an impact on the phenotypic correlation and genetic correlations.
Adult obesity disproportionately affects lower socio-economic groups in high-income countries and perpetuates health inequalities, imposing health and socio-economic burden. This review evaluates the effectiveness of behavioural strategies in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks among low-income groups based in high-income countries. We searched major databases for randomised controlled trials published between 1 November 2011 and 1 May 2023. Meta-analyses and subgroup analyses were undertaken to analyse the pooled and individual effects of behavioural strategies. Cochrane Risk of bias (RoB 2·0) tool and Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria were used to assess the quality and certainty of evidence. Fourteen trials (3618 adults, aged 40·2 ± 9·7 years with BMI 33·6 ± 2·8 kg/m2) and nine unique interventions were identified. Three trials with high RoB were omitted. Meta-analysis favoured interventions, demonstrating significant reductions in body weight (MD: −1·56 kg, (95 % CI –2·09, −1·03)) and HbA1c (MD: −0·05 %, (95 % CI − 0·10, −0·001)) at intervention end. Sub-group analysis showed no differences in waist circumference, blood pressure or serum lipids. Financial incentives and interactive feedback produced greatest amounts of weight losses ≥ 2 kg (GRADE: moderate). Behavioural strategies are effective weight loss interventions among lower socio-economic groups living in high-income nations. However, the impact on CVD risk remains unclear.
SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spreads among humans via social networks, with social mixing and network characteristics potentially facilitating transmission. However, limited data on topological structural features has hindered in-depth studies. Existing research is based on snapshot analyses, preventing temporal investigations of network changes. Comparing network characteristics over time offers additional insights into transmission dynamics. We examined confirmed COVID-19 patients from an eastern Chinese province, analyzing social mixing and network characteristics using transmission network topology before and after widespread interventions. Between the two time periods, the percentage of singleton networks increased from 38.9$ \% $ to 62.8$ \% $$ (p<0.001) $; the average shortest path length decreased from 1.53 to 1.14 $ (p<0.001) $; the average betweenness reduced from 0.65 to 0.11$ (p<0.001) $; the average cluster size dropped from 4.05 to 2.72 $ (p=0.004) $; and the out-degree had a slight but nonsignificant decline from 0.75 to 0.63 $ (p=0.099). $ Results show that nonpharmaceutical interventions effectively disrupted transmission networks, preventing further disease spread. Additionally, we found that the networks’ dynamic structure provided more information than solely examining infection curves after applying descriptive and agent-based modeling approaches. In summary, we investigated social mixing and network characteristics of COVID-19 patients during different pandemic stages, revealing transmission network heterogeneities.
The age-related heterogeneity in major depressive disorder (MDD) has received significant attention. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such heterogeneity still need further investigation. This study aimed to explore the common and distinct functional brain abnormalities across different age groups of MDD patients from a large-sample, multicenter analysis.
The analyzed sample consisted of a total of 1238 individuals including 617 MDD patients (108 adolescents, 12–17 years old; 411 early-middle adults, 18–54 years old; and 98 late adults, > = 55 years old) and 621 demographically matched healthy controls (60 adolescents, 449 early-middle adults, and 112 late adults). MDD-related abnormalities in brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns were investigated in each age group separately and using the whole pooled sample, respectively.
We found shared FC reductions among the sensorimotor, visual, and auditory networks across all three age groups of MDD patients. Furthermore, adolescent patients uniquely exhibited increased sensorimotor-subcortical FC; early-middle adult patients uniquely exhibited decreased visual-subcortical FC; and late adult patients uniquely exhibited wide FC reductions within the subcortical, default-mode, cingulo-opercular, and attention networks. Analysis of covariance models using the whole pooled sample further revealed: (1) significant main effects of age group on FCs within most brain networks, suggesting that they are decreased with aging; and (2) a significant age group × MDD diagnosis interaction on FC within the default-mode network, which may be reflective of an accelerated aging-related decline in default-mode FCs.
To summarize, these findings may deepen our understanding of the age-related biological and clinical heterogeneity in MDD.
The purpose of this study is to further investigate the relationship between sweetener exposure and the risk of endometrial cancer (EC). Up until December 2022, a literature search in an electronic database was carried out utilizing PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid, and Scopus. The odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the results. Sweeteners were divided into nutritional sweeteners (generally refers to sugar, such as sucrose and glucose) and non-nutritional sweeteners (generally refers to artificial sweeteners, such saccharin and aspartame). Ten cohort studies and two case-control studies were eventually included. The study found that in 12 studies, compared with the non-exposed group, the incidence rate of EC in the sweetener exposed group was higher (OR = 1·15, 95 % CI = [1·07, 1·24]). Subgroup analysis showed that in 11 studies, the incidence rate of EC in the nutritional sweetener exposed group was higher than that in the non-exposed group (OR = 1·25, 95 % CI = [1·14, 1·38]). In 4 studies, there was no difference in the incidence rate of EC between individuals exposed to non-nutritional sweeteners and those who were not exposed to non-nutritional sweeteners (OR = 0·90, 95 % CI = [0·81, 1·01]). This study reported that the consumption of nutritional sweeteners may increase the risk of EC, whereas there was no significant relationship between the exposure of non-nutritional sweeteners and the incidence of EC. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended to reduce the intake of nutritional sweeteners, but it is uncertain whether use of on-nutritional sweeteners instead of nutritional sweetener.
As an effective drag reduction and thermal protection technology, the opposing jet can guarantee the flight safety of the hypersonic vehicle. In this paper, the jet mode transition is realised by controlling the total jet pressure ratio value (PR) with a function. The jet mode transition from the long penetration mode (LPM) to the short penetration mode (SPM) uses an increasing function. However, the jet mode transition from SPM to LPM uses a decreasing function. The flow field reconstruction process of a two-dimensional axisymmetric blunt body model in the hypersonic flow is studied when the jet mode transition between SPM and LPM changes into each other. The flow field structures and wall parameters of the LPM and SPM transition processes are obtained. The results indicate that the drag and Stanton number both decrease in the transition stage from LPM to SPM, and this is beneficial for the improvement of the drag reduction and thermal protection effect. The peak values of drag and Stanton number fall by 36.39% and 46.40%, respectively. When the jet mode transforms from SPM to LPM, the Stanton number increases, and the drag force first increases and then decreases. However, the final drag reduction effect is not obvious. With the increase in the change rate of the total pressure ratio of the two jet transformation modes, the jet mode transition time is advanced, and the flow field changes more violently.
Two kinetic models are proposed for high-temperature rarefied (or non-equilibrium) gas flows with internal degrees of freedom and radiation. One of the models uses the Boltzmann collision operator to model the translational motion of gas molecules, which has the ability to capture the influence of intermolecular potentials, while the other adopts the relaxation time approximations, which has higher computational efficiency. In our kinetic model equations, not only the transport coefficients such as the shear/bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity but also their underlying relaxation processes are recovered. The non-equilibrium dynamics of gas flow and radiation are tightly coupled, where the transport properties of gas molecules and photons are correlatively dependent. The proposed kinetic models are validated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method in several non-radiative rarefied gas flows (e.g. the normal shock wave, Fourier flow, Couette flow and the creep flow driven by the Maxwell demon), and the experimental data of planar heat transfer and normal shock waves in nitrogen. Then, the rarefied gas flows with strong radiation are studied based on the kinetic models, not only in the above one-dimensional gas flows, but also in the two-dimensional radiative hypersonic flow passing a cylinder. The characteristics of heat transfer in the tightly coupled fields of gas and radiation are systematically investigated, particularly the influence of the non-equilibrium photon transport and their interactions with gas molecules are revealed. It is found that the radiation makes a profound contribution to the total heat transfer in radiative hypersonic flow at an intermediate photon Knudsen number.
The concentration of suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) and its carbon isotopic composition (δ13CPOC) were analysed in this study with the aim of exploring the sources and factors influencing levels of POC in the surface water around the Antarctic Peninsula. The scanning electron microscopy results suggest that diatom particles formed the main component of suspended particulate matter, indicating that POC was mainly from in situ primary production. The high concentrations of chlorophyll a and POC in sea water mainly occurred in nearshore and sea-ice edge regions, which might be controlled by nutrient and reactive iron inputs stemming from sea-ice melting. The δ13CPOC in the study area is significantly lower than that in low-latitude waters, with a range of -31.8‰ to -22.8‰ (mean -28.9‰), which was controlled by the high CO2 concentration in the Southern Ocean and might be influenced by phytoplankton growth rates and assemblages. This study helps us to understand material cycling in the Antarctic region under the conditions of global climate change.
Horses and chariots played a crucial social, cultural and military role in the emergence and development of early states in China. Little research, however, has explored the life histories of individual chariot horses or assessed their role as working animals. Here, the authors present a detailed zooarchaeological and palaeopathological study of eight adult male horses, used for pulling chariots, recovered from a single chariot-horse pit at the burial site of Shijia in north-western China. The characterisation of key osteological differences between chariot horses and ridden horses is offered as a contribution to the toolkit available for the archaeological investigation of human-horse interactions around the globe.
In this study, aluminium fluoride trihydrate (AlF3⋅3H2O) was used to inhibit the sintering of calcined coal-series kaolin (CCSK). In addition, the oil absorption properties of CCSK were studied. The particle-size distribution, specific surface area and porosity of the samples were investigated as a function of calcination temperature and the addition of AlF3⋅3H2O. Moreover, the ability of AlF3⋅3H2O to improve the oil absorption of CCSK was explored. The morphology, structure and phase composition of the specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The phase transition during heating of the samples was studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The preparation with 10 wt.% AlF3⋅3H2O had the optimal sintering inhibition effect on CCSK at 1000°C. The release of SiF4 gas during heating and the formation of mullite whiskers on the particle surface caused by AlF3⋅3H2O moderated the formation of molten-phase liquid bridges between particles and inhibited sintering of the raw material powder. Furthermore, the formation of submicron mullite whiskers on the surface of the CCSK particles enhanced the oil-absorption properties of the sample significantly.
Abnormal reward functioning is central to anhedonia and amotivation symptoms of schizophrenia (SCZ). Reward processing encompasses a series of psychological components. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the brain dysfunction related to reward processing of individuals with SCZ spectrum disorders and risks, covering multiple reward components.
After a systematic literature search, 37 neuroimaging studies were identified and divided into four groups based on their target psychology components (i.e. reward anticipation, reward consumption, reward learning, effort computation). Whole-brain Seed-based d Mapping (SDM) meta-analyses were conducted for all included studies and each component.
The meta-analysis for all reward-related studies revealed reduced functional activation across the SCZ spectrum in the striatum, orbital frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and cerebellar areas. Meanwhile, distinct abnormal patterns were found for reward anticipation (decreased activation of the cingulate cortex and striatum), reward consumption (decreased activation of cerebellum IV/V areas, insula and inferior frontal gyri), and reward learning processing (decreased activation of the striatum, thalamus, cerebellar Crus I, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and parietal and occipital areas). Lastly, our qualitative review suggested that decreased activation of the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex was also involved in effort computation.
These results provide deep insights on the component-based neuro-psychopathological mechanisms for anhedonia and amotivation symptoms of the SCZ spectrum.
The association between time-restricted eating (TRE) and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is less studied. Moreover, whether the association is independent of physical exercise or diet quality or quantity is uncertain. In this nationwide cross-sectional study of 3813 participants, the timing of food intakes was recorded by 24-h recalls; NAFLD was defined through vibration-controlled transient elastography in the absence of other causes of chronic liver disease. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using logistic regression. Participants with daily eating window of ≤ 8 h had lower odds of NAFLD (OR = 0·70, 95 % CI: 0·52, 0·93), compared with those with ≥ 10 h window. Early (05.00–15.00) and late TRE (11.00–21.00) showed inverse associations with NAFLD prevalence without statistical heterogeneity (Pheterogeneity = 0·649) with OR of 0·73 (95 % CI: 0·36, 1·47) and 0·61 (95 % CI: 0·44, 0·84), respectively. Such inverse association seemed stronger in participants with lower energy intake (OR = 0·58, 95 % CI: 0·38, 0·89, Pinteraction = 0·020). There are no statistical differences in the TRE-NAFLD associations according to physical activity (Pinteraction = 0·390) or diet quality (Pinteraction = 0·110). TRE might be associated with lower likelihood of NAFLD. Such inverse association is independent of physical activity and diet quality and appears stronger in individuals consuming lower energy. Given the potential misclassification of TRE based on one- or two-day recall in the analysis, epidemiological studies with validated methods for measuring the habitual timing of dietary intake are warranted.
The Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola is one of the least known shorebird species, and its habitat associations are very poorly understood. Here we provide the first assessment of the habitat use of the Wood Snipe during the breeding season. Between May and July 2021 at a 4-km2 alpine meadow in Sichuan province, China, we conducted population surveys and behavioural observations to identify sites where breeding Wood Snipe occurred and foraged. We quantified the habitat characteristics and food resource availability of these sites and compared them with randomly selected “background” sites. Comparison between 34 occurrence sites and 25 background sites indicated that during the breeding season, Wood Snipes are not distributed evenly across alpine meadow habitats, but preferred habitats in the lower part (3,378–3,624 m) of the alpine meadow with intermediate levels of soil moisture. In addition, comparison between 17 foraging sites and 24 background sites showed that the Wood Snipe tended to forage at sites with higher soil fauna abundance. We found weak evidence for denser vegetation cover at its height and no evidence for other biotic habitat variables such as vegetation composition or other abiotic habitat variables such as slope, soil penetrability, or disturbance level to influence Wood Snipe habitat associations. Our results suggest that the actual distribution range of the Wood Snipe during the breeding season may be smaller than expected from the extent of apparently suitable habitat. We advise caution in evaluating the potential habitat availability and distribution of the Wood Snipe, and call for further research to better understand the ecology of this rare species to inform its conservation.
Cryptosporidium spp. are significant opportunistic pathogens causing diarrhoea in humans and animals. Pigs are one of the most important potential hosts for Cryptosporidium. We evaluated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in pigs globally using published information and a random-effects model. In total, 131 datasets from 36 countries were included in the final quantitative analysis. The global prevalence of Cryptosporidium in pigs was 16.3% (8560/64 809; 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.0–17.6%). The highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium in pigs was 40.8% (478/1271) in Africa. Post-weaned pigs had a significantly higher prevalence (25.8%; 2739/11 824) than pre-weaned, fattening and adult pigs. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was higher in pigs with no diarrhoea (12.2%; 371/3501) than in pigs that had diarrhoea (8.0%; 348/4874). Seven Cryptosporidium species (Cryptosporidium scrofarum, Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium muris, Cryptosporidium tyzzeri, Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium struthioni) were detected in pigs globally. The proportion of C. scrofarum was 34.3% (1491/4351); the proportion of C. suis was 31.8% (1385/4351) and the proportion of C. parvum was 2.3% (98/4351). The influence of different geographic factors (latitude, longitude, mean yearly temperature, mean yearly relative humidity and mean yearly precipitation) on the infection rate of Cryptosporidium in pigs was also analysed. The results indicate that C. suis is the dominant species in pre-weaned pigs, while C. scrofarum is the dominant species in fattening and adult pigs. The findings highlight the role of pigs as possible potential hosts of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis and the need for additional studies on the prevalence, transmission and control of Cryptosporidium in pigs.
Marangoni spreading on thin films is widely observed in nature and applied in industry. It has serious implications for airway drug delivery, especially in surfactant displacement therapy. This paper reports the results of experimental investigations of a surfactant-laden droplet spreading on films made of more viscous Newtonian fluids as well as on films made of viscoelastic fluids. The experiments used particle seeding, the transmission-speckle method and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to determine the deformation of the film–droplet interface and to measure velocity fields. Radially aligned patterns were observed on Newtonian films. Similar patterns, but with much smaller wavenumber, were observed on viscoelastic films in combination with rapid azimuthal variations of the film thickness. The Saffman–Taylor instability at the film–droplet interface explains the formation of patterns on a more viscous Newtonian film, and their onset requires exceeding the critical capillary number. The pattern formation on viscoelastic films is correlated with an instability at the film–droplet–air contact line when the liquid is expelled radially by the spreading droplet. PTV revealed azimuthal variations of the velocity field in the vicinity of the contact line. The observed contact line instability is different from previously reported fingering instabilities of Newtonian thin films. A simple scaling law accounting for the Marangoni-stress-induced elastic shear deformation is proposed to describe the flow field in the patterns formed in the viscoelastic films.
We report here the first hundred-watt continuous wave fiber gas laser in H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by stimulated Raman scattering. The pump source is a homemade narrow-linewidth fiber oscillator with a 3 dB linewidth of 0.15 nm at the maximum output power of 380 W. To efficiently and stably couple several-hundred-watt pump power into the hollow core and seal the gas, a hollow-core fiber end-cap is fabricated and used at the input end. A maximum power of 110 W at 1153 nm is obtained in a 5 m long hollow-core PCF filled with 36 bar H2, and the conversion efficiency of the first Stokes power is around 48.9%. This work paves the way for high-power fiber gas Raman lasers.
As a typical plasma-based optical element that can sustain ultra-high light intensity, plasma density gratings driven by intense laser pulses have been extensively studied for wide applications. Here, we show that the plasma density grating driven by two intersecting driver laser pulses is not only nonuniform in space but also varies over time. Consequently, the probe laser pulse that passes through such a dynamic plasma density grating will be depolarized, that is, its polarization becomes spatially and temporally variable. More importantly, the laser depolarization may spontaneously take place for crossed laser beams if their polarization angles are arranged properly. The laser depolarization by a dynamic plasma density grating may find application in mitigating parametric instabilities in laser-driven inertial confinement fusion.
Evidence has suggested that emotional dysregulation is a transdiagnostic feature in schizophrenia and major affective disorders. However, the relationship between emotional dysregulation and appetite hormone disturbance remains unknown in nonobese adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
In total, 22 adolescents with schizophrenia; 31 with bipolar disorder; 33 with major depressive disorder; and 41 healthy age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)/BMI percentile-matched controls were enrolled for assessing levels of appetite hormones, namely leptin, ghrelin, insulin, and adiponectin. Emotional regulation symptoms were measured using the parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist―Dysregulation Profile.
Adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder exhibited greater emotional dysregulation symptoms than the control group (P = .037). Adolescents with bipolar disorder demonstrated higher log-transformed levels of insulin (P = .029) and lower log-transformed levels of leptin (P = .018) compared with the control group. BMI (P < .05) and log-transformed ghrelin levels (P = .028) were positively correlated with emotional dysregulation symptoms.
Emotional dysregulation and appetite hormone disturbance may occur in the early stage of severe mental disorders. Further studies are required to clarify the unidirectional or bidirectional association of emotional dysregulation with BMI/BMI percentile and appetite hormones among patients with severe mental disorder.