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Negative emotionality (NE) was evaluated as a candidate mechanism linking prenatal maternal affective symptoms and offspring internalizing problems during the preschool/early school age period. The participants were 335 mother–infant dyads from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project. A Confirmatory Bifactor Analysis (CFA) based on self-report measures of prenatal depression and pregnancy-specific anxiety generated a general factor representing overlapping symptoms of prenatal maternal psychopathology and four distinct symptom factors representing pregnancy-specific anxiety, negative affect, anhedonia and somatization. NE was rated by the mother at 18 and 36 months. CFA based on measures of father, mother, child-rated measures and a semistructured interview generated a general internalizing factor representing overlapping symptoms of child internalizing psychopathology accounting for the unique contribution of each informant. Path analyses revealed significant relationships among the general maternal affective psychopathology, the pregnancy- specific anxiety, and the child internalizing factors. Child NE mediated only the relationship between pregnancy-specific anxiety and the child internalizing factors. We highlighted the conditions in which prenatal maternal affective symptoms predicts child internalizing problems emerging early in development, including consideration of different mechanistic pathways for different maternal prenatal symptom presentations and child temperament.
Episodes of acute agitation associated with psychiatric disorders are often managed in emergency and inpatient settings. These trials evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of dexmedetomidine orally dissolving film (ODF), an investigational treatment for acute agitation associated with schizophrenia (SERENITY I) or bipolar disorder (SERENITY II). Dexmedetomidine ODF is a highly selective agonist of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors that modulate norepinephrine release from the locus coeruleus. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 3 trials in 15 U.S. sites included participants aged 18 to 75 with acute agitation and a DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (Serenity I) or bipolar disorder I or II (Serenity II). Agitation was defined as ³14 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component (PEC) at screening and baseline, and ³4 on at least 1 of the 5 PEC items (poor impulse control, tension, hostility, uncooperativeness, and excitement) at baseline. Randomization was 1:1:1 to dexmedetomidine ODF 120 or 180 mcg or matching placebo. All participants self-administered study drugs. For persistent or recurrent agitation after 2 hours, investigators could redose a half-dose. The primary endpoint was changed from baseline in PEC total at 2 hours. The secondary endpoint was the earliest time at which a statistically significant separation from placebo occurred.A total of 380 patients were randomized in each trial (N = 760). All doses of dexmedetomidine ODF met the primary endpoint of change from baseline in PEC at 2 hours vs placebo (P < .001). Statistically significant improvement in PEC occurred as early as 20 minutes with the 180 mcg dose in both trials. A second (half-strength) dose was given to 10 (4.0%) participants in the 180 mcg groups, 34 (13.3%) in the 120 mcg groups, and 58 (23.0%) in the placebo groups in Serenity 1 and Serenity 2. There were no drug-related serious or severe TEAEs in either trial. No participant was unarousable by the Agitation and Calmness Evaluation Scale. For dexmedetomidine 180 mcg, 120 mcg, and placebo, the incidence of TEAEs was 37.3%, 39.5%, and 15.1% in Serenity 1 and 35.7%, 34.9%, and 17.5% in Serenity 2. Somnolence was the most common TEAE in both trials (22% Serenity I; 21% Serenity 2). Of 110 somnolence reports, 75% were mild and 25% moderate. In 2 Phase 3 trials, the investigational treatment, dexmedetomidine ODF, effectively treated acute agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, with onset of action as early as 20 minutes at the 180 mcg dose. Both doses of dexmedetomidine ODF produced a calming effect without unarousable sedation. Mild or moderate somnolence was the most common AE. Dexmedetomidine ODF is a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist that allows self-administration, making it a potential addition to noninvasive treatments for acute agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Deutetrabenazine is FDA-approved for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults. In two 12-week pivotal trials (ARM-TD/AIM-TD), deutetrabenazine significantly improved Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores and was well-tolerated. This post hoc analysis examined the efficacy and safety of long-term deutetrabenazine treatment in TD patients with comorbid psychiatric illness, including schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and mood disorders (bipolar/depression/other).
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD enrolled in the 3-year, open-label extension (OLE) study. Deutetrabenazine was titrated based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. Change from baseline in total motor AIMS score, Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), and adverse events (AEs) were analyzed in subgroups by comorbid psychiatric illness.
A total of 337 patients in the OLE study were included in the analysis: 205 patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (mean age, 55 years; 50% male; 6.4 years since diagnosis; 92% taking DRA) and 131 patients with mood disorders (mean age, 60 years; 35% male; 4.6 years since diagnosis; 50% taking DRA). At week 145, mean ± SE dose was 40.4 ± 1.1 mg/day for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n = 88) and 38.5 ± 1.2 mg/day for mood disorders (n = 72). Mean ± SE change from baseline in AIMS score at week 145 was −6.3 ± 0.49 and −7.1 ± 0.58, 56% and 72% achieved PGIC treatment success, and 66% and 82% achieved CGIC treatment success in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and mood disorder patients, respectively. Overall AE incidence (exposure-adjusted incidence rates [incidence/patient-years]) was low: any, 1.02 and 1.71; serious, 0.10 and 0.12; leading to discontinuation, 0.07 and 0.05).
Long-term deutetrabenazine treatment provided clinically meaningful improvements in TD-related movements, with a favorable safety profile, regardless of underlying comorbid psychiatric illness.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an involuntary movement disorder that can result from exposure to dopamine-receptor antagonists (DRAs). Deutetrabenazine demonstrated significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores in the 12-week pivotal trials (ARM-TD/AIM-TD). This post hoc analysis assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of deutetrabenazine by baseline DRA use.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD enrolled in the 3-year, open-label extension (OLE) study, with deutetrabenazine dose titrated based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. Change from baseline in total motor AIMS score, Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), and adverse event (AE) rates were analyzed in subgroups by baseline DRA use.
Of 337 patients in the OLE study, 254 were taking DRAs at baseline (mean age, 56 years; 48% male; 6.0 years since diagnosis) and 83 were not (mean age, 60 years; 31% male; 4.9 years since diagnosis). Mean ± SE dose at week 145 was 39.9 ± 1.0 mg/day in patients taking DRAs (n = 108) and 38.5 ± 1.5 mg/day in patients not taking DRAs (n = 53). At week 145, mean ± SE change from baseline in AIMS score was −6.1 ± 0.43 and −7.5 ± 0.71; 64% and 62% achieved PGIC treatment success; and 69% and 81% achieved CGIC treatment success, respectively. Overall AE incidence was low (exposure-adjusted incidence rates [incidence/patient-years]: any, 1.08 and 1.97; serious, 0.10 and 0.12; leading to discontinuation, 0.06 and 0.05).
This analysis suggests that deutetrabenazine for long-term treatment of TD is beneficial, with a favorable safety profile, regardless of concomitant DRA use.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused myriad health, social, and economic stressors. To date, however, no known study has examined changes in mental health during the pandemic in the U.S. military veteran population.
Data were analyzed from the 2019–2020 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, a nationally representative, prospective cohort survey of 3078 veterans. Pre-to-peri-pandemic changes in psychiatric symptoms were evaluated, as well as pre-pandemic risk and protective factors and pandemic-related correlates of increased psychiatric distress.
The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) positive screens increased from pre- to peri-pandemic (7.1% to 9.4%; p < 0.001) and was driven by an increase among veterans aged 45–64 years (8.2% to 13.5%; p < 0.001), but the prevalence of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder positive screens remained stable. Using a continuous measure of psychiatric distress, an estimated 13.2% of veterans reported a clinically meaningful pre-to-peri-pandemic increase in distress (mean = 1.1 standard deviation). Veterans with a larger pre-pandemic social network size and secure attachment style were less likely to experience increased distress, whereas veterans reporting more pre-pandemic loneliness were more likely to experience increased distress. Concerns about pandemic-related social losses, mental health COVID-19 effects, and housing stability during the pandemic were associated with increased distress, over-and-above pre-pandemic factors.
Although most U.S. veterans showed resilience to mental health problems nearly 1 year into the pandemic, the prevalence of GAD positive screens increased, particularly among middle-aged veterans, and one of seven veterans experienced increased distress. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Four medications are FDA approved for bipolar depression: lurasidone (LUR), cariprazine (CAR), quetiapine IR & XR (QUE), and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination (OFC). Indirect comparisons for efficacy using Number Needed to Treat (NNT) and for tolerability using Number Needed to Harm (NNH) can be useful clinical benchmarks to aid treatment decisions. Benefit and risk may also be examined using the Likelihood to be Helped or Harmed (LHH). In this post-hoc analysis, we examined the benefit-risk ratio of the four treatments using LHH.
Individual and pooled monotherapy data from short-term clinical registration trials of patients with bipolar depression were assessed for LUR, CAR, pooled QUE (300 and 600 mg), and pooled OFC (considered as monotherapy for this study at fixed doses of 6/25, 6/50, 12/50 mg) data. NNT estimates were calculated using the proportions of MADRS responders (defined as ≥ 50% improvement at study endpoint) and MADRS remitters (defined as a score of ≤ 10 [for LUR and CAR] and ≤ 12 [for QUE and OFC]) at study endpoint. NNH data were calculated for the proportions of patients who discontinued due to an adverse event (AE) and for individual AEs commonly associated with each treatment. LHH was calculated as the ratio of NNH/NNT to determine the benefit-risk ratio.
The NNT estimates for response vs. placebo were: 5 for both LUR 20–60 mg and 80–120 mg; 10 for both CAR 1.5 mg and 3.0 mg; 6 for QUE; and 4 for OFC. The NNTs for remission vs placebo were: 7 for LUR 20–60 mg and 9 for LUR 80–120 mg; 10 for CAR 1.5 mg and 13 for CAR 3.0 mg; 6 for QUE; and 5 for OFC. The NNH estimates for discontinuations due to AEs were: 642 for LUR 20–60 mg and −151 for LUR 80–120 mg; 298 for CAR 1.5 mg and 31 for CAR 3.0 mg; 10 for QUE; and −37 for OFC. NNH values that were negative were assigned a value of 1000 to permit LHH to be calculated. The LHHs for response vs discontinuation due to an AE were: 128.4 for LUR 20–60 mg and 200 for LUR 80–120 mg; 29.8 for CAR 1.5 mg and 3.1 for CAR 3.0 mg; 1.7 for QUE; and 250 for OFC. The LHHs for response vs akathisia were: 3.6 for LUR 20–60 mg and 2.4 for LUR 80–120 mg; 3.6 for CAR 1.5 mg and 1.3 for CAR 3.0 mg; 34 for QUE; and not available (NA) for OFC. The LHHs for response vs EPS were: 8 for LUR 20–60 mg and 3.2 for LUR 80–120 mg; 5 for CAR 1.5 mg and 2.5 for CAR 3.0 mg; NA for QUE; and NA for OFC. The LHH for response vs weight gain was 5.8 for LUR 20–60 mg and 1110 for LUR 80–120 mg; 5 for both doses of CAR; 2.7 for QUE; and 1.5 for OFC.
LHH can illustrate the trade-offs regarding potential benefits versus potential harms. Across a variety of measures, the lower-dose groups for both LUR and CAR generally evidenced a better benefit-risk profile than the higher-dose groups. While quetiapine and OFC demonstrated robust efficacy, their reduced tolerability resulted in a more marginal benefit-risk ratio for some of the outcomes.
The 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies in tardive dyskinesia (TD) patients showed statistically significant improvements in TD symptoms with deutetrabenazine. The completed open-label extension (OLE) study (SD-809-C−20) evaluated long-term efficacy and safety of deutetrabenazine in TD.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD enrolled in the OLE study, with deutetrabenazine dose titrated based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. Change from baseline in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) score was assessed by local site raters. Treatment success was evaluated locally as patients being “much improved” or “very much improved” on Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC).
343 patients enrolled in the OLE study; 6 patients were excluded from analyses. At Week 54 (n=249; dose [mean±SE]: 38.7±0.66mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –4.8±0.28; 66% of patients experienced treatment success. At Week 106 (n=194; dose: 39.3±0.75mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –5.4±0.33; 65% of patients experienced treatment success. At Week 145 (n=160; dose: 39.4±0.83mg/day), mean change from baseline in AIMS score was –6.6±0.37; 73% of patients experienced treatment success. Treatment was generally well tolerated across 723 patient-years of exposure through Week 158, and exposure-adjusted incidence rates (incidence/patient-years) for akathisia/restlessness were 0.01, somnolence/sedation were 0.07, and symptoms which may represent parkinsonism or depression were 0.08 each.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved sustained improvement in AIMS scores. Findings from this open-label trial with response-driven dosing suggest the possibility of increasing benefit over time.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) are imperative, as its symptoms can be highly disruptive to both patients and their caregivers. Misdiagnosis can lead to incorrect interventions with suboptimal or even deleterious results. To aid in the identification and differentiation of TD in the psychiatric practice setting, we review its clinical features and movement phenomenology, as well as those of other antipsychotic-induced movement disorders, with accompanying links to illustrative videos. Exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) such as antipsychotics or antiemetics is associated with a spectrum of movement disorders including TD. The differential diagnosis of TD is based on history of DRBA exposure, recent discontinuation or dose reduction of a DRBA, and movement phenomenology. Common diagnostic challenges are the abnormal behaviors and dyskinesias associated with advanced age or chronic mental illness, and other movement disorders associated with DRBA therapy, such as akathisia, parkinsonian tremor, and tremor related to use of mood stabilizing agents (eg, lithium, divalproex). Duration of exposure may help rule out acute drug-induced syndromes such as acute dystonia or acute/subacute akathisia. Another important consideration is the potential for TD to present together with other drug-induced movement disorders (eg, parkinsonism, parkinsonian tremor, and postural tremor from mood stabilizers) in the same patient, which can complicate both diagnosis and management. After documentation of the phenomenology, severity, and distribution of TD movements, treatment options should be reviewed with the patient and caregivers.
Air pollution is linked to mortality and morbidity. Since humans spend nearly all their time indoors, improving indoor air quality (IAQ) is a compelling approach to mitigate air pollutant exposure. To assess interventions, relying on clinical outcomes may require prolonged follow-up, which hinders feasibility. Thus, identifying biomarkers that respond to changes in IAQ may be useful to assess the effectiveness of interventions.
We conducted a narrative review by searching several databases to identify studies published over the last decade that measured the response of blood, urine, and/or salivary biomarkers to variations (natural and intervention-induced) of changes in indoor air pollutant exposure.
Numerous studies reported on associations between IAQ exposures and biomarkers with heterogeneity across study designs and methods. This review summarizes the responses of 113 biomarkers described in 30 articles. The biomarkers which most frequently responded to variations in indoor air pollutant exposures were high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), von Willebrand Factor (vWF), 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP).
This review will guide the selection of biomarkers for translational studies evaluating the impact of indoor air pollutants on human health.
Binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with obesity (BMI ≥30) in approximately 40-45% of patients. Dasotraline is a long-acting dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with a PK profile characterized by slow absorption and an elimination half-life of 47-77 hours, permitting once-daily dosing. In a recent placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study, dasotraline demonstrated significant efficacy in patients with BED. We now report an analysis from this study of the effect of dasotraline on body weight.
Patients with moderate-to-severe BED, based on DSM-5 criteria, were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind flexible-dose treatment with dasotraline (4-8 mg/d) vs. placebo. The primary efficacy outcome was number of binge-eating days/week. Mean change in body weight at Week 12 (assessed as a safety outcome) was analyzed by baseline body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) category. Inferential statistics were not performed.
The safety population consisted of 317 patients (female, 84%; mean age, 38.2 years; mean weight, 97.3 kg). At baseline, the proportions of patients in each BMI category were as follows: normal (<25 kg/m2: 5.7%), overweight (25 to <30 kg/m2: 18.3%), obesity class I (30 to <35 kg/m2: 24.9%), class II (35 to <40 kg/m2: 29.3%), and class III (≥40 kg/m2: 21.8%). For the overall patient sample, treatment with dasotraline significantly reduced the number of binge-eating days per week vs. placebo (-3.74 vs. -2.75; P<0.0001; effect size = 0.74). Mean changes at Week 12 in weight (kg) for completers treated with dasotraline vs. placebo, by baseline BMI category, were as follows: normal weight (-4.6 vs. -0.2), overweight (-5.8 vs. +1.3), and combined obesity classes I-III (-6.2 vs. +0.3). Among obese patients (Class I-III, combined) treated with dasotraline, weight reduction (≥5%) was observed in 45.3% of patients (vs. 4.1% on placebo); and weight reduction ≥10% in approximately 13.7% of patients (vs. none on placebo). Weight-related adverse events, for dasotraline vs. placebo, consisted of decreased appetite (19.7% vs. 6.9%), decreased weight (12.1% vs. 0%), and increased weight (0.6% vs. 1.3%).
Among patients completing 12 weeks of treatment with dasotraline, weight reduction ≥5% was observed in 45% of obese patients with a BMI ≥30. The most frequent weight-related adverse event was decreased appetite, reported in approximately one in five patients treated with dasotraline.
Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT02564588
Supported by funding from Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Binge-eating disorder (BED), the most common eating disorder in the US, is frequently associated with impairment in quality of life and functioning. Dasotraline, a long-acting dopamine/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, has a PK profile characterized by slow absorption and an elimination half-life of 47-77 hours, and is dosed once-daily. In a recent placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study, dasotraline demonstrated significant efficacy in patients with BED. We now report an analysis from this study of the effect of dasotraline on binge-related obsessions and compulsions.
Patients with moderate-to-severe BED, based on DSM-5 criteria, were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind, placebo controlled, treatment with flexible doses of dasotraline (4, 6, and 8 mg/d). The primary efficacy measure was number of binge-eating days/week; secondary measures included the Binge Eating Clinical Global Impression of Severity (BE-CGI-S) score and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for Binge-Eating (Y-BOCS-BE), a validated, 10-item interviewer-administered measure designed to assess the severity of obsessional thoughts and compulsive behaviors related to binge eating. Change from baseline in efficacy measures in the Intent-to-treat (ITT) population were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measures (MMRM) analysis.
The ITT population consisted of 317 patients (female, 84%; mean age, 38.2 years). LS mean reduction from baseline in number of Binge Eating (BE) days per week was significantly greater for dasotraline vs. placebo at week 12 (-3.74 vs. -2.75; P<0.0001; effect size [ES] = 0.74; primary endpoint); week 12 change was significantly greater for dasotraline vs. placebo on the Y-BOCS-BE total score (-17.05 vs. -9.88; P<0.0001; ES, 0.96), the obsession subscale score (-8.32 vs. -4.58; P<0.0001; ES, 0.95), and the compulsion subscale score (-8.69 vs. -5.35; P<0.0001; ES, 0.87). All 10 YBOCS-BE items were significantly improved on dasotraline vs. placebo at week 12 (P<0.001 for all comparisons; with effect sizes ranging from 0.54 to 0.90). At Week 12 (LOCF), for dasotraline and placebo, 52.3% and 18.4% of patients, respectively, had a BE-CGI-S score of 1 (“normal; not at all ill”; NNT=3). At endpoint, for patients with a global illness severity score of 1, the corresponding mean Y-BOCS-BE total scores were 0.5 and 0.7 for dasotraline and placebo, respectively, indicating that when BED illness severity approaches “normal, not at all ill”, binge-related obsessions and compulsions demonstrate comparably low levels of severity.
In this placebo-controlled, 12-week study of patients with moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder, treatment with dasotraline (4-8 mg/d) was associated with significant and clinically meaningful reduction in binge-related obsessional thoughts and compulsive behaviors.
Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT02564588
Supported by funding from Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Deutetrabenazine (Austedo) is approved by the FDA for treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults. In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine showed clinically significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores compared with placebo, and there were low rates of overall adverse events (AEs) and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of deutetrabenazine in patients with TD at 3 years.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12 mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48 mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration period and a long-term maintenance phase. Safety measures included incidence of AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and AEs leading to withdrawal, dose reduction, or dose suspension. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates (EAIRs; incidence/patient-years) were used for calculating AE frequencies. This analysis reports results up to Week 158.
A total of 343 patients were enrolled (111 received placebo and 232 received deutetrabenazine in the parent studies). At the time of this analysis, 183 patients were still receiving treatment; 259 completed 1 year, 172 completed 2 years, and 41 completed 3 years. There were 623 patient-years of exposure. More than 40% of patients reached the maximum dose. EAIRs of AEs were comparable to or lower than those observed in the ARM-TD and AIM-TD short-term randomized trials of deutetrabenazine vs. placebo. The frequency of SAEs (EAIR 0.10) was similar to that observed with short-term placebo (0.33) and short-term deutetrabenazine (range 0.06–0.33) treatment. AEs leading to withdrawal (0.06), dose reduction (0.10), and dose suspension (0.05) were uncommon.
These results support the safety outcomes observed in the ARM-TD and AIM-TD parent studies and the safety of deutetrabenazine for long-term use in patients with TD.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies evaluating deutetrabenazine for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD), the percentage of patients achieving ≥50% response was higher in the deutetrabenazine-treated group than in the placebo group. These studies also showed low rates of overall adverse events (AEs) and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine. The current open-label study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of deutetrabenazine in patients with TD.
Patients with TD who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD could enroll in this open-label, single-arm extension study, titrating up over 6 weeks to a maximum total daily dose of deutetrabenazine 48 mg/day on the basis of dyskinesia control and tolerability. The proportion of Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS; items 1-7) responders was assessed based on response rates for achieving ≥50% improvement from baseline in the open-label extension study. AlMS score was assessed by local site raters for this analysis.
343 patients enrolled in the extension study. At Week 54 (n=249; total daily dose [mean ± standard error]: 38.6±0.66 mg), the mean percentage change from baseline in AIMS score was –40%; 48% of patients achieved a ≥50% response and 59% of those had already achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15. Further, 34% of those who had not achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15 achieved a ≥50% response at Week 54. At Week 106 (n=169; total daily dose: 39.6±0.77 mg), the mean percentage change from baseline in AIMS score was –45%; 55% of patients achieved a ≥50% response, 59% of those patients had already achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15, and 41% of those who had not achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15 but who reached Week 106 achieved a ≥50% response. At Week 132 (n=109; total daily dose: 39.7±0.97 mg), the mean percentage change from baseline in AIMS score was –61%; 55% of patients achieved a ≥50% response, 61% of those patients had already achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15, and 43% of those who had not achieved a ≥50% response at Week 15 but who reached Week 132 achieved a ≥50% response. Completer analysis suggests that long-term efficacy was not due to dose increases over time. Treatment with deutetrabenazine was generally well tolerated. There were 623 patient-years of exposure through Week 158, and exposure-adjusted incidence rates (incidence/patient-years) of adverse events of special interest were 0.01 for akathisia and restlessness, 0.07 for somnolence and sedation, 0.04 for parkinsonism, and 0.05 for depression.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved response rates that were indicative of clinically meaningful long-term benefit. Results from this open-label trial suggest the possibility of increasing benefit over time with individual dose titration of deutetrabenazine.
This study was funded by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel.
Increasing fluorination of organosilyl nitrile solvents improves ionic conductivities of lithium salt electrolytes, resulting from higher values of salt dissociation. Ionic conductivities at 298 K range from 1.5 to 3.2 mS/cm for LiPF6 salt concentrations at 0.6 or 0.7 M. The authors also report on solvent blend electrolytes where the fluoroorganosilyl (FOS) nitrile solvent is mixed with ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. Ionic conductivities of the FOS solvent/carbonate blend electrolytes increase achieving ionic conductivities at 298 K of 5.5–6.3 mS/cm and salt dissociation values ranging from 0.42 to 0.45. Salt dissociation generally decreases with increasing temperature.
The authors report on 7Li, 19F, and 1H pulsed field gradient NMR measurements of 26 organosilyl nitrile solvent-based electrolytes of either lithium bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) or lithium hexafluorophosphate. Lithium transport numbers (as high as 0.50) were measured and are highest in the LiTFSI electrolytes. The authors also report on solvent blend electrolytes of fluoroorganosilyl (FOS) nitrile solvent mixed with ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate. Solvent diffusion measurements on an electrolyte with 6% FOS suggest both the FOS and EC solvate the lithium cation. By comparing lithium transport and transference numbers, the authors find less ion pairing in FOS nitrile carbonate blend electrolytes and difluoroorganosilyl nitrile electrolytes.
Parent–child relationships have long-term effects on health, particularly later inflammation and depression. We hypothesized that these effects would be mediated by later romantic partner relationships and elevated stressors in young adulthood, helping promote chronic, low grade, inflammation as well as depressive symptoms, and driving their covariation. It has been proposed recently that youth experiencing harsher parenting may also develop a stronger association between inflammation and depressive symptoms in adulthood and altered effects of stressors on outcomes. In the current investigation, we test these ideas using an 18-year longitudinal study of N = 413 African American youth that provides assessment of the parent–child relationship (at age 10), pro-inflammatory cytokine profile and depressive symptoms (at age 28), and potential mediators in early young adulthood (assessed at ages 21 and 24). As predicted, the effect of harsher parent–child relationships (age 10) on pro-inflammatory state and increased depressive symptoms at age 28 were fully mediated through young adult stress and romantic partner relationships. In addition, beyond these mediated effects, parent–child relationships at age 10 moderated the concurrent association between inflammation and depressive symptoms, as well as the prospective association between romantic partner relationships and inflammation, and resulted in substantially different patterns of indirect effects from young adult mediators to outcomes. The results support theorizing that the association of depression and inflammation in young adulthood is conditional on earlier parenting, and suggest incorporating this perspective into models predicting long-term health outcomes.
Although infants less than 18 months old are capable of engaging in self-regulatory behavior (e.g., avoidance, withdrawal, and orienting to other aspects of their environment), the use of self-regulatory strategies at this age (as opposed to relying on caregivers) is associated with elevated behavioral and physiological distress. This study investigated infant dopamine-related genotypes (dopamine receptor D2 [DRD2], dopamine transporter solute carrier family C6, member 4 [SLC6A3], and catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT]) as they interact with maternal self-reported history of maltreatment to predict observed infant independent emotion regulation behavior. A community sample (N = 193) of mother–infant dyads participated in a toy frustration challenge at infant age 15 months, and infant emotion regulation behavior was coded. Buccal cells were collected for genotyping. Maternal maltreatment history significantly interacted with infant SLC6A3 and COMT genotypes, such that infants with more 10-repeat and valine alleles of SLC6A3 and COMT, respectively, relative to infants with fewer or no 10-repeat and valine alleles, utilized more independent (i.e., maladaptive) regulatory behavior if mother reported a more extensive maltreatment history, as opposed to less. The findings indicate that child genetic factors moderate the intergenerational impact of maternal maltreatment history. The results are discussed in terms of potential mechanism of Gene × Environment interaction.
Aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) is a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic that was evaluated for the treatment of schizophrenia in a randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 study. Here, we present exploratory analyses of supportive efficacy endpoints.
Patients experiencing an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia received AL 441 mg intramuscularly (IM), AL 882 mg IM, or matching placebo IM monthly. Supportive endpoints included changes from baseline at subsequent time points in Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale score; Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Total score; PANSS Positive, Negative, and General Psychopathology subscale scores; PANSS Marder factors (post hoc); and PANSS responder rate. Overall response rate, based on PANSS Total score and Clinical Global Impression–Improvement (CGI-I) scale score, was also analyzed.
Of 622 patients who were randomized, 596 had ≥1 post-baseline PANSS score. Patients were markedly ill at baseline (mean PANSS Total scores 92–94). Compared with placebo, CGI-S scores; PANSS Positive, Negative, and General Psychopathology subscale scores; and PANSS Marder factors were all significantly (p<0.001) improved by Day 85 with both AL doses, with significantly lower scores starting from Day 8 in most instances. Treatment response rates were significantly (p<0.001) greater with both doses of AL vs placebo.
AL demonstrated robust efficacy on CGI-S score, PANSS subscale scores, PANSS Marder factors, and response rates. Study limitations included use of a fixed dose for initial oral aripiprazole and fixed monthly AL doses without the option to individualize the oral initiation dosing or injection frequency for efficacy, tolerability, or safety.
The performance of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems is a function of many parameters such as resonance matching, coil quality factor, system impedance match, and others. When designing and testing WPT systems, reliable measurement of system performance is essential. In our application, we use WPT to power biomedical implants for telemetry acquisition from small rodents, where rodent behavior data is used to study disease models. Such an application employs a large primary coil and a much smaller moving secondary coil, which can be defined as a loosely coupled WPT (LCWPT) system. This paper presents a novel wireless measurement system (WMS) that is used to collect real-time performance data from the secondary circuit (implant), while testing LCWPT systems. Presently, measuring the performance of the secondary side of LCWPT systems while they are in operation can be problematic. The literature reports various measurement errors when using voltage/current probes, or coaxial cables placed directly into the primary magnetic field. We have designed the WMS to greatly reduce such measurement errors, where the WMS measures the induced voltage (and hence received power) and relays this information by radio. Experiments were done to test the WMS, as well as comparison with cable-based measurements.