To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Bidirectional longitudinal relationships between depression and diabetes have been observed, but the dominant direction of their temporal relationships remains controversial.
The random-intercept cross-lagged panel model decomposes observed variables into a latent intercept representing the traits, and occasion-specific latent ‘state’ variables. This permits correlations to be assessed between the traits, while longitudinal ‘cross-lagged’ associations and cross-sectional correlations can be assessed between occasion-specific latent variables. We examined dynamic relationships between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance across five visits over 20 years of adulthood in the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Possible differences based on population group (Black v. White participants), sex and years of education were tested. Depressive symptoms and insulin resistance were quantified using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), respectively.
Among 4044 participants (baseline mean age 34.9 ± 3.7 years, 53% women, 51% Black participants), HOMA-IR and CES-D traits were weakly correlated (r = 0.081, p = 0.002). Some occasion-specific correlations, but no cross-lagged associations were observed overall. Longitudinal dynamics of these relationships differed by population groups such that HOMA-IR at age 50 was associated with CES-D score at age 55 (β = 0.076, p = 0.038) in White participants only. Longitudinal dynamics were consistent between sexes and based on education.
The relationship between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was best characterized by weak correlations between occasion-specific states and enduring traits, with weak evidence that insulin resistance might be temporally associated with subsequent depressive symptoms among White participants later in adulthood.
It is uncertain if long-term levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) affect cognition in middle age. We examined the association of LDL-C levels over 25 years with cognitive function in a prospective cohort of black and white US adults.
Lipids were measured at baseline (1985–1986; age: 18–30 years) and at serial examinations conducted over 25 years. Time-averaged cumulative LDL-C was calculated using the area under the curve for 3,328 participants with ≥3 LDL-C measurements and a cognitive function assessment. Cognitive function was assessed at the Year 25 examination with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], Rey Auditory Visual Learning Test [RAVLT], and Stroop Test. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-study (N = 707) was also completed at Year 25 to assess abnormal white matter tissue volume (AWMV) and gray matter cerebral blood flow volume (GM-CBFV) as secondary outcomes.
There were 15.6%, 32.9%, 28.9%, and 22.6% participants with time-averaged cumulative LDL-C <100 mg/dL, 101–129 mg/dL, 130–159 mg/dL, and ≥160 mg/dL, respectively. Standardized differences in all cognitive function test scores ranged from 0.16 SD lower to 0.09 SD higher across time-averaged LDL-C categories in comparison to those with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. After covariate adjustment, participants with higher versus lower time-averaged LDL-C had a lower RAVLT score (p-trend = 0.02) but no differences were present for DSST, Stroop Test, AWMV, or GM-CBFV.
Cumulative LDL-C was associated with small differences in memory, as assessed by RAVLT scores, but not other cognitive or brain MRI measures over 25 years of follow-up.
Dietary supplements are often used by the elderly to improve their nutritional status. However, intake above the recommended dietary levels may be detrimental, and uncertainty exists on the potential health benefits of supplementation in this population. The aim of this study was to describe supplement use among Icelandic older adults and to assess its association with total mortality and CVD-related mortality. This study used data from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study, which recruited 5764 participants aged 66–98 years in 2002–2006. Intake of vitamins and minerals from dietary supplements was estimated from interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were estimated in multivariate analyses with follow-up ending in 2009. The results showed that most (77 %) of the participants used supplements. Overall, the consumption of vitamins and minerals from supplements was moderate although 22 and 14 % of users exceeded the upper recommended intake levels for vitamin B6 and Zn, respectively. Supplement users followed in general a healthier lifestyle than non-users. There were 1221 deaths including 525 CVD-related deaths during the follow-up period. When comparing multivitamin users with non-users in multivariable models, no associations with total mortality (HR 0·91; 95 % CI: 0·77, 1·08) or CVD-related mortality (HR 0·91; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·18) were observed. In conclusion, users of supplements generally lead healthier lifestyles than non-users and supplements did not confer any added advantage or harm relative to mortality risk. However, the intake of vitamin B6 and Zn from dietary supplements exceeded the recommended daily intake for almost a quarter of the supplement users.
Low vitamin D status may be associated with depression. Few studies have examined vitamin D and depression in older adults living at northern latitudes. The present study cross-sectionally investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and depression among 5006 community-dwelling older persons (66–96 years) living in Iceland (latitudes 64–66°N). Depressive symptoms were measured by the fifteen-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Current major depressive disorder was assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Serum 25(OH)D was analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay and categorised into three groups: deficient (<30 nmol/l); inadequate (30–49·9 nmol/l); and adequate (≥50 nmol/l). There were twenty-eight (2 %) men and fifty (1 %) women with current major depressive disorder. Mean GDS-15 scores for men and women with adequate vitamin D concentrations were 2·1 and 2·2, respectively. Men and women with deficient v. adequate vitamin D status had more depressive symptoms (higher GDS-15 scores) (difference 0·7 (95 % CI 0·4, 0·9) and 0·4 (95 % CI 0·1, 0·6), respectively). Furthermore, men with deficient vitamin D status were more likely to have current major depressive disorder (adjusted OR 2·51; 95 % CI 1·03, 6·13) compared with men with adequate vitamin D status. Associations among women were not significant. In this older population living at northern latitudes, deficient vitamin D status may be associated with depression. Further investigations are warranted to evaluate the pathways that may be associated with risk of depression among older adults.
Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) traits share part of their genetic variance with cognitive traits. Here, we use genetic association results from large meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association (GWA) for brain infarcts (BI), white matter hyperintensities, intracranial, hippocampal, and total brain volumes to estimate polygenic scores for these traits in three Scottish samples: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS), and the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1936 (LBC1936) and 1921 (LBC1921). These five brain MRI trait polygenic scores were then used to: (1) predict corresponding MRI traits in the LBC1936 (numbers ranged 573 to 630 across traits), and (2) predict cognitive traits in all three cohorts (in 8,115–8,250 persons). In the LBC1936, all MRI phenotypic traits were correlated with at least one cognitive measure, and polygenic prediction of MRI traits was observed for intracranial volume. Meta-analysis of the correlations between MRI polygenic scores and cognitive traits revealed a significant negative correlation (maximal r = 0.08) between the HV polygenic score and measures of global cognitive ability collected in childhood and in old age in the Lothian Birth Cohorts. The lack of association to a related general cognitive measure when including the GS:SFHS points to either type 1 error or the importance of using prediction samples that closely match the demographics of the GWA samples from which prediction is based. Ideally, these analyses should be repeated in larger samples with data on both MRI and cognition, and using MRI GWA results from even larger meta-analysis studies.
Cod liver oil is a traditional source of vitamin D in Iceland, and regular intake is recommended partly for the sake of bone health. However, the association between lifelong consumption of cod liver oil and bone mineral density (BMD) in old age is unclear. The present study attempted to assess the associations between intake of cod liver oil in adolescence, midlife, and old age, and hip BMD in old age, as well as associations between cod liver oil intake in old age and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Participants of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility–Reykjavik Study (age 66–96 years; n 4798), reported retrospectively cod liver oil intake during adolescence and midlife, as well as the one now in old age, using a validated FFQ. BMD of femoral neck and trochanteric region was measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography, and serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by means of a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. Associations were assessed using linear regression models. No significant association was seen between retrospective cod liver oil intake and hip BMD in old age. Current intake of aged men was also not associated with hip BMD, while aged women with daily intakes had z-scores on average 0·1 higher, compared with those with an intake of < once/week. Although significant, this difference is small, and its clinical relevance is questionable. Intake of aged participants was positively associated with serum 25(OH)D: individuals with intakes of < once/week, one to six time(s)/week and daily intake had concentrations of approximately 40, 50 and 60 nmol/l respectively (P for trend < 0·001).
To study the association of fish and fish-liver oil consumption across the lifespan with CHD later in life among Icelandic women, with special emphasis on the effects of consumption in adolescence.
Prevalence association study. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of CHD according to fish or fish-liver oil exposure. Models were adjusted for age, education, concurrent diet and other known risk factors.
The study was nested within the AGES-Reykjavik Study, conducted in Reykjavik, Iceland.
Participants were 3326 women aged 66–96 years, with available information on CHD status at entry to the study and information on fish and fish-liver oil consumption during midlife and adolescence. Dietary habits were assessed retrospectively using a validated FFQ.
CHD was identified in 234 (7·9 %) women. Compared with women with no intake of fish-liver oil in adolescence or midlife, women who consumed fish-liver oil at least three times weekly in adolescence or in midlife had a decreased risk of CHD (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·85 and OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·50, 0·94, respectively). No associations were observed between fish intake (>2 portions/week v. ≤2 portions/week) in adolescence or midlife and CHD in this population with high fish intake.
Fish-liver oil consumption, from early life, may reduce the risk of CHD in older women. Lifelong nutrition may be of importance in the prevention of CHD in older women.
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) reflect an underlying angiopathy currently thought to result mainly from hypertension or from the deposition of beta-amyloid in small and micro vessel walls. This chapter describes the prevalence of, and risk factors for, CMBs and methodological issues related to their study. CMBs can be present in up to 80% of a clinical hemorrhagic stroke sample. Most studies with a reasonable distribution of subject age and sample size show CMB prevalence increases with age. There is robust evidence that high blood pressure, measured in different ways, is a risk factor for CMB. Most genetic diseases with increased susceptibility to CMBs are rare. The only candidate susceptibility gene identified as risk modifying is APOE. Research on risk factors for CMBs will bring into better focus issues related to comorbidity with other vascular and neurodegenerative lesions and location and number of lesions.
Background: Ommoord District residents of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, age 55 and older, completed a two-stage interview to assess the risk factors for chronic disease and disability. Methods: In the in-home Stage I interview (N = 7,983), demographic data and medical history were collected by a trained lay interviewer. During Stage II, a physician interview and examination were conducted at the study center. Subjects (N = 7,129) were asked about their history of psychiatric disorders and 6,596 responded. Results: The lifetime prevalence of self-reported psychiatric disorders was 5.44% for unipolar and bipolar depressive disorders combined, 0.27% for psychotic disorders, 0.08% for alcoholism, 0.05% for drug addiction, and 3.71% for other diagnoses. Residents reporting a psychiatric diagnosis of depression were more likely to be currently taking an antidepressant medication (p < .001) and an antipsychotic medication (p < .0001), to be in current outpatient treatment (p < .001), to have been hospitalized for psychiatric illness (p < .001), to have undergone electroconvulsive treatments (p < .001), and to report a history of having made suicide attempts (p < .001). Conclusion: The self-reported lifetime prevalence of affective disorders was similar to the rates found in the Stirling County Study (Canada) and the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey (United States). The lower prevalence rates of the other psychiatric disorders may reflect underreporting or an age cohort effect, or may be due to the nonresponse bias.
White-matter lesions (WML) detected on MRI may reflect different pathologies, but, in older persons, are thought to be mainly of ischemic origin. WML increase in prevalence with age. Several cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive, emotional, and physical function consequences of WML have been identified. These are reviewed briefly in this report.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.