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Upon the enactment of Chinese Civil Code, the previous rules that allowed for enlarged state power to annul contracts were dropped. Chinese law has gone one step further in promoting freedom of contract. The validity rules have been streamlined and the previous contradictory and inconsistent treatment between civil juristic acts and contracts, state and private parties eliminated. However, the new legislative technique will unavoidably facilitate asset stripping, the very reason that the paternalistic rules were in place. Through a historical, doctrinal, and logical lens, we will show why there can be no effective model of a neutral set of validity rules that deals with state-owned enterprises in a less than free and competitive market. The only way to make it work is to have SOEs exit most of the competitive industries and focus on areas that serve the policy goals. Also, paternalistic rules concerning the validity of a contract in trading state-assets should be enacted either in the Civil Code or through special legislations and applicable to government, state-owned enterprises and private parties alike
We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes “Murriyang” radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 years with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with ∼ 3 years of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux-density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations, and compare this data release with our previous release.
HIV-1 molecular surveillance provides a new approach to explore transmission risks and targeted interventions. From January to June 2021, 663 newly reported HIV-1 cases were recruited in Zhaotong City, Yunnan Province, China. The distribution characteristics of HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-1 molecular network were analysed. Of 542 successfully subtyped samples, 12 HIV-1 strains were identified. The main strains were CRF08_BC (47.0%, 255/542), CRF01_AE (17.0%, 92/542), CRF07_BC (17.0%, 92/542), URFs (8.7%, 47/542), and CRF85_BC (6.5%, 35/542). CRF08_BC was commonly detected among Zhaotong natives, illiterates, and non-farmers and was mostly detected in Zhaoyang County. CRF01_AE was frequently detected among married and homosexual individuals and mostly detected in Weixin and Zhenxiong counties. Among the 516 pol sequences, 187 (36.2%) were clustered. Zhaotong natives, individuals aged ≥60 years, and illiterate individuals were more likely to be found in the network. Assortativity analysis showed that individuals were more likely to be genetically associated when stratified by age, education level, occupation, and reporting area. The genetic diversity of HIV-1 reflects the complexity of local HIV epidemics. Molecular network analyses revealed the subpopulations to focus on and the characteristics of the risk networks. The results will help optimise local prevention and control strategies.
Light has a substantial effect on the behaviour and physiology of nocturnal moths. Ectropis grisescens is a major nocturnal tea pest in China, and light traps are commonly used to control geometrid moths because of their positive phototaxis. However, some moths gather around light traps and enter the light adaptation state, which decreases the efficacy of light traps in controlling this pest. We identified opsin genes and the spectral sensitivities of the photoreceptors of E. grisescens moths. We also determined the effects of several monochromatic lights on opsin gene expression and light adaptation. We detected three types of opsin genes and six spectral sensitive peaks (at 370, 390, 480, 530, 550, and 580 nm). We also observed significant changes in the diurnal rhythm of opsin gene expression under different light conditions. When active males were suddenly exposed to different monochromatic lights, they quickly entered the light adaptation state, and the adaptation time was negatively correlated with the light intensity. Males were most sensitive to 390 nm wavelengths, followed by 544 nm, 457 nm, and 593 nm. Red light (627 nm) did not affect the activity of E. grisescens males but had detectable physiological effects.
Breast cancer is a high-risk disease with a high mortality rate among women. Chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. However, chemotherapy eventually results in tumours that are resistant to drugs. In recent years, many studies have revealed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling is crucial for the emergence and growth of breast tumours as well as the development of drug resistance. Additionally, drugs that target this pathway can reverse drug resistance in breast cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine has the properties of multi-target and tenderness. Therefore, integrating traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine into chemotherapy provides a new strategy for reversing the drug resistance of breast tumours. This paper mainly reviews the possible mechanism of Wnt/β-catenin in promoting the process of breast tumour drug resistance, and the progress of alkaloids extracted from traditional Chinese medicine in the targeting of this pathway in order to reverse the drug resistance of breast cancer.
In recent years, a Trigonorhinus sp. (Coleoptera) has caused serious damage to Caragana liouana Zhao Y. Chang and Yakovlev, a major ecological restoration shrub in China. Here, we survey the occurrence and damage pattern of Trigonorhinus sp. and its galls and compare the growth of affected and unaffected plants. Trigonorhinus sp. larvae usually infest the main trunk and lateral branches of the plant, causing the affected branches to become partially swollen and verrucose. Galls develop in stages depending on whether eggs are laid in May or July and proceed in sequence over three years from egg-laying to formation, expansion, dormancy, maturity, dormancy, maturity, and death. Galls inhibit plant development to some extent. On average, six (at least one, and no more than 18; standard error of the mean = 3) larvae occupy each gall, and the number of larvae within a gall did not significantly affect gall size. Gall size significantly affected branch dieback, and large-diameter infested branches had larger galls. This study clarifies the growth dynamics of Trigonorhinus sp. galls and provides a basis for further research into the growth mechanism of the species’ galls.
Intertemporal choices involve tradeoffs between outcomes that occur at different times. Most of the research has used pure gains tasks and the discount rates yielding from those tasks to explain and predict real-world behaviors and consequences. However, real decisions are often more complex and involve mixed outcomes (e.g., sooner-gain and later-loss or sooner-loss and later-gain). No study has used mixed gain-loss intertemporal tradeoff tasks to explain and predict real-world behaviors and consequences, and studies involving such tasks are also scarce. Considering that tasks involving a combination of gains and losses may yield different discount rates and that existing pure gains tasks do not explain or predict real-world outcomes well, this study conducted two experiments to compare the discount rates of mixed gain-loss intertemporal tradeoffs with those of pure gains or pure losses (Experiment 1) and to examine whether these tasks predicted different real-world behaviors and consequences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 suggests that the discount rate ordering of the four tasks was, from highest to lowest, pure gains, sooner-loss and later-gain, pure losses, and sooner-gain and later-loss. Experiment 2 indicates that the evidence supporting the claim that the discount rates of the four tasks were related to different real-world behaviors and consequences was insufficient.
The northern Alxa region is located in the central segment of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Many controversies and deficiencies still exist regarding the magma source characteristics, petrogenesis and tectonic regimes during the late Palaeozoic – early Mesozoic period within this region. This study presents whole-rock compositions and zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic data for three early Mesozoic I- and A-type granitic plutons occurring in the northern Alxa region. The Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids yielded zircon 206Pb–238U ages of 245 ± 5 Ma and 245 ± 2 Ma, respectively. The variable positive zircon ϵHf(t) values between +1.8 and +11.8, with young TDM ages of 425–837 Ma, indicate that these I-type granitoids were mainly derived from juvenile crustal materials. The Wulantaolegai pluton has a zircon 206Pb–238U age of 237 ± 2 Ma and is classified as having high-K calc-alkaline A-type affinity. Furthermore, the positive zircon ϵHf(t) values of the Wulantaolegai granite range from +3.3 to +8.7 with young TDM ages of 545–778 Ma, suggesting the involvement of a juvenile crustal source as well. Furthermore, the major-element compositions of the Chahanhada and Wulantaolegai granites suggest the input of metasedimentary components. Geochemically, the Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids show an arc affinity, while the Wulantaolegai granite exhibits a post-collisional affinity. However, with regional data, we suggest that the Haerchaoenji and Chahanhada I-type granitoids were also emplaced in a post-collisional setting, and the arc affinity was probably inherited from recycled subduction-related materials. These lines of evidence obtained in this study enable us to argue that the Palaeo-Asian Ocean in the central segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt closed before Middle Triassic time.
The low maturation rate of oocytes is an important reason for female infertility and failure of assisted pregnancy. The germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) is a landmark event of oocyte maturation. In our previous studies, we found that zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) was strongly concentrated in the nuclear region of germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes and interacted with aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1) and lamin A to promote GVBD. In the current study, we found that lamin A is mainly concentrated in the nuclear membrane. When ZP3 is knocked down, lamin A will be partially transferred to the nucleus of oocytes. The prelamin A is increased in both the nuclear membrane and nucleus, while phosphorylated lamin A (p-lamin A) is significantly reduced. AIPL1 was also proved to accumulate in the GV region of oocytes, and ZP3 deletion can significantly inhibit the aggregation of AIPL1 in the nuclear region. Similar to ZP3 knockdown, the absence of AIPL1 resulted in a decrease in the occurrence of GVBD, an increase in the amount of prelamin A, and a significant decrease in p-lamin A in oocytes developed in vitro. Finally, we propose the hypothesis that ZP3 can stabilize farnesylated prelamin A on the nuclear membrane of AIPL1, and promote its further processing into mature lamin A, therefore promoting the occurrence of GVBD. This study may be an important supplement for the mechanism of oocyte meiotic resumption and provide new diagnostic targets and treatment clues for infertility patients with oocyte maturation disorder.
Depressive symptoms, functional impairment, and decreased quality of life (QOL) are three important domains of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the possible causal relationship between these factors has yet to be elucidated. Moreover, it is not known whether certain symptoms of MDD are more impairing than others. The network approach is a promising solution to these shortfalls.
The baseline data of a multicenter prospective project conducted in 11 governances of China were analyzed. In total, 1385 patients with MDD were included. Depressive symptoms, functioning disability, and QOL were evaluated by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF). The network was estimated through the graphical Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) technique in combination with the directed acyclic graph.
Three centrality metrics of the graphical LASSO showed that social life dysfunction, QOL, and late insomnia exhibited the highest strength centrality. The network accuracy and stability were estimated to be robust and stable. The Bayesian network indicated that some depressive symptoms were directly associated with QOL, while other depressive symptoms showed an indirect association with QOL mediated by impaired function. Depressed mood was positioned at the highest level in the model and predicted the activation of functional impairment and anxiety.
Functional disability mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and QOL. Family functionality and suicidal symptoms were directly related to QOL. Depressed mood played the predominant role in activating both anxiety symptom and functional impairment.
The relationship between a conveyance's validity and its underlying contract has been a classic but unsettled topic for comparative private lawyers over the past three decades. This paper attempts to add positivist and normative observations drawn from property transfer theories and practices in English and Chinese law. A jurisdiction adopting an ‘intent plus’ model does not necessarily recognise a separate intent to convey distinct from the intent in the underlying contract, as exemplified by Chinese law, while a jurisdiction adopting the ‘intent alone’ model does not necessarily deny the separate intent to convey, as exemplified by English law. One advantage for a jurisdiction that takes the separatist approach is its flexibility, so that it can still choose between pure causality, pure abstraction, or context-based abstraction at a later stage. Recent developments show that English and Chinese law are moving towards this approach. As to whether flaws in the underlying contract infect the validity of the conveyance, the English position depends on vitiating factors, whereas the mainstream Chinese judgments tend to be pro-causal. Justifications favouring causality provided in the English and Chinese academia are different, though neither can stand up to scrutiny. The detecting opportunity argument submitted in this paper helps to justify abstraction.
Despite increasing knowledge on the neuroimaging patterns of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in non-clinical populations, studies using whole-brain machine learning to identify connectome-based neuromarkers of ED symptomatology are absent. This study examined the association of connectivity within and between large-scale functional networks with specific symptomatic behaviors and cognitions using connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM).
CPM with ten-fold cross-validation was carried out to probe functional networks that were predictive of ED-associated symptomatology, including body image concerns, binge eating, and compensatory behaviors, within the discovery sample of 660 participants. The predictive ability of the identified networks was validated using an independent sample of 821 participants.
The connectivity predictive of body image concerns was identified within and between networks implicated in cognitive control (frontoparietal and medial frontal), reward sensitivity (subcortical), and visual perception (visual). Crucially, the set of connections in the positive network related to body image concerns identified in one sample was generalized to predict body image concerns in an independent sample, suggesting the replicability of this effect.
These findings point to the feasibility of using the functional connectome to predict ED symptomatology in the general population and provide the first evidence that functional interplay among distributed networks predicts body shape/weight concerns.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
Copy number variation (CNV) is a very common type of gene variation with high frequency. In recent years, CNV has been paid more attention in various fields, especially in livestock and poultry breeding, which has promoted the progress of breeding. WW domain binding protein 1-like (WBP1L) is a protein coding gene, which plays an important role in cattle populations, and its function has been extensively studied, but it is not clear whether the copy number of the gene can affect the growth and development of cattle populations. In this study, CNV of WBP1L gene was detected in 732 cattle of seven breeds (Qinchuan cattle, QC; Pinan cattle, PN; Yuengling cattle, YL; Xianan cattle, XN; Jiaxian cattle, JX; natural Guyuan cattle, NGY; Jian cattle, JA). In addition, the relationship between CNV and growth phenotype of cattle was studied. The experimental data indicate that the copy number of WBP1L was obviously correlated with heart girth of PN cattle (**P < 0.01), rump length (RL) and body weight (BW) of PN cattle (*P < 0.05), withers height (WH), RL, body length, chest depth and BW of JX cattle (*P < 0.05), WH of NGY cattle (*P < 0.05) and WH of JA cattle (*P < 0.05). It was proved that CNV of WBP1L gene could be used as molecular marker locus for genetic breeding of the above four cattle breeds.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
This paper proposes a robot model with multiple spines and investigates its effects on the bounding gait of quadruped robot. Contrastive tests, carried out by adding an active driving joint (ADJ) and changing the number of passive driving joints, were divided between simulation and physical. The results reveal that the spinal structure (one ADJ and several passive driving joints) is closely related to the performance parameters. Increasing the number of passive driving joints can improve the velocity and energy efficiency. This structure may have significant guidance for designing a quadruped robot.
Improving grain yield and lodging resistance are two important targets for improving rice production. The aim of this study was to link grain yield and lodging resistance with growth patterns in rice. A nitrogen (N) fertilization experiment was conducted in 2020 and 2021, which consisted of two N rates (150 and 225 kg ha–1) and three N split-application ratios among the basal, early tillering, and panicle initiation stages (6:3:1, 5:3:2, and 4:3:3). The results demonstrated that increasing the N rate from 150 to 225 kg ha–1 did not affect grain yield but increased the plant lodging index by 16%. This increase in the plant lodging index was attributable to a higher plant fresh weight resulting from improved post-heading growth and a lower plant lodging load, which was partially due to a higher leaf area index. Altering the N split-application ratio from 6:3:1 to 4:3:3 increased grain yield by 4% but did not affect the plant lodging index in rice. The increase in grain yield was due to improved post-heading growth mainly resulting from increased radiation use efficiency during the post-heading period, which was partially attributable to increased specific leaf weight. An improvement in pre-heading growth in 2021 did not affect grain yield but increased the plant lodging load and decreased the plant lodging index by 36% compared to 2020. The improvement in pre-heading growth was due to a higher intercepted solar radiation resulting from higher leaf area index and incident solar radiation during the pre-heading period. The results of this study indicate that improving pre-heading growth can maintain grain yield and increase lodging resistance, while improving post-heading growth by increasing canopy radiation use efficiency (but not the leaf area index) can increase grain yield and maintain lodging resistance.
Due to the lack of research between the inner layers in the structure of colonic mucous and the metabolism of fatty acid in the constipation model, we aim to determine the changes in the mucous phenotype of the colonic glycocalyx and the microbial community structure following treatment with Rhubarb extract in our research. The constipation and treatment models are generated using adult male C57BL/6N mice. We perform light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect a Muc2-rich inner mucus layer attached to mice colon under different conditions. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing is performed to examine the intestinal flora. According to TEM images, we demonstrate that Rhubarb can promote mucin secretion and find direct evidence of dendritic structure-linked mucus structures with its assembly into a lamellar network in a pore size distribution in the isolated colon section. Moreover, the diversity of intestinal flora has noticeable changes in constipated mice. The present study characterizes a dendritic structure and persistent cross-links have significant changes accompanied by the alteration of intestinal flora in feces in models of constipation and pretreatment with Rhubarb extract.