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Previous research documented a dramatic decline in the residential mobility of elderly Canadians (65 years and older) since 1961. We examine more recent data from the 2011 and 2016 censuses to update findings and extend previous research. We first found that elderly residential mobility has continued to decline. There were substantial declines of 20 per cent and more for all types of residential mobility. Second, descriptive analysis of changes over time in the proportion of the population that lives in a different province than their province of birth for 1871 to the present suggests that the 1906–1925 birth cohorts experienced migration rates that were slightly higher than comparable later cohorts. Third, multivariate analysis of 1971–2016 interprovincial migration data shows that the 1906–1925 birth cohort who entered early adult years during World War II had higher migration rates than earlier or later birth cohorts. The cohort explanation accounted for 10 per cent of the decrease in elderly migration between 1981 and 2016. A cohort explanation can therefore contribute to understanding decreased elderly migration, but many questions remain for future study.
Over the past two decades, early detection and early intervention in psychosis have become essential goals of psychiatry. However, clinical impressions are insufficient for predicting psychosis outcomes in clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals; a more rigorous and objective model is needed. This study aims to develop and internally validate a model for predicting the transition to psychosis within 10 years.
Two hundred and eight help-seeking individuals who fulfilled the CHR criteria were enrolled from the prospective, naturalistic cohort program for CHR at the Seoul Youth Clinic (SYC). The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-penalized Cox regression was used to develop a predictive model for a psychotic transition. We performed k-means clustering and survival analysis to stratify the risk of psychosis.
The predictive model, which includes clinical and cognitive variables, identified the following six baseline variables as important predictors: 1-year percentage decrease in the Global Assessment of Functioning score, IQ, California Verbal Learning Test score, Strange Stories test score, and scores in two domains of the Social Functioning Scale. The predictive model showed a cross-validated Harrell's C-index of 0.78 and identified three subclusters with significantly different risk levels.
Overall, our predictive model showed a predictive ability and could facilitate a personalized therapeutic approach to different risks in high-risk individuals.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system disorder that impacts more than 400,000 people in the U.S. The disease results in multiple functional impairments that are diverse and varied across individuals. Additonally, MS has a profound impact on community participation which, like other rehabilitation outcomes, cannot be explained on the basis of functional limitations alone. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a model of community participation for people living with MS using the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework. The model focused on the roles that personal factors have as predictors of community participation, while also serving as mediators and moderators for the relationship between activity limitation and participation. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis indicated that demographic characteristics (i.e. MS type), personal factors (i.e. core self-evaluations (CSE), MS self-management, resilience, and social skills), and activity limitations accounted for 64% of the variance in participation. Further, mediation analysis indicated that CSE mediated the relationship between activity limitation and community participation. Finally, moderation analysis indicated an interaction effect between educational attainment and MS self-management. Implications for future research in rehabilitation and clinical application are discussed.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Shortfalls in treatment quantity and quality are well-established, but the specific gaps in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are poorly understood. This paper analyzes the gap in treatment coverage for MDD and identifies critical bottlenecks.
Seventeen surveys were conducted across 15 countries by the World Health Organization-World Mental Health Surveys Initiative. Of 35 012 respondents, 3341 met DSM-IV criteria for 12-month MDD. The following components of effective treatment coverage were analyzed: (a) any mental health service utilization; (b) adequate pharmacotherapy; (c) adequate psychotherapy; and (d) adequate severity-specific combination of both.
MDD prevalence was 4.8% (s.e., 0.2). A total of 41.8% (s.e., 1.1) received any mental health services, 23.2% (s.e., 1.5) of which was deemed effective. This 90% gap in effective treatment is due to lack of utilization (58%) and inadequate quality or adherence (32%). Critical bottlenecks are underutilization of psychotherapy (26 percentage-points reduction in coverage), underutilization of psychopharmacology (13-point reduction), inadequate physician monitoring (13-point reduction), and inadequate drug-type (10-point reduction). High-income countries double low-income countries in any mental health service utilization, adequate pharmacotherapy, adequate psychotherapy, and adequate combination of both. Severe cases are more likely than mild-moderate cases to receive either adequate pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy, but less likely to receive an adequate combination.
Decision-makers need to increase the utilization and quality of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Innovations such as telehealth for training and supervision plus non-specialist or community resources to deliver pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy could address these bottlenecks.
Supported by (1) medical research grants CMRPG3C0041/42 from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and NRRPG2H0031 from Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan to Chemin Lin (2) NMRPG3G6031/32 from Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan to Shwu-Hua, Lee (3) the KKHo International Charitable Foundation to Tatia Lee.
Suicide rate tends to peak in old age, and major depression is the most salient risk factor for late-life suicide. However, few studies have focused on the neuroscientific facet of suicide in the context of late-life depression (LLD).
We recruited 114 participants of LLD (28 with history of suicide attempt and 86 without) and 47 elderly controls. They received MRI scanning and behavioral assessment. White matter hyperintensity (WMH) was quantified by an automated segmentation algorithm and graph theoretical analysis was applied to resting-state fMRI. We used ANCOVA to compare group difference in WMH loading and multivariate generalized linear model to compare global and local topological parameters in fMRI signals, controlling for demographics. Partial correlation was conducted between imaging parameters and behavioral data in group of suicide attempters.
We found significant higher WMH in suicide attempters than those of LLD without suicide attempts and elderly controls (F =7.091; p = 0.001). Suicide attempters also had increased betweenness centrality (BC) in right superior occipital gyrus (SOG) (Bonferroni corrected), right precuneus (False positive corrected) and right superior temporal gyrus (uncorrected) and decreased BC in left hippocampus (uncorrected). In suicide attempters, higher BC in right SOG correlated with higher WMH, higher depression severity, higher illness awareness and insight, and lower cognitive function (digit backward), while higher BC in right precuneus correlated with higher decrease awareness and insight and higher cognitive function (digit backward).
Resonating with the vascular hypothesis in LLD, higher WMH was found in those having history of suicide attempts. However, the re-organized brain topology changes are related with divergent cognitive function and convergent heightened disease insight.
Little is known about methylphenidate (MPH) use and mortality outcomes.
To investigate the association between MPH use and mortality among children with an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis.
This population-based cohort study analysed data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). A total of 68 096 children and adolescents aged 4–17 years with an ADHD diagnosis and prescribed MPH between 2000 and 2010 were compared with 68 096 without an MPH prescription, matched on age, gender and year of first ADHD diagnosis. All participants were followed to death, migration, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance programme or 31 December 2013. MPH prescriptions were measured on a yearly basis during the study period, and the association between MPH use and mortality was analysed using a repeated-measures time-dependent Cox regression model. The outcome measures included all-cause, unnatural-cause (including suicide, accident and homicide) and natural-cause mortality, obtained from linkage to the National Mortality Register in Taiwan.
The MPH group had lower unadjusted all-cause, natural-, unnatural- and accident-cause mortality than the comparison group. After controlling for potential confounders, MPH use was associated with a significantly lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio AHR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.67–0.98, P = 0.027), delayed use of MPH was associated with higher mortality (AHR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.09) and longer MPH use was associated with lower mortality (AHR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.70–0.98).
MPH use is associated with a reduced overall mortality in children with ADHD in this cohort study, but unmeasured confounding cannot be excluded absolutely.
To evaluate the effect of definitive radiotherapy dose on survival in patients with human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma.
Human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients staged T1–3 and N0–2c, who received definitive radiotherapy (fraction sizes of 180 cGy to less than 220 cGy), were identified from the National Cancer Database 2010–2014 and stratified by radiation dose (50 Gy to less than 66 Gy, or 66 Gy or more).
A total of 2173 patients were included, of whom 124 (6 per cent) received a radiation dose of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy. With a median follow up of 33.8 months, patients had a 3-year overall survival rate of 88.6 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 87.1–90.1 per cent). On multivariate Cox analysis, a radiotherapy dose of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy (hazard ratio = 0.95, 95 per cent confidence interval = 0.52–1.74, p = 0.86) was not a predictor of increased mortality risk.
Human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients had excellent outcomes with definitive radiotherapy doses of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy. These results further support patients enrolling into clinical trials for radiation dose de-escalation.
Dielectrics are electrical insulator materials, polarizable by opposite displacement of positive and negative ionized atoms via electric fields across the material’s thickness. Dielectrics are used in energy-storage capacitors, as key components in modern micro-/nanoelectronics, high-frequency and mobile communication devices, and life-saving microchips and other devices such as defibrillators and pacemakers implantable in humans. A key dielectric parameter is the dielectric constant (k), which largely controls the capacitance in capacitors with nanoscale area and dielectric layer thickness. Extremely high dielectric constants (k ≥1000) were observed in oxides (e.g., La1.8Sr0.12NiO4) with relaxor/ferroelectric materials and in combined semiconducting bulk properties with highly resistive grain boundaries. Giant dielectric constant films have also been demonstrated, based on integrating relatively low-dielectric-constant oxides into nanolaminate structures (e.g., TiOx/Al2O3; TiO2/HfO2) with tailored sublayer thicknesses, interfaces, and oxygen atom distributions. This overview article addresses the science and technology of high-dielectric-constant oxide materials with different compositions and structures.
Household food insecurity (HFI) is a major concern in South Asia. The pathways by which HFI may reduce child growth remain inadequately understood. In a cohort study of 12 693 maternal–infant dyads in rural Bangladesh, we examined association and likely explanatory pathways linking HFI, assessed using a validated nine-item perception-based index, to infant size at 6 months. Mothers were assessed early in pregnancy for anthropometric status, dietary diversity and socio-economic status. Infants were assessed for weight, length, and arm, chest and head circumferences and breast and complementary feeding status at birth and 6 months of age. Extent of HFI shared a negative, dose–response association with all measures of infant size at 6 months and odds of wasting and stunting; 57–89 % of variances in the unadjusted models were explained by prenatal factors (maternal nutritional status and dietary diversity), and birth size adjusted for gestational age. Postnatal infant breast and complementary feeding and morbidity exposures explained the remaining fraction of the significant association between HFI and differences in infant arm and chest circumferences and odds of underweight. Contextual (i.e. socio-economic) factors finally brought remaining non-significant fractions of the food insecurity-related mid-infancy growth deficit to practically zero. Improving food security prior to pregnancy and during gestation would likely improve infant growth the most in rural Bangladesh.
Aging is associated with numerous stressors that negatively impact older adults’ well-being. Resilience improves ability to cope with stressors and can be enhanced in older adults. Senior housing communities are promising settings to deliver positive psychiatry interventions due to rising resident populations and potential impact of delivering interventions directly in the community. However, few intervention studies have been conducted in these communities. We present a pragmatic stepped-wedge trial of a novel psychological group intervention intended to improve resilience among older adults in senior housing communities.
A pragmatic modified stepped-wedge trial design.
Five senior housing communities in three states in the US.
Eighty-nine adults over age 60 years residing in independent living sector of senior housing communities.
Raise Your Resilience, a manualized 1-month group intervention that incorporated savoring, gratitude, and engagement in value-based activities, administered by unlicensed residential staff trained by researchers. There was a 1-month control period and a 3-month post-intervention follow-up.
Validated self-report measures of resilience, perceived stress, well-being, and wisdom collected at months 0 (baseline), 1 (pre-intervention), 2 (post-intervention), and 5 (follow-up).
Treatment adherence and satisfaction were high. Compared to the control period, perceived stress and wisdom improved from pre-intervention to post-intervention, while resilience improved from pre-intervention to follow-up. Effect sizes were small in this sample, which had relatively high baseline resilience. Physical and mental well-being did not improve significantly, and no significant moderators of change in resilience were identified.
This study demonstrates feasibility of conducting pragmatic intervention trials in senior housing communities. The intervention resulted in significant improvement in several measures despite ceiling effects. The study included several features that suggest high potential for its implementation and dissemination across similar communities nationally. Future studies are warranted, particularly in samples with lower baseline resilience or in assisted living facilities.
We continue to investigate the design, synthesis, and characterization of electrically and ionically active conjugated polythiophene copolymers for integrating a variety of biomedical devices with living tissue. This paper will describe some of our most recent results, including the development of several new monomers that can tailor the surface chemistry, adhesion, and biointegration of these materials with neural cells. Our efforts have focused on copolymers of 3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), functionalized variants of EDOT (including EDOT-acid and the trifunctional EPh), and dopamine (DOPA). The resulting PEDOT-based copolymers have electrical, optical, mechanical, and adhesive properties that can be precisely tailored by fine tuning the chemical composition and structure. Here we present results on EDOT-dopamine bifunctional monomers and their corresponding polymers. We discuss the design and synthesis of an EDOT-cholesterol that combines the thiophene with a biological moiety known to exhibit surface-active behaviour. We will also introduce EDOT-aldehyde and EDOT-maleimide monomers and show how they can be used as the starting point for a wide variety of functionalized monomers and polymers.
Maternal systemic inflammation during pregnancy may restrict embryo−fetal growth, but the extent of this effect remains poorly established in undernourished populations. In a cohort of 653 maternal−newborn dyads participating in a multi-armed, micronutrient supplementation trial in southern Nepal, we investigated associations between maternal inflammation, assessed by serum α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein, in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, and newborn weight, length and head and chest circumferences. Median (IQR) maternal concentrations in α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein in the first and third trimesters were 0.65 (0.53–0.76) and 0.40 (0.33–0.50) g/l, and 0.56 (0.25–1.54) and 1.07 (0.43–2.32) mg/l, respectively. α1-acid glycoprotein was inversely associated with birth size: weight, length, head circumference and chest circumference were lower by 116 g (P = 2.3 × 10−6), and 0.45 (P = 3.1 × 10−5), 0.18 (P = 0.0191) and 0.48 (P = 1.7 × 10−7) cm, respectively, per 50% increase in α1-acid glycoprotein averaged across both trimesters. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, gestational age, nutritional and socio-economic status and daily micronutrient supplementation failed to alter any association. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was largely unassociated with newborn size. In rural Nepal, birth size was inversely associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation during pregnancy as indicated by serum α1-acid glycoprotein.
Mouse and lamb oocytes were vitrified with, or exposed to, different cryoprotectants and evaluated for their effects on their survival and developmental competence after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and activation treatments. Control oocytes remained untreated, whilst the remainder were exposed to three different combinations of vitrification solutions [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) + ethylene glycol (EG), EG only, or propanediol (PROH) + EG] and either vitrified or left unfrozen (exposed groups). Oocytes in the control and vitrified groups underwent IVF and developmental competence was assessed to the blastocyst stage. In lambs, survival rate in vitrified oocytes was significantly lower than for oocytes in the exposed groups (P <0.05). Blastocyst development was low in vitrified oocytes compared with controls (<6% vs 38.9%, P <0.01). Parthenogenetic activation was more prevalent in vitrified lamb oocytes compared with controls (P <0.05). No evidence of zona pellucida hardening or cortical granule exocytosis could account for reduced fertilization rates in vitrified lamb oocytes. Mouse oocytes demonstrated a completely different response to lamb oocytes, with survival and parthenogenetic activation rates unaffected by the vitrification process. Treatment of mouse oocytes with DMSO + EG yielded significantly higher survival and cleavage rates than treatment with PROH + EG (87.8% and 51.7% vs 32.7% and 16.7% respectively, P <0.01), however cleavage rate for vitrified oocytes remained lower than for the controls (51.7% vs 91.7%, P <0.01) as did mean blastocyst cell number (33 ± 3.1 vs 42 ± 1.5, P <0.05). From this study, it is clear that lamb and mouse show different tolerances to cryoprotectants commonly used in vitrification procedures, and careful selection and testing of species-compatible cryoprotectants is required when vitrifying oocytes to optimize survival and embryo development.
Harnessing the nonvolatility of magnetism and the power of electric control, magnetoelectric devices that control magnetism electrically promise to deliver next-generation electronics systems that can store and compute large amounts of information with minimal power consumption and ultrafast processing speed. We highlight progress in magnetoelectric memory and logic prototypes using the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect. First, important performance metrics of VCMA-based magnetoelectric random access memory (MeRAM) are benchmarked against embedded complementary metal oxide semiconductor and other emerging embedded nonvolatile memories. We then discuss scaling of MeRAM from the physics and materials perspectives of the VCMA effect, as well as the use of magnetoelectric logic devices and circuits to realize new computing paradigms with VCMA. Finally, challenges to realize the full potential of VCMA-based memory and logic are presented: VCMA coefficient of 1000 fJ/V-m for energy-efficient write with low errors and tunneling magnetoresistance of 1000% for high density and low noise margin readout. New approaches for deterministic switching based on VCMA are needed. We share perspectives to address these challenges using new materials and device operation schemes.
Objectives: The cognitive indicators of preclinical behavioral variant Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) have not been identified. To investigate these indicators, we compared cross-sectional performance on a range of cognitive measures in 12 carriers of pathogenic MAPT mutations not meeting diagnostic criteria for bvFTD (i.e., preclinical) versus 32 demographically-matched familial non-carriers (n = 44). Studying preclinical carriers offers a rare glimpse into emergent disease, environmentally and genetically contextualized through comparison to familial controls. Methods: Evaluating personnel blinded to carrier status administered a standardized neuropsychological battery assessing attention, speed, executive function, language, memory, spatial ability, and social cognition. Results from mixed effect modeling were corrected for multiplicity of comparison by the false discovery rate method, and results were considered significant at p < .05. To control for potential interfamilial variation arising from enrollment of six families, family was treated as a random effect, while carrier status, age, gender, and education were treated as fixed effects. Results: Group differences were detected in 17 of 31 cognitive scores and spanned all domains except spatial ability. As hypothesized, carriers performed worse on specific measures of executive function, and social cognition, but also on measures of attention, speed, semantic processing, and memory storage and retrieval. Conclusions: Most notably, group differences arose on measures of memory storage, challenging long-standing ideas about the absence of amnestic features on neuropsychological testing in early bvFTD. Current findings provide important and clinically relevant information about specific measures that may be sensitive to early bvFTD, and advance understanding of neurocognitive changes that occur early in the disease. (JINS, 2019, 25, 184–194)
To examine the association between household food insecurity and dietary diversity in the past 24h (dietary diversity score (DDS, range: 0–9); minimum dietary diversity (MDD, consumption of three or more food groups); consumption of nine separate food groups) among pregnant and lactating women in rural Malawi.
Two rural districts in Central Malawi.
Pregnant (n 589) and lactating (n 641) women.
Of surveyed pregnant and lactating women, 66·7 and 68·6 %, respectively, experienced moderate or severe food insecurity and only 32·4 and 28·1 %, respectively, met MDD. Compared with food-secure pregnant women, those who reported severe food insecurity had a 0·36 lower DDS (P<0·05) and more than threefold higher risk (OR; 95 % CI) of not consuming meat/fish (3·19; CI 1·68, 6·03). The risk of not consuming eggs (3·77; 1·04, 13·7) was higher among moderately food-insecure pregnant women. Compared with food-secure lactating women, those who reported mild, moderate and severe food insecurity showed a 0·36, 0·44 and 0·62 lower DDS, respectively (all P<0·05). The risk of not achieving MDD was higher among moderately (1·95; 1·06, 3·59) and severely (2·82; 1·53, 5·22) food-insecure lactating women. The risk of not consuming meat/fish and eggs increased in a dose–response manner among lactating women experiencing mild (1·75; 1·01, 3·03 and 2·81; 1·09, 7·25), moderate (2·66; 1·47, 4·82 and 3·75; 1·40, 10·0) and severe (5·33; 2·63, 10·8 and 3·47; 1·19, 10·1) food insecurity.
Addressing food insecurity during and after pregnancy needs to be considered when designing nutrition programmes aiming to increase dietary diversity in rural Malawi.
Instability evolution in a transitional hypersonic boundary layer and its effects on aerodynamic heating are investigated over a 260 mm long flared cone. Experiments are conducted in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering flow visualization, fast-response pressure sensors, fluorescent temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Calculations are also performed based on both the parabolized stability equations (PSE) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). Four unit Reynolds numbers are studied, 5.4, 7.6, 9.7 and
. It is found that there exist two peaks of surface-temperature rise along the streamwise direction of the model. The first one (denoted as HS) is at the region where the second-mode instability reaches its maximum value. The second one (denoted as HT) is at the region where the transition is completed. Increasing the unit Reynolds number promotes the second-mode dissipation but increases the strength of local aerodynamic heating at HS. Furthermore, the heat generation rates induced by the dilatation and shear processes (respectively denoted as
) were investigated. The former item includes both the pressure work
and dilatational viscous dissipation
. The aerodynamic heating in HS mainly arose from the high-frequency compression and expansion of fluid accompanying the second mode. The dilatation heating, especially
, was more than five times its shear counterpart. In a limited region, the underestimated
was also larger than
. As the second-mode waves decay downstream, the low-frequency waves continue to grow, with the consequent shear-induced heating increasing. The latter brings about a second, weaker growth of surface-temperature HT. A theoretical analysis is provided to interpret the temperature distribution resulting from the aerodynamic heating.