To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Objectives: At the onset of COVID-19, whenever SARS-CoV-2 was detected at Children’s Hospital 1 (CH1), the related department or building was closed for extensive tracing, testing, and medical isolation. This process disrupted hospital activities, reduced the efficiency of patient care, and used medical resources. To address this problem, CH1 implemented a system of grouping inpatients to color-coded areas from June to December 2021. Methods: In this retrospective study, we describe the system of grouping inpatients to color-coded areas based on SARS-CoV-2 test result at a 1,600-bed, national pediatric hospital in Ho Chi Minh City. Results: Inpatients were first separated into those with or without respiratory symptoms, and secondly to different color-coded areas based on SARS-CoV-2 test result and hospitalization length: red zone (days 1–3), orange zone (days 3–7), and green zone (day 7 onward). Prior to admission, all patients were tested with a SARS-CoV-2 rapid diagnostic test. If negative, the patient was admitted to the red zone. On days 3 and 7 of hospitalization, the patient was tested using a pooled RT-PCR method. Patients negative on day 3 were relocated to the orange zone; patients negative on day 7 were relocated to the green zone. A patient with a positive test result at any time point was transferred to a COVID-19 zone. One caregiver was allowed to stay with 1 patient with similar testing regimen. A mobile transportation team was set up to deliver food and other necessities; thus, movement was restricted and interaction was prevented among zones. After this system was implemented, COVID-19 cases were detected early, with most positive cases in the red zone (19.6%) and the orange zone (2.8%), with only 1 case in the green zone (0.7%). Conclusions: The system of grouping patients to color-coded areas helped prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission within the hospital, allowing undisrupted operation.
Objectives: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel and highly infectious virus. An effective response requires rapid training of healthcare workers (HCWs). We measured the change in knowledge related to COVID-19 and associated factors before and after training of HCWs in Vietnam. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate HCW knowledge related to prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 before and after attending a 2-day training-of-trainers course. Between June and September 2020, 963 HCWs from 194 hospitals in 21 provinces received the training. HCW knowledge was assessed using a 20-item questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice questions at the beginning and closing of the training course. A participant received 1 point for each correct answer. He or she was considered to have improved knowledge the posttest score was higher than the pretest score with a score ≥15 on the posttest. We applied the McNemar test and logistic regression model to test the level of association between demographic factors and change in knowledge of COVID-19. Results: Overall, 100% of HCWs completed both the pretest and posttest. At baseline, only 14.7% scored ≥15. Following the training, 78.4% scored ≥15 and 64.3% had improved knowledge according to the predetermined definition. Questions related to the order of PPE donning and doffing and respiratory specimen collection procedures were identified as having the greatest improvement (44.6% and 60.7%, respectively). Being female (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.0), having a postgraduate degree (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4–4.4), working in a nonmanager position (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.1), previous contact with a COVID-19 patient (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.0), and working in northern Vietnam (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4–2.6), were associated with greater knowledge improvement. Conclusions: Most HCWs demonstrated improved knowledge of COVID-19 prevention and control after attending the training. Particular groups may benefit from additional training: those who are male, leaders and managers, those who hold an undergraduate degree, and those who work in the southern provinces.
Background: Central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) increase the length of hospital stay, healthcare costs, and patient mortality. Objective: We conducted a quality improvement (QI) approach with plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycle to strengthen adherence to a central-line (CL) maintenance bundle and to reduce CLABSI rate in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of children’s hospital 1 (CH1). Methods: The baseline CLABSI rate per 1,000 CL days and the ratio of CL days to patient days (device utilization ration; DUR) were captured for 12 months preceding the intervention. Baseline process indicators were captured for 2 months preceding implementation, including hand hygiene adherence, sterile technique for dressing change and CL access, CL hub cleaning, dating of CL components and daily chlorhexidine bathing. A multimodal intervention of clinician training, bedside checklist, and poster reminders of best practices was implemented. Process and outcome measures were monitored over 12 months of implementation. Z-test was used to calculate statistical significance before and after intervention. Results: Among 46 clinical ICU staff trained on a CLABSI maintenance bundle, mean pre- and posttest knowledge scores increased from 63% to 86%. Staff adherence to each CL care bundle element improved significantly (P < .001) and sustainably over the intervention period: hand hygiene adherence increased from 54% to 82%; sterile technique for dressing increased from 60% to 94%; sterile technique for CL access increased from 51% to 97%; hub scrubbing increased from 52% to 93%; dating of CL elements increased from 63% to 85%; daily chlorhexidine bathing increased from 52% to 87%. During the first 9 months, the CLABSI rate and the DUR decreased from 5.8 to 3.7 and from 0.43 to 0.41, respectively. In the following 2 months, the CLABSI rate increased to 12.7 while bundle adherence remained high. A root-cause analysis identified inadequate environmental hygiene and use of multidose saline bottles for multiple patients as potential factors. A PDSA cycle to improve these elements (enhanced cleaning; single-patient saline bottles) led to a decrease in the CLABSI rate from 12.7 to 3.0 after these efforts. Conclusions: This is the first time CH1 has used quality improvement methodology to implement an HAI prevention enhancement, which proved effective at creating and sustaining adherence to a multimodal CL maintenance bundle and an overall decrease in CLABSI rates. A 2-month increase in CLABSI rates highlights the unique challenges faced in low-resource settings and demonstrates the need for IPC elements not captured in a typical CLABSI prevention bundle. The quality improvement methodology provided a structured approach to implementing change. This methodology will be used for additional patient safety improvements at CH1 and other Viet Nam hospitals interested in CLABSI prevention.
Guidelines recommend empowering patients and families to remind healthcare workers (HCWs) to perform hand hygiene (HH). The effectiveness of empowerment tools for patients and their families in Southeast Asia is unknown.
We performed a prospective study in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a Vietnamese pediatric referral hospital. With family and HCW input, we developed a visual tool for families to prompt HCW HH. We used direct observation to collect baseline HH data. We then enrolled families to receive the visual tool and education on its use while continuing prospective collection of HH data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of HH in baseline and implementation periods.
In total, 2,014 baseline and 2,498 implementation-period HH opportunities were observed. During the implementation period, 73 families were enrolled. Overall, HCW HH was 46% preimplementation, which increased to 73% in the implementation period (P < .001). The lowest HH adherence in both periods occurred after HCW contact with patient surroundings: 16% at baseline increased to 24% after implementation. In multivariable analyses, the odds of HCW HH during the implementation period were significantly higher than baseline (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.54–3.41; P < .001) after adjusting for observation room, HCW type, time of observation (weekday business hours vs evening or weekend), and HH moment.
The introduction of a visual empowerment tool was associated with significant improvement in HH adherence among HCWs in a Vietnamese PICU. Future research should explore acceptability and barriers to use of similar tools in low- and middle-income settings.
The Vietnamese South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a cross-sectional study, was undertaken to assess the nutritional status in a nationally representative sample of children aged 0·5–11·9 years. A multi-stage cluster-randomised sampling method was used to recruit 2872 children. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemistry involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Vietnamese RDA. In children aged < 5 years, approximately 14 % were stunted, 8·6 % underweight and 4·4 % thin. A higher prevalence of stunting (15·6 %) and underweight (22·2 %) was observed in school-aged children. Undernutrition was more prevalent in rural areas than in urban areas. In contrast, almost 29 % of the urban children were either overweight or obese when compared with 4 % of the overweight children and 1·6 % of the obese children in rural areas. A higher percentage of children in the age group 0·5–1·9 years and residing in rural areas had low Hb levels than those in the age group 2·0–5·9 years and residing in urban areas. In children aged 6–11 years, a small percentage had low Hb (11–14 %) and vitamin A (5–10 %) levels, but almost half the children (48–53 %) had vitamin D insufficiency. Food consumption data indicated that the children did not meet the RDA for energy, protein, Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B1 and vitamin C. Results from the SEANUTS highlight the double burden of malnutrition in Vietnam. Information from the SEANUTS can serve as an input for targeted policy development, planning and development of nutrition programmes.
During 2008, a point-prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) was conducted in 36 Vietnamese hospitals. Of 7,571 inpatients, 590 (7.8%) had HAIs, including pneumonia (41.9%) and surgical-site infections (27.5%). Device use was a significant risk factor; gram-negative microorganisms predominated. A national reporting system needs to be established for monitoring HAIs and enhancing patient outcomes.
Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are the two largest urban centres in Vietnam as far as population and economic potential are concerned. In recent years, population growth has been a major factor in the economic growth of these centres. However, in both Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi, the hike in population is causing critical problems in the urban development process. As these cities grow, so does the movement of people in them.
There has been a tremendous increase in population movement in Vietnam since 1986, when an economic liberalization policy (Doi Moi or Renovation) began to be implemented. Although considerable research has already been done on the migration aspect, there is still not a clear understanding of mobility within the major centres, with a particular focus on the two largest ones, Ho Chi Minh City (overall population of 5 million with 3.7 million in the urban area in 1999) and Hanoi (overall population of 2.7 million with 1.5 million in the urban area). A positive migration balance from the city centres to the suburbs has been observed, based on the two most recent censuses, one conducted in 1989 and the other in 1999. There is a considerable increase in intra-urban mobility in the wake of fast-track urbanization, and this is becoming a key urban planning consideration. This evolution and the policies implemented are impacting the living space of citizens in terms of environment (suggesting improvement) and are tending to increase routine travel distances (suggesting deterioration).
Such intra-urban mobility (that taking place within the administrative limits of the two cities) includes on the one hand intra-urban migration or residential mobility (changing one's residence within the administrative limits), and on the other hand temporary mobility, including commuting movements. This is tending to accentuate the inadequacy of urban infrastructure and transit because of increasing the density of suburban zones, which are the least affluent.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.