The prevalence of, and clinical risk factors associated with, vancomycin-resistant enterococcal colonization were investigated in patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection. Stools submitted for C difficile cytotoxin testing were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Isolates were speciated and characterized further by antibiotic susceptibility testing, DNA fingerprinting, and DNA:DNA hybridization for detection of specific vancomycin resistance genes. Of the 79 evaluable patients identified during a 3-month period, 16.5% were VRE-positive. The VRE isolates were genetically heterogeneous, although all carried the vanA gene. DNA fingerprinting data suggest that patient-to-patient transmission occurred, implicating colonized patients as potential reser voirs for VRE transmission. A positive C difficile cytotoxin assay and diabetes mellitus were the only identifiable risk factors associated with VRE colonization. Patients at risk for C difficile infection therefore may serve as reser voirs for VRE.