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To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes.
Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets.
Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004–2006.
Girls aged 6–8 years (n 1010).
Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P <0·001). Girls’ daily energy, SSB and snack foods/sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets>1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets>3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use.
Girls’ frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets.
To assess whether alcoholic and caffeinated beverages are associated with risk of fractures in women.
Population-based sample surveyed by post.
A total of 34703 postmenopausal Iowan women aged 55–69 years were surveyed.
A cohort of women reported alcoholic and caffeinated beverage intake and were followed for 6.5 years for fracture occurrence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Covariates included age, tobacco use, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), oestrogen use and calcium intake.
At least one fracture was reported by 4378 women (389 upper arm, 288 forearm, 1128 wrist, 275 hip, 416 vertebral and 2920 other fractures). The adjusted RR for highest versus lowest caffeine intake quintiles was 1.09 (95% CI 0.99–1.21) for combined fracture sites. Wrist fractures were associated positively (RR for extreme quintiles 1.37, 95% CI 1.11–1.69) and upper arm fractures were negatively associated (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.48–0.94) with caffeine intake. The age-adjusted RR of total fractures for highest versus lowest frequency of beer usage was 1.55 (95% CI 1.25–1.92) and for liquor was 1.25 (95% CI 1.03–1.54). No other association was found between any specific fracture site and alcohol intake.
We found a modest increase in fracture risk associated with highest caffeine intake, varying by site. Alcohol intake was low, but it also showed a weak positive association with fracture risk.
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