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A detailed account of the history and current developments in the field of investigative decision making. This covers broad decision making theory, namely: traditional decision theory, heuristic and biases, fast and frugal heuristics and naturalistic decision making. This is applied to the current challenges faced by the police with research examples used to illustrate their relevance. The phenomenon of indecision is also discussed in the context of investigations, with consideration to why this occurs as well as considering the devasting and far reaching consequences this can have to an investigation.
To test the feasibility of targeted gown and glove use by healthcare personnel caring for high-risk nursing-home residents to prevent Staphylococcus aureus acquisition in short-stay residents.
Uncontrolled clinical trial.
This study was conducted in 2 community-based nursing homes in Maryland.
The study included 322 residents on mixed short- and long-stay units.
During a 2-month baseline period, all residents had nose and inguinal fold swabs taken to estimate S. aureus acquisition. The intervention was iteratively developed using a participatory human factors engineering approach. During a 2-month intervention period, healthcare personnel wore gowns and gloves for high-risk care activities while caring for residents with wounds or medical devices, and S. aureus acquisition was measured again. Whole-genome sequencing was used to assess whether the acquisition represented resident-to-resident transmission.
Among short-stay residents, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus acquisition rate decreased from 11.9% during the baseline period to 3.6% during the intervention period (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08–0.92; P = .026). The methicillin-susceptible S. aureus acquisition rate went from 9.1% during the baseline period to 4.0% during the intervention period (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.12–1.42; P = .15). The S. aureus resident-to-resident transmission rate decreased from 5.9% during the baseline period to 0.8% during the intervention period.
Targeted gown and glove use by healthcare personnel for high-risk care activities while caring for residents with wounds or medical devices, regardless of their S. aureus colonization status, is feasible and potentially decreases S. aureus acquisition and transmission in short-stay community-based nursing-home residents.
Investigative decision making sits largely within the academic disciplines of cognitive and social psychology though it is also allied to criminology and sociology. It is an eclectic field of study based on scientific, empirical research. Investigative decision making draws on a lengthy body of research of general decision theory stretching back centuries. Some features of human decision making hold across any context, so traditional decision-making theory (TDT) findings are applicable to investigative decision making. As with other theories and models associated with generic decision making, game theory has a contribution to make to investigative decision making. Unlike TDT, naturalistic decision-making approaches take more account of the context in which decision makers operate. In TDT studies, participants in a lab study may be asked to decide which choices are more (or less) attractive. Investigative decision making has evolved from and is still influenced by early decision theory.