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Negative symptoms (avolition, anhedonia, asociality) are a prevalent symptom in those across the psychosis-spectrum and also occur at subclinical levels in the general population. Recent work has begun to examine how environmental contexts (e.g. locations) influence negative symptoms. However, limited work has evaluated how environments may contribute to negative symptoms among youth at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR). The current study uses Ecological Momentary Assessment to assess how four environmental contexts (locations, activities, social interactions, social interaction method) impact state fluctuations in negative symptoms in CHR and healthy control (CN) participants.
CHR youth (n = 116) and CN (n = 61) completed 8 daily surveys for 6 days assessing negative symptoms and contexts.
Mixed-effects modeling demonstrated that negative symptoms largely varied across contexts in both groups. CHR participants had higher negative symptoms than CN participants in most contexts, but groups had similar symptom reductions during recreational activities and phone call interactions. Among CHR participants, negative symptoms were elevated in several contexts, including studying/working, commuting, eating, running errands, and being at home.
Results demonstrate that negative symptoms dynamically change across some contexts in CHR participants. Negative symptoms were more intact in some contexts, while other contexts, notably some used to promote functional recovery, may exacerbate negative symptoms in CHR. Findings suggest that environmental factors should be considered when understanding state fluctuations in negative symptoms among those at CHR participants.
Dialysis patients may not have access to conventional renal replacement therapy (RRT) following disasters. We hypothesized that improvised renal replacement therapy (ImpRRT) would be comparable to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in a porcine acute kidney injury model.
Following bilateral nephrectomies and 2 hours of caudal aortic occlusion, 12 pigs were randomized to 4 hours of ImpRRT or CRRT. In the ImpRRT group, blood was circulated through a dialysis filter using a rapid infuser to collect the ultrafiltrate. Improvised replacement fluid, made with stock solutions, was infused pre-pump. In the CRRT group, commercial replacement fluid was used. During RRT, animals received isotonic crystalloids and norepinephrine.
There were no differences in serum creatinine, calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus concentrations. While there was a difference between groups in serum potassium concentration over time (P < 0.001), significance was lost in pairwise comparison at specific time points. Replacement fluids or ultrafiltrate flows did not differ between groups. There were no differences in lactate concentration, isotonic crystalloid requirement, or norepinephrine doses. No difference was found in electrolyte concentrations between the commercial and improvised replacement solutions.
The ImpRRT system achieved similar performance to CRRT and may represent a potential option for temporary RRT following disasters.
Large numbers of high quality graphene transistors were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition and packaged into a standard electronics assembly, enabling the readout of graphene properties on the benchtop. After chemical functionalization, these sensors demonstrate sensitivity into the pM range to inflammation (IL6) and Zika virus (ZIKV NS1) biomarkers. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of graphene biosensors is over an order of magnitude greater than established diagnostic and biophysical assays, namely ELISA and BLI respectively. High precision measurements of protein kinetics captured using this technology, commercially available as the AGILE R100, are comparable to both clinical diagnostic and state-of-the-art biomolecule characterization tools. These results demonstrate that graphene-based platforms are highly attractive biological sensors for next generation diagnostics.
Background: On June 8 and 9, 2008, more than 4 inches of rain fell in the Iowa-Cedars River Basin causing widespread flooding along the Cedar River in Benton, Linn, Johnson, and Cedar Counties. As a result of the flooding, there were 18 deaths, 106 injuries, and over 38 000 people displaced from their homes; this made it necessary for the Iowa Department of Health to conduct a rapid needs assessment to quantify the scope and effect of the floods on human health.
Methods: In response, the Iowa Department of Public Health mobilized interview teams to conduct rapid needs assessments using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based cluster sampling techniques. The information gathered was subsequently employed to estimate the public health impact and significant human needs that resulted from the flooding.
Results: While these assessments did not reveal significant levels of acute injuries resulting from the flood, they did show that many households had been temporarily displaced and that future health risks may emerge as the result of inadequate access to prescription medications or the presence of environmental health hazards.
Conclusions: This exercise highlights the need for improved risk communication measures and ongoing surveillance and relief measures. It also demonstrates the utility of rapid needs assessment survey tools and suggests that increasing use of such surveys can have significant public health benefits.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:287–292)
Both involuntary dyskinetic movements and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are reported to be antecedents of schizophrenia that may reflect dysfunctional dopaminergic activity in the striatum. The present study compared dyskinetic movement abnormalities displayed by children with multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), including speech and/or motor developmental lags or problems, internalising/externalising problems in the clinical range, and PLEs, with those displayed by children with no antecedents (noASz).
The sample included 21 ASz and 31 noASz children, aged 9–12 years old. None had taken psychotropic medication or had relatives with psychosis. The antecedents of schizophrenia were assessed using questionnaires completed by children and caregivers. A trained rater, blind to group status, coded dyskinetic movement abnormalities using a validated tool from videotapes of interviews with the children.
ASz children reported, on average, ‘certain experience’ of 2.5 PLEs, while noASz children, by definition, reported none. The ASz children, as compared with noASz children, displayed significantly more dyskinetic movement abnormalities in total, and in the facial and the upper-body regions, after controlling for sex and age. Receiver operator characteristics analyses yielded high area under the curve values for the total score (0.94), facial score (0.91) and upper-body score (0.86), indicating that these scores distinguished between the ASz and noASz children with great accuracy.
Brief questionnaires identified children with multiple antecedents of schizophrenia who displayed significantly more involuntary dyskinetic movement abnormalities than children without antecedents. The presence of PLEs and dyskinesias could reflect early disruption of striatal dopamine circuits.
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