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To assess the prospective association of two diet quality scores based on the Nova food classification with BMI gain.
The NutriNet-Brasil cohort is an ongoing web-based prospective study with continuous recruitment of participants aged ≥ 18 years since January 2020. A short 24-h dietary recall screener including ‘yes/no’ questions about the consumption of whole plant foods (WPF) and ultra-processed foods (UPF) was completed by participants at baseline. The Nova-WPF and the Nova-UPF scores were computed by adding up positive responses regarding the consumption of thirty-three varieties of WPF and twenty-three varieties of UPF, respectively. Participants reported their height at baseline and their weight at both baseline and after approximately 15 months of follow-up. A 15-month BMI (kg/m2) increase of ≥5 % was coded as BMI gain.
9551 participants from the NutriNet-Brasil cohort.
Increasing quintiles of the Nova-UPF score were linearly associated with higher risk of BMI gain (relative risk Q5/Q1 = 1·34; 95 % CI 1·15, 1·56), whereas increasing quintiles of the Nova-WPF score were linearly associated with lower risk (relative risk Q5/Q1 = 0·80; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·94). We identified a moderate inverse correlation between the two scores (–0·33) and a partial mediating effect of the alternative score: 15 % for the total effect of the Nova-UPF score and 25 % for the total effect of the Nova-WPF score.
The Nova-UPF and Nova-WPF scores are independently associated with mid-term BMI gain further justifying their use in diet quality monitoring systems.
To compare the long-term vaccine effectiveness between those receiving viral vector [Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1)] or inactivated viral (CoronaVac) primary series (2 doses) and those who received an mRNA booster (Pfizer/BioNTech) (the third dose) among healthcare workers (HCWs).
We conducted a retrospective cohort study among HCWs (aged ≥18 years) in Brazil from January 2021 to July 2022. To assess the variation in the effectiveness of booster dose over time, we estimated the effectiveness rate by taking the log risk ratio as a function of time.
Of 14,532 HCWs, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was confirmed in 56.3% of HCWs receiving 2 doses of CoronaVac vaccine versus 23.2% of HCWs receiving 2 doses of CoronaVac vaccine with mRNA booster (P < .001), and 37.1% of HCWs receiving 2 doses of ChAdOx1 vaccine versus 22.7% among HCWs receiving 2 doses of ChAdOx1 vaccine with mRNA booster (P < .001). The highest vaccine effectiveness with mRNA booster was observed 30 days after vaccination: 91% for the CoronaVac vaccine group and 97% for the ChAdOx1 vaccine group. Vacine effectiveness declined to 55% and 67%, respectively, at 180 days. Of 430 samples screened for mutations, 49.5% were SARS-CoV-2 delta variants and 34.2% were SARS-CoV-2 omicron variants.
Heterologous COVID-19 vaccines were effective for up to 180 days in preventing COVID-19 in the SARS-CoV-2 delta and omicron variant eras, which suggests the need for a second booster.
To determine risk factors for the development of long coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthcare personnel (HCP).
We conducted a case–control study among HCP who had confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 working in a Brazilian healthcare system between March 1, 2020, and July 15, 2022. Cases were defined as those having long COVID according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Controls were defined as HCP who had documented COVID-19 but did not develop long COVID. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between exposure variables and long COVID during 180 days of follow-up.
Of 7,051 HCP diagnosed with COVID-19, 1,933 (27.4%) who developed long COVID were compared to 5,118 (72.6%) who did not. The majority of those with long COVID (51.8%) had 3 or more symptoms. Factors associated with the development of long COVID were female sex (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05–1.39), age (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00–1.02), and 2 or more SARS-CoV-2 infections (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07–1.50). Those infected with the SARS-CoV-2 δ (delta) variant (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17–0.50) or the SARS-CoV-2 o (omicron) variant (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30–0.78), and those receiving 4 COVID-19 vaccine doses prior to infection (OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01–0.19) were significantly less likely to develop long COVID.
Long COVID can be prevalent among HCP. Acquiring >1 SARS-CoV-2 infection was a major risk factor for long COVID, while maintenance of immunity via vaccination was highly protective.
Biochar is considered a promising option for the development of sustainable agroecosystems, due to its diverse agronomic and environmental benefits. In this context, the aim of this study was to carry out a bibliometric analysis on biochar research in Brazil within an agricultural context, including investigating the raw materials most employed for its production in the country. The analysis was conducted based on a search for scientific articles (peer-reviewed papers) at the Web of Science database (WoS Core Collection) from 2003 to 2020 specifically in Brazil. A performance analysis was carried out by applying a descriptive and metric approach concerning research constituents (authors, institutions, countries and keywords) and science mapping to clarify scientific collaborations and cognitive and intellectual structure patterns regarding the biochar domain in Brazilian research, using the VOSviewer software. The obtained studies were also analyzed individually to classify the different raw materials employed in biochar production. A total of 261 scientific articles met the screening criteria, indicating that the beginning of biochar publications in Brazil took place in 2003, increasing until 2015 and peaking in 2021. Institutions and authors with the highest publication contributions were the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA) (Novotny E.), São Paulo University (USP) (Cerri C.) and Federal Lavras University (UFLA) (Melo L.). The United States, Spain, Australia, Germany and the Netherlands present the most collaborations on biochar research with Brazil. The biochar domain was highly associated with the following keywords: biochar, pyrogenic carbon, pyrolysis, charcoal, immobilization, black carbon, soil fertility and soil and characterization. Raw materials of plant origin were the most employed in biochar research in Brazil, with wood residues being the most studied and residues originated from the sugar-energy industry (straw, bagasse and filter cake) identified as exhibiting high potential for future studies. Poultry litter is the most promising animal waste for biochar production, while the use of biosolids can be innovative, contributing to the consolidation of biochar as an option for serious urban waste sanitary management problems.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adding β-mercaptoethanol (βME) to culture medium of bovine in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos prior to or after vitrification on embryo development and cryotolerance. In Experiment I, Day-7 IVP blastocysts were vitrified and, after warming, cultured in medium containing 0, 50 or 100 μM βME for 72 h. Embryos cultured in 100 μM βME attained higher hatching rates (66.7%) than those culture in 0 (47.7%) and 50 (52.4%) μM βME. In Experiment II, IVP embryos were in vitro-cultured (IVC) to the blastocyst stage in 0 (control) or 100 μM βME, followed by vitrification. After warming, embryos were cultured for 72 h (post-warming culture, PWC) in 0 (control) or 100 μM βME, in a 2 × 2 factorial design: (i) CTRL–CTRL, control IVC and control PWC; (ii) CTRL–βME, control IVC and βME-supplemented PWC; (iii) βME–CTRL, βME-supplemented IVC and control PWC; or (iv) βME–βME, βME-supplemented IVC and βME-supplemented PWC. βME during IVC reduced embryo development (28.0% vs. 43.8%) but, following vitrification, higher re-expansion rates were seen in βME–CTRL (84.0%) and βME–βME (87.5%) than in CTRL–CTRL (71.0%) and CTRL–βME (73.1%). Hatching rates were higher in CTRL–βME (58.1%) and βME–βME (63.8%) than in CTRL–CTRL (36.6%) and βME–CTRL (42.0%). Total cell number in hatched blastocysts was higher in βME–βME (181.2 ± 7.4 cells) than CTRL–CTRL (139.0 ± 9.9 cells). Adding βME to the IVC medium reduced development but increased cryotolerance, whereas adding βME to the PWC medium improved embryo survival, hatching rates, and total cell numbers.
We investigated real-world vaccine effectiveness for Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1) and CoronaVac against laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs).
We conducted a retrospective cohort study among HCWs (aged ≥18 years) working in a private healthcare system in Brazil between January 1, 2021 and August 3, 2021, to assess vaccine effectiveness. We calculated vaccine effectiveness as 1 − rate ratio (RR), with RR determined by adjusting Poisson models with the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as the outcome and the vaccination status as the main variable. We used the logarithmic link function and simple models adjusting for sex, age, and job types.
In total, 13,813 HCWs met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. Among them, 6,385 (46.2%) received the CoronaVac vaccine, 5,916 (42.8%) received the ChAdOx1 vaccine, and 1,512 (11.0%) were not vaccinated. Overall, COVID-19 occurred in 6% of unvaccinated HCWs, 3% of HCWs who received 2 doses of CoronaVac vaccine, and 0.7% of HCWs who received 2 doses of ChAdOx1 vaccine (P < .001). In the adjusted analyses, the estimated vaccine effectiveness rates were 51.3% for CoronaVac, and 88.1% for ChAdOx1 vaccine. Both vaccines reduced the number of hospitalizations, the length of hospital stay, and the need for mechanical ventilation. In addition, 19 SARS-CoV-2 samples from 19 HCWs were screened for mutations of interest. Of 19 samples, 18 were the γ (gamma) variant.
Although both COVID-19 vaccines (viral vector and inactivated virus) can significantly prevent COVID-19 among HCWs, CoronaVac was much less effective. The COVID-19 vaccines were also effective against the dominant γ variant.
This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the Mindful Self-Care Scale (MSCS, 33-item) in a Brazilian hospice and palliative care context.
This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 336 Brazilian hospice and palliative care providers. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer — Quality of Life Group Translation Procedure protocol was used for the translation and the cultural adaptation process. Psychometric properties supporting the use of the MSCS were examined through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and correlation analysis with other instruments to assess congruence to related constructs (resilience and self-compassion). The reliability of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the MSCS was assessed using Cronbach's α and composite reliability coefficients.
The six-factor (33-item) model showed a good fit to the data, with satisfactory reliability indices and adequate representation of the scale's internal structure. Further validity is evidenced in the significant, positive correlations found between the MSCS, and similar well-being constructs, namely the Self-Compassion and Resilience scales.
Significance of results
The findings reveal that the MSCS (33-item) is a valid, reliable, and culturally appropriate instrument to examine the practice of mindful self-care by hospice and palliative care providers in Brazil. More broadly, it represents a promising instrument for future research into self-care practices and well-being among Brazilian healthcare providers.
Cardiovascular diseases are among the main causes of death in Brazil and worldwide. The literature indicates the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HTWP) as an accessible alternative for the identification of cardiovascular and metabolic risk. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with HTWP in individuals diagnosed with arterial hypertension (AH) and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). A cross-sectional study was conducted with individuals diagnosed with AH and/or DM2. The study data were collected through semi-structured interviews containing socio-demographic information, lifestyle, health care, in addition to anthropometric assessment, blood pressure measurement and biochemical blood tests. The prevalence of HTWP was estimated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with HTWP. Of the 788 individuals analysed, 21⋅5 % had the HTWP. In the adjusted model, the following variables remained associated with a greater chance of presenting HTWP: sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Being female increased the chance of HTWP by 7⋅7 times (OR 7⋅7; 95 % CI 3⋅9, 15⋅2). The one-year increase in age increased the chance of HTWP by 4 % (OR 1⋅04; 95 % CI 1⋅02, 1⋅06). The addition of 1 mg/dl of VLDL-c increased the chance of HTWP by 15 % (odds ratio (OR) 1⋅15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1⋅12, 1⋅18), as well as the increase of 1 kg/m2 in the BMI increased the chance of this condition by 20 % (OR 1⋅20; 95 % CI 1⋅15, 1⋅27). The prevalence of HTWP was associated with females, older age, higher BMI, higher VLDL-c and risk waist/height ratio.
Despite evidence showing that the intake of ultra-processed food has a negative impact on health, diet quality and dietary vitamin E, its impact on vitamin E nutritional status and breast milk remains unknown. This study aimed to assess the influence of the consumption of ultra-processed foods on vitamin E biomarkers of lactating women. A cross-sectional study was performed with 294 lactating women. Food consumption was obtained by 24-h dietary recall, and foods were grouped according to the NOVA classification. Levels of α-tocopherol were analysed by HPLC. Breast milk vitamin E (BMVE) adequacy was based on the quantity of the vitamin in the estimated intake volume. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the tertiles and linear regression to association between ultra-processed food consumption and biomarkers. Ultra-processed foods accounted for 16 % of energy intake and vitamin E intakes by all women were considered low. Serum α-tocopherol was 26·55 (sd 7·98) µmol/l, 5 % (n 11) showed inadequate vitamin E (< 12 µmol/l) and 78 % had an inadequate BMVE content (< 4 mg/780 ml). The regression showed that a higher dietary share of ultra-processed foods was associated with lower concentrations of serum α-tocopherol (β = –0·168, 95 % CI –0·047, 0·010, P = 0·003) and inadequate BMVE content (β = –0·144, 95 % CI = –0·505, 0·063, P = 0·012) (adjustment for income and maternal age). Thus, higher dietary shares of ultra-processed foods had an impact on vitamin E biomarkers, suggesting that inadequate dietary intake practices during lactation may reduce the supply of vitamin E to women and breast milk.
Background: This research represents an experiment based in surgical site infection (SSI) to patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy surgery procedures in hospitals in Belo Horizonte, (population, 3 million). We statistically evaluated such incidences and studied the SSI prediction power of pattern recognition algorithms, the artificial neural networks based in multilayer perceptron (MLP). Methods: Between July 2016 and June 2018, data on SSI were collected by the hospital infection control committees (CCIH) of the 3 hospitals involved in the research. They collected all data used in the analysis during their routine SSI surveillance procedures. The information was forwarded to the NOIS (Nosocomial Infection Study) Project, which used SACIH (ie, automated hospital infection control system software) to collect data from a sample of hospitals participating voluntarily in the project. After data collection, 3 procedures were performed for SSI prediction: (1) a treatment of the database collected for the use of intact samples; (2) a statistical analysis on the profile of the hospitals collected; and (3) an assessment of the predictive power of 5 types of MLP (ie, backpropagation standard, momentum, resilient propagation, weight decay, and quick propagation). MLPs were tested with 3, 5, 7, and 10 hidden-layer neurons and a database split for the resampling process (65% or 75% for testing, 35% or 25% for validation). They were compared by measuring area under the curve (AUC; range, 0–1) presented for each of the configurations. Results: From 1,166 records collected, only 665 records were enabled for analysis. Regarding statistical data: the average duration of surgery was 100 minutes (range, 31–180); patients were aged 41–49 years; the SSI rate was low (only 10 cases); the average length of stay was 2 days; and there were no deaths among the cases. Moreover, 29% of the operative sites were contaminated and 57% were potentially contaminated, revealing a high rate of potential contamination in the operative sites. The prediction process achieved 0.995. Conclusions: Despite the noise in the database, it was possible to obtain a relevant sampling to evaluate the profile of hospitals in Belo Horizonte. In addition, for the predictive process, although some settings achieved AUC results of 0.5, others achieved and AUC of 0.995, indicating the promise of the automated SSI monitoring framework for abdominal hysterectomy surgery (available in www.sacihweb.com). To optimize data collection and to enable other hospitals to use the SSI prediction tool, a mobile application was developed.
Improving adherence to hand hygiene (HH) of healthcare workers (HCWs) is a challenge for health institutions, and the use of technologies has been considered an important strategy within this process. Methods: To evaluate the impact of the use of alcohol-based hand rub gel (ABHR) dispensers with light sensors on the adherence to HH by HCWs. This is a prospective quasi-experimental study with comparative analysis between two 4-bed adult intensive care units at a private, tertiary-care hospital conducted over 22 weeks. An approach detection module with an LED lamp was attached to the ABHR dispenser. As a healthcare personnel approached it, the sensor was activated, and a red light turned on as a visual stimulus for HH. The color of the light changed to blue when HH was performed. All ABHR dispensers had electronic counters, but light sensors were installed only in the 4-bed dispensers of the intervention unit. Throughout the period, direct observation of adherence to HH was performed by 4 nurses who had previously been rated with an excellent coefficient of agreement (κ test = 0.951 and 0.902). At the end of the study, a perception survey was performed with the HCWs. Results: The median activation of ABHR dispensers per week was higher in the intervention unit with 1,004 (IQR, 706–1,455) versus 432 (IQR, 350–587) in the control group (P < .001). The same occurred when compared to the median activation per 1,000 patient days, with 53,069 (IQR, 47,575–67,275) versus 19,602 (IQR, 15,909–24,500) in the control group (P < .001). However, there was no evidence of difference in adherence to HH during direct observation between the 2 groups: 51.0% HH compliance (359 of 704) in the control group and 53.8% HH compliance (292 of 543) in the intervention group (P = .330). The same result emerged when we evaluated the “My Five Moments for HH” and by professional category. HCWs (N=66) answered the perception survey: 66.6% stated that lighting devices caught their attention regularly or most of the time and 59% agreed that the devices motivated HH. Conclusions: Using light sensors in ABHR dispensers can be an effective technology for improving HH. This finding was evident in the evaluation of the number of uses of the ABHR dispensers and in the HCW perceptions. Although direct observation did not show statistical evidence of difference between the groups, adherence was higher in the intervention group.
This study evaluated the feeding habits of the franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) in south-eastern Brazil. Stomach contents were collected from a total of 145 dead specimens found incidentally caught by fishing vessels or stranded between 2005 and 2015. Fish otoliths, cephalopod beaks and whole non-digested prey were used for prey species identification. A total of 9337 prey items were identified, including 26 species of teleost fishes and three species of cephalopods. The most important prey families were Sciaenidae among fish and Loliginidae among cephalopods. Franciscana dolphins tended to feed on small fish (mean = 5.25 cm) and cephalopods (mean = 8.57 cm). The index of relative importance (IRI) showed that Pellona harroweri and Doryteuthis plei were the most important prey for both males and females. The PERMANOVA test confirmed that there is no significant difference between the feeding habits of different sexes, but detected a significant difference among seasons. Overall, our results show that franciscana dolphins are predominantly ichthyophagous and non-selective in relation to the type of prey, feeding on pelagic, demersal and pelagic-demersal prey.
Primordial germ cell (PGC) transplant is a promising tool in aquaculture; however, successful use of this technique requires in depth knowledge of the early stages of embryo and larval development. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of different temperatures (22, 26, and 30°C) on the early development of B. amazonicus. The newly fertilized eggs were distributed into tanks with controlled temperature and oxygenation. Samples were collected at pre-established times and analysed under light and fluorescence microscopy. Temperature influenced the speed and duration of each stage of early development, including hatching time. The highest pronuclei fusion rate was observed 8 min post-fertilization (mpf) at 22 and 26°C, and 6 mpf at 30°C. The duration of the 512–1000 blastomeres phase during in the blastocyst stage was 1 h 30 min at 22°C, and 25 min at 26 and 30°C. Hatching occurred at 24 h 30 mpf at 22°C, 16 h post-fertilization (hpf) at 26°C, and 11 h 30 mpf at 30°C. The rate of morphologically normal larvae was 88.34% at 22°C, 90.49% at 26°C, and 73% at 30°C. Malformations of the head, yolk sac, heart, and tail were observed in all temperatures. Nevertheless, B. amazonicus embryos were able to develop satisfactory in all three temperatures tested. These results enable embryo manipulation at different temperatures to optimize the micromanipulation time of embryos and larvae for biotechnological studies.
To assess household availability of NOVA food groups in nineteen European countries and to analyse the association between availability of ultra-processed foods and prevalence of obesity.
Ecological, cross-sectional study.
Estimates of ultra-processed foods calculated from national household budget surveys conducted between 1991 and 2008. Estimates of obesity prevalence obtained from national surveys undertaken near the budget survey time.
Across the nineteen countries, median average household availability amounted to 33·9 % of total purchased dietary energy for unprocessed or minimally processed foods, 20·3 % for processed culinary ingredients, 19·6 % for processed foods and 26·4 % for ultra-processed foods. The average household availability of ultra-processed foods ranged from 10·2 % in Portugal and 13·4 % in Italy to 46·2 % in Germany and 50·4 % in the UK. A significant positive association was found between national household availability of ultra-processed foods and national prevalence of obesity among adults. After adjustment for national income, prevalence of physical inactivity, prevalence of smoking, measured or self-reported prevalence of obesity, and time lag between estimates on household food availability and obesity, each percentage point increase in the household availability of ultra-processed foods resulted in an increase of 0·25 percentage points in obesity prevalence.
The study contributes to a growing literature showing that the consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with an increased risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Its findings reinforce the need for public policies and actions that promote consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods and make ultra-processed foods less available and affordable.
To describe the caffeine and sugar content of all energy drinks available on the island of Ireland.
Two retail outlets were selected from each of: multinational, convenience and discount stores in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, and all available single-serve energy drinks were purchased. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in February 2015 and brand name, price, volume, caffeine and sugar content were recorded for each product. Descriptive analysis was performed.
Seventy-eight products were identified on the island of Ireland (regular, n 59; diet/sugar-free/light, n 19). Caffeine and sugar content was in the range of 14–35 mg and 2·9–15·6 g per 100 ml, respectively. Mean caffeine content of 102·2 mg per serving represents 25·6 % of the maximum intake advised for adults by the European Food Safety Authority. Per serving, mean sugar content of regular energy drinks was 37 g. This exceeds WHO recommendations for maximum daily sugar intake of <5 % of total energy intake (25 g for adults consuming 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) diet). If displaying front-of-pack labelling, fifty-seven of the fifty-nine regular energy drinks would receive a Food Standards Agency ‘red’ colour-coded label for sugar.
Energy drinks are freely available on the island of Ireland and all products surveyed can be defined as highly caffeinated products. This has potential health issues particularly for children and adolescents where safe limits of caffeine have not been determined. Energy drinks surveyed also contained high levels of sugar and could potentially contribute to weight gain and adverse dental health effects.
The aim of this study was to characterize the embryonic development of Zungaro jahu, a fresh water teleostei commonly known as ‘jaú’. Samples were collected at pre-determined times from oocyte release to larval hatching and analysed under light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. At the first collection times, the oocytes and eggs were spherical and yellowish, with an evident micropyle. Embryo development took place at 29.4 ± 1.5°C and was divided into seven stages: zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, organogenesis, and hatching. The differentiation of the animal and vegetative poles occured during the zygote stage, at 10 min post-fertilization (mpf), leading to the development of the egg cell at 15 mpf. From 20 to 75 mpf, successive cleavages resulted in the formation of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 blastomeres. The morula stage was observed between 90 and 105 mpf, and the blastula and gastrula stage at 120 and 180 mpf; respectively. The end of the gastrula stage was characterized by the presence of the yolk plug at 360 mpf. Organogenesis followed, with differentiation of the cephalic and caudal regions, elongation of the embryo by the cephalo-caudal axis, and somitogenesis. Hatching occurred at 780 mpf, with mean larval total length of 3.79 ± 0.11 mm.
To describe trends in the epidemiology of healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs) in pediatric/neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) and to evaluate risk factors and impact of multidrug resistance in children admitted to ICUs.
Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study with a nested case-control study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014.
Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals in Italy and Brazil with a total of 103 ICU beds.
Inclusion criteria were admission to ICU during the study period, age at onset less than 18 years, and microbiologically confirmed HAI.
A total of 538 HAIs in 454 children were included; 93.3% of patients had comorbidities. Bloodstream infections were the leading pattern (45.4%). The cumulative incidence of HAI was 3.6/100 ICU admissions and the crude 30-day fatality rate was 5.7/1,000 admissions. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Enterobacteriaceae, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Forty-four percent of isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Two multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Factors independently associated with an MDR-HAI were country, previous antibiotics, transplantation, major surgery, and colonization by an MDR strain. Factors independently associated with 30-day case fatality were country, previous transplantation, fungal infection, bloodstream infection, lower respiratory tract infection, and infection caused by MDR strains.
Infection control and prevention can limit the spread of MDR strains and improve outcomes. Targeted surveillance programs collecting neonatal and pediatric HAI/bloodstream infection data and outcomes would allow global benchmarking. The next step is to identify methods to monitor key HAIs and integrate these into affordable intervention programs.
To present and discuss the dietary guidelines issued by the Brazilian government in 2014.
The present paper describes the aims of the guidelines, their shaping principles and the approach used in the development of recommendations. The main recommendations are outlined, their significance for the cultural, socio-economic and environmental aspects of sustainability is discussed, and their application to other countries is considered.
Brazil in the twenty-first century.
All people in Brazil, now and in future.
The food- and meal-based Brazilian Dietary Guidelines address dietary patterns as a whole and so are different from nutrient-based guidelines, even those with some recommendations on specific foods or food groups. The guidelines are based on explicit principles. They take mental and emotional well-being into account, as well as physical health and disease prevention. They identify diet as having cultural, socio-economic and environmental as well as biological and behavioural dimensions. They emphasize the benefits of dietary patterns based on a variety of natural or minimally processed foods, mostly plants, and freshly prepared meals eaten in company, for health, well-being and all relevant aspects of sustainability, as well as the multiple negative effects of ready-to-consume ultra-processed food and drink products.
The guidelines’ recommendations are designed to be sustainable personally, culturally, socially, economically and environmentally, and thus fit to face this century. They are for foods, meals and dietary patterns of types that are already established in Brazil, which can be adapted to suit the climate, terrain and customs of all countries.
Careful examination of the present metabolism and in vitro selection of various catalytic RNAs strongly support the RNA world hypothesis as a crucial step of the origins and early life evolution. Small functional RNAs were exposed from 10 March 2009 to 21 January 2011 to space conditions on board the International Space Station in the EXPOSE-R mission. The aim of this study was to investigate the preservation or modification properties such as integrity of RNAs after space exposition. The exposition to the solar radiation has a strong degradation effect on the size distribution of RNA. Moreover, the comparison between the in-flight samples, exposed to the Sun and not exposed, indicates that the solar radiation degrades RNA bases.
Betta splendens is a very important ornamental species. The current paper describes the embryonic and larval development of B. splendens under stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Eggs and larvae from natural spawning were collected at different developmental stages at previously established intervals and analysed. The eggs of B. splendens are yellowish, clear, spherical, demersal, translucent and telolecithal with a large amount of yolk. Between 0–2 h post-initial collection (hpIC), the eggs were at the egg cell, first cleavage and morula stages. The blastula stage was identified at 2–3 hpIC and the early gastrula phase was observed at 3–4 hpIC with 20% epiboly, which was finalized after 13–18 hpIC. When the pre-larvae were ready to hatch, the appearance of somites and the free tail were observed, at 23–25 hpIC. At 29 hpIC, the majority of larvae had already hatched at an average temperature of 28.4 ± 0.2°C. The newly hatched larvae measured 2.47 ± 0.044 mm total length. The mouth opened at 23 h post-hatching (hPH) and the yolk sac was totally absorbed at 73 hPH. After 156 hPH, the heart was pumping blood throughout the entire larval body. The caudal fin, operculum and eyes were well developed at 264 hPH. When metamorphosis was complete at 768 hPH, the larvae became juveniles. The current study presents the first results about early development of B. splendens and provides relevant information for its reproduction, rearing and biology.